2 Enduring Understanding Students will understand thatartworks do encapsulate thethemes of identity andrelationships in a variety of ways
3 Essential Questions Overarching Questions - What is an identity? - How can relationships within a family orsociety be shaped?- How artists form identity or relationships withtheir art?Topical Questions- Is nakedness nudity?- How is an artwork autobiographical?
4 Biographical Outline 1922: Born in Berlin, Germany. 1933: Escaped to UK from Nazism.: Arrival of grandfather Sigmund Freud in London and death of Sigmund Freud.: Studied at Central School of Arts and Craft in Holborn and East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing.: Attended Goldsmiths College, University of London.1946: Spent two months in Paris.1966: Served at North Atlantic convoy for three months.2007: The highest paid living artist for the work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping, 1995.
5 When (1922- ) 1933-45: The Third Reich (Germany under Hitler). 1939: World War II began.: Sigmund Freud.1941: Lucian Freud sailed with Merchant Navy convoy for three months.1945: He met Francis Bacon.1970: The demise of his father.1989: The demise of his mother.
6 WhereGermanyThe rise of Nazism which is also a form of fascism. It refers to theideology and practices National Socialists German Workers Partyunder Adolf Hitler. The Nazis believe themselves as the masterrace and purged the Jewish by mass killings- also known as theHolocaustUKThere’s a sudden and renewed interest in figural painting amongsome artists like Freud and Bacon, despite the trend then wassteering away from that.
7 Which Freud is often called the greatest realist painter of the 20th century. While that description holds true, it also separateshim from the mainstream of art history during the modernperiod, when abstraction and other non-objective styles werein ascendance. A contrarian who always went his own way,Freud felt no compunction to respond to movements ortrends. For many decades his work was little known outsideof a circle of aficionados in Britain. Then, in the 1980s, whena new international development known as New Figuration orNeo-Expressionism signaled a move toward painterlyfiguration, many in the art world began to pay attention toFreud.Ng studied under those Nanyang artists with the asterisks ‘*’.
8 His Painting- Early Work The Painter’s Room , with its ripped couch, frazzled yucca and red and yellow zebra’s head reaching in through the window, is a classic Surrealist array of the implausible and the theatrical.The Painter’s Room,Oil on canvas, 62.2 x 76.2 cmPrivate Collection
9 What Subject Matter- His Early Works Horses- they were usually drawings.Portraits- concentration on the face with downcast eyes. His early portraits seem to show what’s beyond the face, revealing some inner states of mind. It shows signs of psychological atmosphere.Group Portraits- his group portraits do not show relationships between members of the group but separate existence of individuals.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
10 What Subject Matter- His Mature Works They are classified into two main categories- naked portraits and portrait heads.They are usually the people in his life- family members and friends (people that interest him and people that he cares for). To quote him, “Whom else can I hope to portray with any degree of profundity?” (Smee, 2007).The emotional connections with his subject matter directs him to a deep and concentrated involvement. He would paint the same sitters again and again, so he can understand them mentally and physically.His models would sit for him for hours and successively on a daily basis.He never dictates their poses, nor compose his pictures.There are also other subject matter like, animals, plants, and observed in close quarters.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
11 What Theme- His Mature Works These portraits are often awkward rather than idealized.They are reflections of their human nature with the absence of “theatrical poses” or “symbolical props” or “narrative devices” (Figura, 2008).They are concentrated on the faces, with “close-in descriptions of heads, often with downcast eyes” (Smee, 2007).The poses of his portraits are never theatrical.Props are usually stuff that happens to be in his studio and they are never symbolical.His portraits are not meant to flatter the sitter or promote public personae.Hence, they are not traditional portraits in that sense.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
12 What Theme- His Naked Works Freud’s figures are labelled as naked, not nudes. They are unflattering.They are grossly frank than erotic, crude thanbeguiling.Their poses- “unusual vantage point, angular limbs, foreshortened faces and tortured body language” subverts traditional nudes.They seem to be projected with an animalistic sexualism, which reminds one of his grandfather’s proposition that man exists to fulfil basic desires, (much like the animals).His naked portraits are not in adoration of nudity but rather to emphasize on the rawness of the naked body.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
13 What - Subversive of Traditional Nudes Normally I underplay facial expression when painting the figure, because I wantexpression to emerge through the body. I used to do only heads, but came to feel that I relied too much on the face.I want the head, as it were,to be more like another limb.- Lucian Freud -Small Naked Portrait,Oil on canvas, 22 x 27 cmAshmolean Museum
14 His Paintings of Kathleen Garman Kitty, the daughter of Jacob Epstein and Kathleen Garman, reappears in Lucian Freud's portraits over the course of five years - clutching a kitten, head under leaves or on the pillow.Girl with Kitten,Oil on canvas, 105 x 74.5 cmBritish Council Collection
16 British Council Collection From the outset Girl with Roses establishes a scale and ambition that is life-size. She and Freud married in February Newly pregnant, Kitty sits stiffly, her eyes averted in a dead stare. She clutches a rose, and another lies limp in her lap. A yellow-pink breed, renamed the 'Peace Rose' at the end of the war, it is more than the traditional love token and, like the glimmer of Kitty's teeth, adds a hint of menace.Girl with Roses,Oil on canvas, 105 x 74.5 cmBritish Council Collection
17 Girl with Roses, 1947-48 (explanations) Girl with Roses is as much a love portrait of Freud's painter heroes as of Kitty. It unfolds from the rose at its centre, a nod to the straightforward flower paintings of Cedric Morris, under whom Freud studied at the East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing ( ). Petals rebound in the pale twist of Kitty's lips, the bloom of her skirt, and finally the ochre folds in the background, which call to mind an Ingres. Freud admits, 'You get really excited about an Ingres fold in a curtain because you don't think that so much can be said in such an incisive and economical way.’ With Kitty's sweater, its ribbed neck and cuffs and gently contoured stripes (black stippling was a tip from advertising, to make the green buzz) are defined incisively and economically - an understanding of fabric perhaps aided by a commission to create designs for dress fabrics for Asher (London) Ltd in 1946.Kitty's grip on the rose is matched by Freud's grip on the brush. This infers a kind of passive purity in Freud's early style - the linearity, thin application of paint and cool palette - andapplauds its 'homogenous, even legibility and a sea-washed cleanliness', yet here the subject's vitality is picked out with needling precision.From the stray curls across the forehead to the tweezered eyebrows, the reflection of a sash window in each eye, the frayed cane of the chair and the birth¬mark on the raised hand, ultimately the 'girl' of the title becomes Kitty in the definite article.Freud explains, 'I was trying for accuracy of a sort. I didn't think of it as detail. It was simply, through my concentration, a question of focus. I always felt that detail - where one was conscious of detail - was detrimental.’Freud explains, 'The effect in space of two different human individuals can be as different as the effect of a candle and an electric light bulb. Therefore the painter must be concerned with the air surrounding his subject as with the subject itself. So, Kitty is viewed in prickly proximity, a halo of individual hairs reach out from her head, nervy with static.
18 Girl with a White Dog, 1950-51 (appeared in 2009 paper) This picture shows the artist’s first wife when she was pregnant. The style of the painting has roots in the smooth and linear portraiture of the great nineteenth-century French neoclassical painter, Ingres. This, together with the particular psychological atmosphere of Freud’s early work, led the critic Herbert Read to make his celebrated remark that Freud was ‘the Ingres of Existentialism’.The sense that Freud gives of human existence as essentially lonely, and spiritually if not physically painful, is something shared by his great contemporaries, Francis Bacon and the sculptor Alberto Giacometti.Girl with a White Dog, (appeared in 2009 paper)Oil on canvas, 95.4 x 120 cmTate Gallery, London
19 Girl with a White Dog, 1950-51 (explanations) The sitter was the artist's first wife Kathleen, daughter of Epstein and Kathleen Garman. She appears in many of his early pictures.Since the end of the Second World War, Lucian Freud has been the practitioner of a consistent realism based on working directly from the model. Yet his paintings also have an intensely personal character, an atmosphere of psychological revelation and force that goes far beyond the simple rendering of the presence of the model. (With Sigmund Freud as his grandfather, this aspect of his talent may not be surprising.) His paintings make statements about human existence, and also, perhaps incidentally, about the nature of painting and the business of being a painter; it is that, as much as any other ingredient, that makes them such extraordinary and compelling art.Freud's career has so far fallen into two quite distinct parts. Up to about 1958 he worked in the smooth tightly focused manner exemplified in this picture. After that his handling of paint became much freer and the slight stylisations that can be detected in, for example, the treatment of the eyes and mouth of the model in 'Girl with a White Dog' disappear.This is the last of the series of portraits of his first wife, Kitty, which Freud had begun at the end of the 1940s. It shows Kitty, her wedding ring displayed on her left hand, curled up on a striped mattress on the floor, with a white bull terrier, one of a pair they were given as a wedding present. It is painted in an extraordinarily detailed style which, combined with the emphasis on Kitty’s features, heightens the look of painful loneliness in her face.
20 His Paintings Interior at Paddington, 1952 Freud won a prize for this painting, commissioned for the Arts Council’s exhibition Sixty Paintings for 51, as part of the Festival of Britain. The canvas, unusually large for the post war period when canvas was still in short supply, was provided by the Arts Council. The painting itself conveys a sense of the anxiety and want associated with the last years of rationing. A sort of double portrait, it shows Harry Diamond, an East-Ender who at the time was working as a stage-hand, standing by a potted plant. Diamond complained bitterly while posing, but Freud was stimulated by his resentful aggressiveness: ‘He said I made his legs too short: the whole thing was that his legs were too short. He was aggressive as he had a bad time being brought up in the East End and being persecuted.’ The red carpet was bought especially for the painting, from a junk shop, and Freud was particularly proud of the way he painted it. Through the window is the Grand Union Canal and the area of London known at Little Venice. Despite its clear avoidance of the celebratory tones of the Festival of Britain, the painting was one of five awarded a £500 purchase prize.Interior at Paddington, 1952Oil on canvas, x cmWalker Art Gallery, Liverpool
21 His PaintingsFrancis Bacon painted a large full-length portrait of Lucian Freud in 1951, which was exhibited at the Hanover Gallery in December The two artists have been friends for many years.Francis Bacon, 1952Oil on metal, 17.8 x 12.7 cmTate Gallery, London
22 His PaintingsJohn Minton was a painter and illustrator who taught at the Royal College of Art, where he advocated the tradition of figure painting, although by the early 1950s, when this portrait was painted, his work had become unfashionable. He is probably now best remembered for his illustrations to Elizabeth David’s Mediterranean Food. Minton commissioned this portrait from Freud in 1952, after he had seen Freud’s portrait of Francis Bacon. His face seems full of regret, and the painting of his eyes suggests deep unhappiness. Minton committed suicide in 1957; he bequeathed this portrait to the Royal College of Art.Portrait of John Minton, 1952Oil on canvas, 40 x 25.4 cmCollection Royal College of Art
23 The beginning of change This painting show the change of style in Freud’s work during the 1950s. He became impatient with his earlier habit of working sitting down, painting in great detail on fine canvas with small, soft sable brushes. Instead he began working standing up, painting in a looser style with larger, hogshair brushes. Freud said that Hotel Bedroom 1954 was ‘the last painting where I was sitting down; when I stood up I never sat down again’. This double portrait shows Freud, with his second wife, Caroline Blackwood, whom he had married in 1953; the marriage was dissolved in 1957.Hotel Bedroom, 1954Oil on canvas, 91.1 x 61 cmThe Beaverbrook Art Gallery, Canada
24 This is a study of Bernardine Coverley, pregnant with Bella This is a study of Bernardine Coverley, pregnant with Bella. The sofa is one of a long line of ageing pieces of furniture which have become a familiar feature of Freud’s work; he has always disliked furniture which looks brand new.Pregnant Girl,Oil on canvas, 91.5 x 71 cmPrivate Collection
25 His Paintings Reflection with two children (Self-Portrait), 1965 Oil on canvas, 91.5 x 91.5 cmMuseo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid
26 His Paintings Naked Girl, 1966 Oil on canvas, 61 x 61 cm Private Collection
28 His Paintings Naked Girl Asleep II, 1968 Oil on canvas, 55.8 x 55.8 cm Private Collection
29 His Paintings Large Interior, Paddington, 1968 Oil on canvas, 183 x 122 cmCollection Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid
30 The Painter’s Mother III, 1972 His PaintingsThe Painter’s Mother III, 1972Oil on canvas, 32.4 x 23.5 cmPrivate Collection
31 Art Gallery of Western Australia, Perth His PaintingsNaked Man with Rat, 1977/78Oil on canvas, 91.5 x 91.5 cmArt Gallery of Western Australia, Perth
32 His Paintings Esther, 1980 Oil on canvas, 48.9 x 38.3 cm Private Collection¹The paintings are a portrayal of the human condition.
33 Joseph H. Hirshhorn Purchase Fund His PaintingsNight Portrait,Oil on linen, 92.7 x 76.2 cmJoseph H. Hirshhorn Purchase Fund
34 His Paintings Girl with Closed Eyes, 1986-87 Oil on canvas, 45.9 x 58.7 cmPrivate Collection
35 Astrup Fearnley Collection, Oslo Norway His PaintingsLiving by the Rags,Oil on canvas, x cmAstrup Fearnley Collection, Oslo Norway
36 His Paintings Nude with Leg Up (Leigh Bowery), 1992 Oil on linen, x 229 cmJoseph H. Hirshhorn Purchase Fund
37 What- Nude with Leg UpLeigh Bowery was a performance and disguise artist, fashion designer and bandleader.He died of AIDS in 1994, at the age of 33.He sat for Freud since 1990 and the artist finds his easiness and confidence perfect to capture the essence of his subjects.Bowery is lying on the wooden floor with his right leg resting on a green and beige striped mattress which is on a metal bed.His right leg is bent at an angle and his body/torso is propped up with a mountain of cloth at his back.The body is heavy but calm, while the eyes are directed towards Freud with an expressionless matter-of-fact gaze.His wide-opened legs exposes his genitalia with “unpretentious shamelessness”, as if telling the viewer to accept it as part and parcel of nature.
38 His Paintings Naked Man Back View, 1992 Oil on linen Freud and Leigh Bowery at his studio.
39 Fat Benefits Supervisor Sleeping, 1995 His PaintingFat Benefits Supervisor Sleeping, 1995Oil on canvas, 150 x 250 cmPrivate Collection
40 What- Benefits Supervisor Sleeping The model is Sue Tilley, a London Jobcentre supervisor.Freud refers her rather affectionately as ‘Big Sue’.Her size has the capacity to render “amazing craters” as he calls it.She is stretched over a shabby-looking sofa. And her physical presence is imposing.This painting is a world recordas the most expensive paintingever auctioned by a living artist.It costs a whooping $33.64 million.
41 His “After” Pierrot Content, 1712 Oil on canvas, 35 x 31 cm by Jean-Antoine WatteauMuseo Thyssen-Bornemisza, MadridLarge Interior, W11 (After Watteau),Oil on canvas, 186 x 198 cmPrivate Collection
42 His Afters Jean- Antoine Watteau (1684 - 1721) A French Rococan painter who was recognized as the man who invented the genre of (fêtes galantes- scenes of country and idyllic charm, suffused with an air of theatricality), of rich aristocrats in the 18th C (app ).Watteau earns from his private clients but he also wanted the recognition from Académie des Beaux- Arts.The academy ranked scenes of everyday lives and portraits (paintings that are desired most by private patrons) lower than those bearing the themes of history and mythology.Watteau found his way around this by painting for patrons but placing them in scenes that looked like mythical Arcadia.
43 After Watteau The Scale of Love, 1715-18 Oil on canvas, 50.8 x 59.7 cm by Jean-Antoine WatteauNational Gallery, LondonIn Mezattin’s Costume,Oil on canvas, 28 x 21 cmby Jean-Antoine WatteauThe Wallace Collection, London
44 His Drawing- Early Work Palmtree, 1944Pastel, chalk and ink on paper, 61.5 x 43.5 cmFreud Museum, London
45 His Drawing- Mature Work The Painter’s Mother Dead, 1989Charcoal on paper, 33 x 24.4 cmThe Cleveland Museum of Art
46 His Etching- Mature Work Lord Goodman in his Yello Pyjamas, 1987Etching with watercolour on paper, 31 x 40.2 cmThe Whitworth Art Gallery
47 His Etching- Mature Work Large Head, 1993Etching, 79.4 x 63.5 cmMoMA, New York
48 WhyHis BackgroundFreud was the second son of Ernst Freud, an architect who had practised art with a style that’s aligned with the Vienna Secession.His grandfather was the legendary Sigmund Freud, who was the founder of pyschoanalysis.He came from an affluent background, with his home decked with prints from Hokusai and Dürer.His grandfather brought him artworks on his visits to Berlin for medical treatment.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
49 WhyHis BackgroundHe admires his grandfather although he claims to not know much of his grandfather’s work in later years.Freud began drawing as a child with much pride and was developing ambitions to be an artist.He was an unruly child at school who were more at ease with animals than with other children. He often slept in the stables with the horses.He is also a notorious gambler, on horses.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
50 WhyHis BeliefHe believes that art should be “true to life”. The result can be horrifying and disturbing.He thought of “truthfulness as revealing and intrusive, rather than rhyming and soothing.” (Figura, 2008).He believes that his work is autobiographical- it is about himself, and his surroundings. His relatives (wives and children) and friends (Bacon and Bowery), his studio and his dog (Eli) are subject matter of his works, with the exception of works like Her Majesty, The Queen,Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
51 Why- His Influence Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Sigmund Freud- an Austrian Jew, Lucian’s grandfather.He was a legend in the field of psychology.He’s the father of psychoanalysis- a set of theories developed on human behaviour which involves investigation methods and treatment.Some concepts of psychoanalysis cover psychosexual and psychosocial developments, the unconscious, the stages of Id, ego and super-ego, libido and drive.He believes that neurosis is based in suppressed sexual desires and repressed childhood memories.And uses hypnosis to read the deep and dark subconscious of the mind.His book Interpretation of Dreams, 1899 was a great source of inspiration to the Surrealist artists.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
52 Why- His Influence Francis Bacon (1909- 1992) An Irish-born painter who lived in England.He’s a figural painter with an expressionistic style.His works reek with death. They were violent, explosive and risky endeavours. His human figures are reduced to lumps of meat and red bloody flesh.Bacon was a friend who encouraged Freud to “think more seriously about painting.” (Figura, 2008).Bacon proposed hog’s hair paintbrushes to Freud and suggested that he should work standing up than sitting down.Ciment Fondu is cement. Advantages are quick and hard setting.
53 Why- His Influence Three Studies for a Crucifixion, 1962 by Francis BaconOil with sand on canvas, x cmGuggenheim Museum, USA
54 How- EtchingHe started etching since 1946 which lasted till He never etched again until the year 1982.His etchings and paintings are closely related which construct his understanding of aesthetics.His etchings can occupy him for many months.They are consistently in black. He has never even used aquatint for toning in his prints.He thinks printmaking is like drawing with the elements of risk and surprise, which is enticing to him.
55 How- Drawing and Painting His DrawingsHis drawings were hard-edged linear in style and controlled before it became more painterly.His PaintingsFreud has remained firm to using an old-fashion medium at a time that witnessed consecutively, counter-realistic movements.He works in an extremely slow pace, eg: a painting can take from several months to a year to complete.He cleans his paintbrush after each stroke to prevent the colour from bleeding into another. Or he uses different paintbrushes for different colours.His paintings were initially immaculately linear and smooth.
56 How- Drawing and Painting His PaintingsHe painted sitting down with sable brushes.However, under the recommendation of Francis Bacon, he started to stand while painting and use hog’s hair brush.He begins to use thicker impasto in his paintings from the 1950s onwards.His style is more random, more expressive and energetic in manner.
57 Summary Overview of Style Colour Mostly raw umber and granular pigment called cremnitz whitewhich is known toyellow because oflinseed oil.StrokesLinear and controlledin his earlier works.Athletic, energeticand expressive in hismore mature works.Uses impasto too.Animalistic realismHis figures arecrudely nakedlike animals unawareof their nakedness.The skin looks rawand sallow.He would often clean his paintbrush after each stroke to prevent the colour from bleeding
58 ReferenceFigura, S. (2008). Lucian Freud: The Painter’s Etchings. The Museum of Modern Art: New York.Smee, S. (2007). Lucian Freud. Taschen: Köln, Germany.Schjeldahl, P. (2008). Let’s See: Writings on Art from the New Yorker. Thames and Hudson: London.;Jagger, S. (2008). Lucian Freud’sBenefits Supervisor Sleeping sells for record $33m. Times Online: UK/visual_arts/article3928