# What Type of Water Bottles Should We Be Using? By Kristen Stambaugh.

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What Type of Water Bottles Should We Be Using? By Kristen Stambaugh

Sample Calculation for Daily Water Intake Pounds of body weight Water requirement based on weight (75% of body weight for an active person or 50% for a sedentary person) Add for dryness of climate (if applicable) Add for strenuous exercise (if applicable) 150 lb. 112.5 oz. (for active person) 16 oz. Total per day144.5 oz. Divide total by the number of hours you're awake to find your hourly water requirement: 144.5 ÷ 16 = 9 oz. (per hour if awake for 16 hours) http://www.naturodoc.com/library/nutrition/water.htm

WHAT ABOUT DISPOSABLE PLASTIC WATER BOTTLES?

Plastic Buildup in Pacific Ocean http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/the-worlds-rubbish-dump-a-garbage-tip-that-stretches-from-hawaii-to-japan-778016.html “Charles Moore, an American oceanographer who discovered the ‘Great Pacific Garbage Patch’ or ‘trash vortex’, believes that about 100 million tons of flotsam are circulating in the region.”

Water, Energy and Oil Wasted To create this much bottled water: This much extra water is required for production and purification: And this much energy is required for manufacturing: And this much oil is required to produce the plastic bottles: And this much CO2e is needed to manufacture plastic bottles: 100 Gallons 200 Gallons 64 Megajoules 16 Gallons 120 Pounds http://www.newdream.org/water/calculator.php

JUST TO GET AN AN IDEA OF HOW MUCH MONEY IS WASTED EACH YEAR ON DISPOSABLE WATER BOTTLES… “In 2007 we (Americans) spent \$16 billion on bottled water. That’s more than we spent on iPods or movie tickets” http://www.evergreen.edu/sustainability/banthebottle.htm

Should Bottled water be subjected to a “sin” tax? What is a “sin tax”? – “A state-sponsored tax that is added to products or services that are seen as vices, such as alcohol, tobacco and gambling. These type of taxes are levied by governments to discourage individuals from partaking in such activities without making the use of the products illegal. These taxes also provide a source of government revenue.” http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/sin_tax.asp

Which Type of Plastic is Used in Water Bottles? Plastic #1 is what most water bottles are made of and this type of plastic is intended to be disposed of (because reuse can cause bacteria to form). – Plastic #1 is RECYCLABLE (although only about 20% of disposable water bottles end up recycled) Plastics #2, 4, and 5 are safe to use but are not very durable over time. – Plastic #2 is usually recyclable but 4 and 5 are not. – None of these 3 types are dishwasher safe – Some cloudy water bottles are made of plastic #2 Plastics #3, 6, and 7 (polycarbonate specifically) have been found to leach certain hormone disruptors, including Bisphenol A (BPA), which cause concern when released into the human body. – Plastic #7 is what many reusable water bottles were made of until the BPA scare emerged. http://www.back2tap.com/resources/get-the-facts

Different Types of Plastics: Plastic #1  Polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) is one of the most common types of plastic and is commonly found in water bottles, juice bottles, soda bottles, peanut butter jars and cough syrup bottles.

Different Types of Plastics, cont.: Plastic #2  High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is often used in shampoo bottles, detergent bottles, some plastic toys and sturdy shopping bags. Plastic #2 is one of the safer types of plastics. Most bottles with a Plastic # 2 label are recyclable (allow some cloudy plastics that are Plastic #2 may not be able to be recycled).

Different Types of Plastics, cont.: Plastic #3  Polyvinyl chloride, or No. 3 PVC is typically used for shower curtains, plastic binder coverings, wrappers on meat and cheese products, some bottles and plumbing pipes (think of PVC pipes). Many consider this an especially bad type of plastic for the environment as it releases many toxins into the environment in its production.

Different Types of Plastics, cont.: Plastic #4  Low-density polyethylene, or No. 4 LDPE, is used in commonly used for grocery bags, CD cases, plastic rings on 6-packs of cans and on some types of bottles. This is not considered as bad for the environment as PVC but does release multiple chemicals into the environment when manufactured.

Different Types of Plastics, cont.: Plastic #5  Polypropylene, or PP, is used in reusable plastic food containers, some types of disposable food containers, medicine bottles and some types of bottles. Many people have switched to using this type of plastic in packaging instead of PVC because of toxicity problems.

Different Types of Plastics, cont.: Plastic #6  Polystyrene, also known as Styrofoam, is used in some types of cups and take-out food containers and packing material.

Different Types of Plastics, cont.: Plastic #7  This number is used for plastics that don’t fit in another category. These include polycarbonate bottles, which many worry may leak hormones into the body when used with hot beverages (BPA).

The Truth About Tap Water City tap water must meet standards for certain important toxic or cancer-causing chemicals, such as phthalate (a chemical that can leach from plastic, including plastic bottles); some in the industry persuaded FDA to exempt bottled water from the regulations regarding these chemicals. City water systems must issue annual "right to know" reports, telling consumers what is in their water. Bottlers successfully killed a "right to know" requirement for bottled water. http://www.tappening.com/Why_Tap_Water

About 99.9% of all Americans live in areas where the tap water is safe and has been treated and is available for unlimited use, so take advantage of this free and healthy resource!

According to the New York State Health Department, not only is tap water safe to drink but tap water is actually the best water available! http://www.tappening.com/Why_Tap_Water

7 Ways to beat BPA, in order of Importance: 1. Ditch the clear plastic baby bottles. All the research that says there are problems point at the effect of the estrogen-like BPA on children as being the most significant. 2. Tin cans are often lined in plastic BPA and sit around a long time; get rid of older tin cans, particularly if they contain tomatoes and other acidic fruits. 3. Don't use your polycarbonate bottle for hot drinks. 4. Polycarbonate bottles get crazed and cracked as they get older; that increases surface area. Get rid of old ones. 5. Replace your Polycarbonate bottle with a new BPA free bottle, particularly if pregnant or pre-pubescent. 6. Replace jugs where water sits around a long time, like Brita knockoffs. (Brita says they are BPA free) 7. Stop using jugged water cooler water, get a filter and cooler that uses city water. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/04/bpa-in-water.php

Aluminum & Stainless Steel bottles Metal water bottles come either constructed from aluminum or stainless steel or perhaps a combination of both. Pros: – Reusable and durable – Keeps water colder Cons: – If not insulated will retain temperature of beverage on outside of bottle – Heavier than plastic – Can dent easily

General Differences between Aluminum and Stainless Steel bottles: Aluminum: always use a liner inside the bottle lined bottles are not recyclable and could contain BPA tend to be lighter than stainless steel Aluminum: always use a liner inside the bottle lined bottles are not recyclable and could contain BPA tend to be lighter than stainless steel Stainless Steel: doesn’t leach so no liner needed 100% recyclable tend to be less expensive than aluminum Stainless Steel: doesn’t leach so no liner needed 100% recyclable tend to be less expensive than aluminum

Which type is best for the environment? PLASTIC?  uses the least amount of materials to produce but typically do not last as long -Disposable plastic bottles – not intended for reuse and while they can be recycled, most bottles are not recycled and when recycled usually turned into something of lesser use or “down-cycled” -Reusable plastic bottles – intended for reuse, many types of plastics used in reusable water bottles are non-recyclable METAL?  more materials to produce but tend to be longer lasting than reusable plastic bottles – Aluminum bottles – intended for long term use, not recyclable because of the liner -Stainless steel bottles – intended for long term use, recyclable and can be used to create something of equal economic value (does not need to be “down-cycled”) OVERALL CONCLUSION  While plastics require less manufacturing, reusable bottles are always more friendly to the environment, and metal water bottles are the most environmentally friendly overall because they tend to last the longest.

Benefits/Problems of Different Types of Bottles http://www.back2tap.com/resources/get-the-facts/reusable-bottle-comparison-table/

“ANY reusable bottle, no matter where it comes from or what it is made of, is better for the environment than the manufacturing and shipping of bottled water. Stainless steel bottles appear to have the lowest long term impact on the planet as well as being the safest health-wise and having the best performance features. Best of all, you can fill your stainless steel water bottle with tap water, filtered if you want, knowing that you are consuming the healthiest, most cost-effective, and carbon-conscious drink under the sun.” http://www.back2tap.com/resources/get-the-facts/reusable-bottle-options/

Additional Useful Resources: http://www.newdream.org/water/reasons.php http://blog.sustainablog.org/groundbreaking-bottled-water-tax- raises-dustup-in-chicago/ http://blog.sustainablog.org/groundbreaking-bottled-water-tax- raises-dustup-in-chicago/ http://www.back2tap.com/resources/get-the-facts/bottled- water-consumption/ http://www.back2tap.com/resources/get-the-facts/bottled- water-consumption/ http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/04/bpa-in-water.php http://www.tappening.com/Why_Tap_Water

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