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AP Biology Exam Review ( )

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Presentation on theme: "AP Biology Exam Review ( )"— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Biology Exam Review (2002-2003)
Molecules and Cells – 25%

2 Chemistry of Life – 7% Water Organic molecules in organisms
Free energy changes Enzymes

3 Polar water molecule Polar covalent bonds  polarity
Polarity  hydrogen bonding and various water properties

4 Water properties Ex: How do the unique chemical and physical properties of water make life on earth possible? Cohesion: transpiration, blood Adhesion: transpiration Ideal solvent: xylem and phloem sap, oceans, blood, hemolymph Density: maintaining marine life High specific heat: maintaining stability (homeostasis)

5 pH H2O + H2O  H3O- + OH- Water dissociation = H2O  H+ + OH-
1/554 million water molecules dissociates in pure water. pH = 7 when [H+] and [OH-] equal to 10-7

6 Acids and Bases Acids: pH < 7
Ex: stomach acid, increasing H+ gradient Bases: pH > 7 Neutral: pH=7 Ex: blood, urine, body fluids Buffers required to maintain neutrality. (homeostasis)

7 Buffers H2CO3 + OH-  HCO3- + H2O HCO3- + H+  H2CO3
Ex: Human red blood cells Carbonic acid (H2CO3) and Bicarbonate (HCO3-) buffers to maintain blood cell pH. How can blood cell pH be raised or lowered?

8 pH Make sure you know the general pH of some biologically important aqueous solutions: blood, gastric guices, urine, seawater, etc.

9 Dehydration synthesis
Aka “condensation reaction” To break up polymers = hydrolysis Hydrolytic enzymes (fungus, insect saliva) capable of hydrolyzing polymers.

10 Organic molecules Macromolecules: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, vitamins Carbohydrates: energy storage (starch in plants, glycogen in animals); structural support (cellulose, chitin); energy (reactant in cellular respiration) Ex: glucose, fructose, lactose (-ose) Human insulin and glucagon lowers and raises blood glucose levels. (homeostasis)

11 Storage vs. Structure Starch, Glycogen Cellulose

12 Organic molecules Proteins: structural support (microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments that make up muscle fibers), enzymes, regulatory proteins Four folding levels: primary (peptide bonds between amino acids); secondary (hydrogen bonds); tertiary (R-group interactions); quaternary (multiple peptide interactions)

13 Primary

14 Secondary Alpha helices = hair fibers (keratin)
Beta-pleated sheets = silk

15 Tertiary Important in the formation of active sites of enzymes

16 Quaternary

17 Protein denaturation Chaperonin, heat shock proteins

18 Membrane proteins

19 Organic molecules Lipids: membrane structure, long term energy storage, brain insulation Smooth endoplasmic reticulum product; stored in adipose tissue (made of fat cells) Steroid rings: sex hormones, cholesterol (animals only) Phospholipid: membrane

20 Organic molecules Nucleic acids: ATP, GTP, nucleotides
DNA remains within nucleus of eukaryotes. Circular DNA in prokaryotes with plasmids

21 Free energy changes Governed by two laws of thermodynamics

22 First law of thermodynamics
Conservation of energy Ex: coupled reactions, nutrient cycling Coupled reactions happen in the electron transport chain. ATP ADP + P GTP GDP + P

23 Second law of thermodynamics
Entropy Ex: 10% energy loss in environment, proton gradient, diffusion, higher to lower concentration (countercurrent exchange), depolarization

24 Exergonic vs. Endergonic reactions
What are some of these processes that occur in biological systems?

25 Effects of enzymes

26 Lock and key vs. induced fit model

27 General enzyme characteristics
Effective in small amounts Unchanged in a reaction (only substrate changes) Doesn’t affect equilibrium in chemical reaction (speeds up process in either direction) Specific to act on substrate molecules Cofactors (inorganic metals) or coenzymes (vitamins NAD and FAD) assist Inhibitors able to affect activity

28 Competitive inhibition
Example: oxygen binding to rubisco instead of carbon dioxide  photorespiration

29 Allosteric site Commonly called “regulatory site”
Example: lac and trp operons

30 Regulatory pathways Negative feedback enables feedback mechanisms
Ex: body temperature regulation

31 Trp operon in bacteria only

32 Lac operon in bacteria only

33 Enzymes Enzymes denature with changes in temperature and pH.
Example showing Importance of homeostasis

34 Protein receptors

35 cAMP as secondary messenger
Proteins and receptors involved in signal amplification

36 Cell to cell communication

37 Signal transduction pathway

38 Signal molecule


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