3The Appeals Appeal to Logos: appeal to the logical Appeal to Ethos: appeal to the authority or honesty of the speaker.Appeal to Pathos: appeal to the emotions
4RepetitionSimple repeating of a word, within a sentence or a poetical line.Today, as never before, the fates of men areso intimately linked to one another that adisaster for one is a disaster for everybody Natalia Ginzburg, The Little Virtues, 1962
5Tone How the author feels (or seems to feel). The author’s tone shifts in line 9 where he employs the words “dark,” and “night,” to convey a sense of sadness.
6Metaphor A direct comparison not using like or as. The author involves metaphor, comparing a bird to a sense of spiritual freedom, in order to convey his desire to move away from the suffocating environment he is stuck in.
7Simile A direct comparison using like or as. The author uses a simile in line 8 (Her eyes were as wide as a Parisian Boulevard) to communicate the surprise his main character felt when she realized her condition.
8JuxtapositionThe placement of two dissimilar objects, ideas, or symbols side by side. Often this creates a sense of ironic humor.
9JuxtapositionThe author juxtaposes the mouse and the elephant (lines 20-24) in order to demonstrate his feelings of inadequacy towards his sister.The author uses juxtaposition in lines to contrast himself and his sister, and to communicate the inadequacy he has always felt by comparing himself to a mouse, and her to an elephant.
10Irony Incongruity between expected outcome and actual outcome. Many forms:SituationalDramaticSarcasm
12IronyIrony is employed through the use of sarcasm in lines ten through twelve “ ,” to create the wry sense of humor that pervades the piece.The fact that the main character dies one day before marrying her, after waiting his entire life to do so, creates the sense of irony that concludes the novel.
13IronyIrony is used...His ironic humor is seen in lines 8-10, “ ,” when the author wants to create contrast between the character’s naïve hopes for a perfect performance, and the reality of his awful final presentation.
14AlliterationThe use of repeated consonants with the same sounds to create a particular emotion in a poem, or in a piece of creative prose.
15AlliterationThe author uses alliteration, “she silently sweeps sands behind the slippery slope” (lines 2-4) to create a sense of secrecy. The softness of the “s” sounds massage the reader’s ear, highlighting the personal and secretive experience of the woman featured in the poem.
16PersonificationTo give human qualities to a non-human object.
17PersonificationThe author uses personification, “the car trumpeted repeatedly on the street below,” in order to show the demanding methods the main character used to get Jennifer’s attention.
19ParallelismThe repetition of syntax (word order) to emphasize, contribute to the reader’s memory or add a poetic qualityMartin Luther King Jr. uses parallelism in his famous quote: “When you are right you cannot be too radical; when you are wrong, you cannot be too conservative” (128).
20IsocolonFigure of speech in which parallelism is reinforced by members that are of the same length.“First they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win.”– Mahatma Gandhi
21Three Forms of Parallelism AnaphoraEpistropheZeugma
22AnaphoraThe repetition of words or phrases, usually found at the beginning of a line or phrase.Malcolm X incorporates anaphora into his speech to emphasize his key points. He says, “We want freedom by any means necessary. We want justice by any means necessary. We want equality by any means necessary.”
23EpistropheThe repetition of words or phrases, usually found at the end of a line or phrase.Lyndon B. Johnson persists, “there is no Negro problem. There is no Southern problem. There is no Northern problem. There is only an American problem.“ His use of epistrophe is pointed and effective.
24ZeugmaOmission of words which are easily understood and parallelism (balance of several words/phrases)"You held your breath and (you held) the door for me.“ -- Alanis Morissette
25ZeugmaIn The Things They Carried, Tim O’Brien uses zeugma to poetically express the weight his character holds: "He carried a strobe light and the responsibility for the lives of his men."
26AllusionReference to a novel, author, artist, historical period, religion, or popular cultural symbol. Authors make allusions in order to widen their audience, or to lend validity to their ideas.The author alludes to Leo Tolstoy in paragraph three in order to lend validity to his work. The author’s allusion to John Lennon helps to widen his audience by attracting old hippies as well as young Beatles fans.
27HyperboleThe use of exaggeration, for a dramatic and often humorous effect.Emerson’s poetic use of hyperbole, “here once the embattled farmers stood, And fired the shot heard round the world,” conveys the dramatic moment when the American Revolution began.
28Hyperbole"Ladies and gentlemen, I've been to Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan, and I can say without hyperbole that this is a million times worse than all of them put together."-- Kent Brockman “The Simpsons”Kent Brockman uses hyperbole to illustrate the use of hyperbole.
29AsyndetonSpeeding up the rhythm by leaving out conjunctions such as “and.”The author uses asyndeton to create a rhythm which powerfully sends her message.
30Asyndeton“See no evil,hear no evil,speak no evil."
31Polysyndeton Slowing down the rhythm by using many conjunctions. James Joyce writes, “We lived and laughed and loved and left,” which is an example of polysyndeton. By using polysyndeton, Joyce emphasizes the importance of his verbs.
32Paradox Large scale contradiction of ideas “The only way to overcome death is to die.”The last line is a paradox; it forces the reader to think deeply about the author’s message.
33OxymoronFigure of speech that combines two normally contradictory termsThe theater was overcome with a deafening silence.
34Diction The choice and use of words Thoreau uses a high level of diction, and appeals to an educated audience.
35AssonanceThe matching of internal vowel sounds to create internal rhymeEdgar Allen Poe skillfully weaves internal rhyme into his phrases. This assonance, “Hear the mellow wedding bells...” (line 24) is demonstrated by the matching of the vowel “e” sound.
36Imagery Descriptive language that evokes a sensory experience. Historical imageryReligious imageryDystopian imageryNatural imagery
37Figurative Language Language which is not to be understood literally. ImageryHyperboleSimileMetaphorSymbolism
38Using the Word “Rhetoric” The author’s rhetoric contains a great deal of asyndeton. He uses this to quicken the pace of his writing.The author’s rhetorical style is seasoned by his sense of humor. His sense of humor is created by his use of juxtaposition like “(example).”
39Useful Words for Rhetorical Analysis ArguesConveysImpliesSuggestsOffersMaintainsIntimatesElaboratesDebatesPersistsInsinuatesElucidatesHintsIndicatesProposesCreatesImaginesEstablishesProvidesPenetrates