3FIGURE OF SPEECHA device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. Ex: apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonymy, understatement, etc.Figurative language is writing or speech that is not intended tocarry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid.
4ALLUSIONan indirect or passing reference to an event, person, place or artistic work that the author assumes the reader will understand. Can be historical, literary, religious, mythical, etc.
5ANADIPLOSISThe repetition of a key word, especially the last one, at the beginning of the next sentence or clause. “He gave his life; life was all he could give.”
6ANALOGYa comparison of similar things, often to explain something unfamiliar with something familiar. (The branching of a river system is often explained using a tree and its branches.)
7APOSTROPHEa rhetorical device in which the speaker addresses a dead or absent person, or an inanimate object or abstraction.Wordsworth addresses Milton as he writes, “Milton, though shouldst be living at the hour. England hath need of thee.”
8CLICHÉAn overused, worn-out, hackneyed expression that used to be fresh but is no more. “Blushing bride” and “clinging vine” are clichés used to describe people.
9HYPERBOLEexaggeration for the sake of emphasis in a figure of speech not meant literally. Ex: “This book weighs a ton!”
10KENNINGa metaphoric compound word or phrase used as a synonym for a common noun. “Ring-bestower” for king; “whale-road” for sea; “candle of heaven” for the sun; “war-brand” for a sword.
11LITOTESUnderstatement employed for the purpose of enhancing the effect of the ideas expressed. Contains a negative: “I’m not unhappy”LIE-tuh-tease
12METAPHORA comparison, like a simile but usually implied and without a comparative word such as like or as. Ex: “My heart is a singing bird”; “He wolfed his food.”
13TYPES OF METAPHOR Extended: an idea sustained throughout the work Dead: has been used so much it has lost its figurative meaning & is taken literally (eye of a needle, head of the class)
14TYPES OF METAPHORMixed: a combination of two or more inconsistent metaphors in a single expression (He’ll have to take the bull by the horns to keep the business afloat.)
15METONYMYThe use of the name of one thing for that of another associated with or suggested by it. For example, “the White House” of the “President.”figure of speech in which a representative term is used for a larger idea. The pen is mightier than the sword.
16SYNECDOCHEfigure of speech that utilizes a part as representative of the whole. (e.g. “hands” for manual laborers; “the law” for a police officer).A form of metaphor.
17TROPE A figure of speech Examples: euphemism, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, onomatopoeia, simile, etc.
18UNDERSTATEMENTAKA Meiosis – The opposite of hyperbole. It is a type of verbal irony in which something is purposely represented as being far less important than it actually is.An example = I could probably live on $2 million a year.
20SYNTAX/GRAMMARSyntax: The way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences. Syntax is similar to diction, but differentiate the two by thinking of syntax as referring to groups of words, while diction refers to individual words.
21SYNTAX/GRAMMARSyntax: When you analyze syntax, consider elements such as length of sentences, unusual sentence constructions, sentence patterns used, & kinds of sentences.Kinds of sentences: questions, declarations, exclamations, or rhetorical questions. Sentences are also classified as periodic or loose, simple, compound, or complex sentences. First you try to classify what kind of sentences the author uses, then try to determine how the author’s choices amplify meanings, in other words why they work well for the author’s purpose.
22ANAPHORAthe regular repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses. “We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds. We shall fight in the fields and in the streets.” – Winston Churchill
23ANASTROPHEa rhetorical term for the inversion of the normal order of the parts of a sentence. “After great pain a formal feeling comes/The nerves sit ceremonious like tombs.” Emily Dickinson
24the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers. ANTECEDENTthe word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers.The AP language exam occasionally asks for the antecedent of a given pronoun in a long, complex sentence or in a group of sentences.
25ANTIMETABOLERepeating words in reverse order for surprise and emphasis."But we must remember a crucial fact: East and West do not mistrust each other because we are armed; we're armed because we mistrust each other.“ – Ronald Regan
26ANTITHESISFigure of speech in which opposing or contrasting ideas are balanced against each other using grammatically parallel syntax. Ex: You are going; I am staying. The exact opposite (Joy is the antithesis of sorrow).Another example: There is no king who has not had a slave among his ancestors, and no slave who has not had a king among his. – Helen Keller
27ASYNDETONconjunctions are omitted, producing a fast-paced and rapid prose. “I came. I saw. I conquered.”“I came. I saw. I conquered.” According to Plutarch, the words by which Julius Caesar succinctly described one of his victories. In Latin the words are “veni, vidi, vici.”
28CHIASMUSgrammatical structure in which the first clause or phrase is reversed in the second, sometimes repeating the same words. “And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you: ask what you can do for your country. John F. KennedySimilar to antimetabole, but reversing the grammatical elements rather than just words, for emphasis.
29INVERSIONConstructing a sentence so the predicate comes before the subject, e.g. In California grow oranges.Done for emphatic or rhythmic effect
30PARALLELISMexpressing similar or related ideas in similar grammatical structure. “He tried to make the law clear, precise and equitable.”Also referred to as parallel construction or parallel structure, this term comes from Greek roots meaning”beside one another.” It refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity. The effects of parallelism are numerous, but frequently, they act as an organizing force to attract the reader’s attention, add emphasis and organization, or simply provide a musical rhythm. Another example: From Tennyson’s poem “Ulysses” – “To strive, to seek, to find and not to yield.”
31PERIODIC SENTENCEthe main idea comes last in the sentence, leaving the reader with a more powerful last impression. Ex: That morning, after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences, we reached Edmonton.Antonym = loose sentence. In a loose sentence, the main idea (independent clause) comes first, followed by dependent grammatical units such as phrases and clauses. A work containing many loose sentences often seems informal, relaxed, and conversational.
32POLYSYNDETONthe opposite of asyndeton. Figure of addition and emphasis which intentionally employs a series of conjunctions (and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet) not normally found in successive words, phrases, or clauses. The use of many conjunctions has a slowing effect.from Gk. poly- “many” and syndeton “bound together with”"And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good." -- Genesis 1:24-25 (KJV)
34AlliterationThe repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in 2+ neighboring words.Can reinforce meaning, unify ideas, and/or supply a musical sound.She sells sea shells by the sea shore.Assonance = repetition of vowel soundsConsonance = repetition of consonant sounds
35ASSONANCEthe repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds in neighboring words. Ex: Fleet feet sweep by sleeping geeks.
36EUPHONYa pleasing smoothness of sound, perceived by the ease with which the words can be spoken in combination. Adjective: euphonious. Antonym: cacophonous
37ELEMENTS OF STYLEAn example = Antony’s speech at Caesar’s funeral.
38STYLEAn evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, & other literary devices.
39ATTITUDEthe author’s viewpoint regarding his subject matter. Attitude can usually be detected in author’s tone.
40AMBIGUITYword, phrase or attitude that has double or even multiple meanings, resulting in multiple interpretations.In addition to words with multiple senses, ambiguity can be caused by syntax. "He ate the cookies on the couch", for example, could mean that he ate those cookies which were on the couch (as opposed to those that were on the table), or it could mean that he was sitting on the couch when he ate the cookies. Spoken language can also contain lexical ambiguities, where there is more than one way to break up a set of sounds into words, for example "ice cream" and "I scream". This is rarely a problem due to the use of context. (For more information, see Syntactic ambiguity.)Philosophers (and other users of logic) spend a lot of time and effort searching for and removing ambiguity in arguments, because it can lead to incorrect conclusions and can be used to deliberately conceal bad arguments. For example, a politician might say "I oppose taxes which hinder economic growth". Some will think he opposes taxes in general because they hinder economic growth; others will think he opposes only those taxes that he believes will hinder economic growth. The politician hopes that each will interpret the statement in the way he wants, and both will think the politician is on his side. The logical fallacies of amphiboly and equivocation also rely on the use of ambiguous words and phrases.
41CONNOTATIONthe range of further associations that a word or phrase suggests in addition to its straightforward dictionary meaning.Give an example of a word that has positive connotations and one that has negative connotations. Ex: strong willed or determined versus pig-headed.
42DENOTATIONThe precise, literal meaning of a word, without emotional associations or overtones.
43DICTIONThe writer’s word choices (informal, formal, ornate, plain, etc.)You should be able to describe an author’s diction and understand the ways in which diction can complement the author’s purpose.
44JUXTAPOSITIONthe side-by-side comparison of two or more objects or ideals for the purpose of highlighting similarities or differences.An example of the effective use of juxtaposition is the music of Elliott Smith – he juxtaposes dark lyrics about addiction and depression with light, upbeat melodies.
45MOODthe prevailing emotional attitude in a literary work, for example, regret, hopefulness, bitterness, etc.
46TONEthe reflection in a work of the author’s attitude toward his or her subject. Tone in writing is comparable to tone of voice in speech, and may be described as brusque, friendly, imperious, insinuating, teasing, etc.What would you say the tone of On Writing Well is? What about one of your summer reading books?
47VOICEthe sense a written work conveys to a reader of the writer’s attitude, personality and character.Examples of authors with a distinctive voice: Dave Barry, Ian Frazier, Chuck Klosterman, Steven King, John Steinbeck, Dominick Dunne, Harper Lee, George Orwell
48RHETORICAn example = Antony’s speech at Caesar’s funeral.
49RHETORICThe skill of using spoken or written communication effectively. It is the art of guiding the reader or listener to agreement with the writer or speaker.From the Greek for “orator”
50AD HOMINEM ARGUMENT From Latin “to or against the man.” An argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason, to feeling rather than intellectA (fallacious) ad hominem argument has the basic form:A makes claim B;there is something objectionable about A,therefore claim B is false.
51LOGOS: appeal based on logic or reason. APPEALSLOGOS: appeal based on logic or reason.ETHOS: Ethos is appeal based on the character of the speaker.PATHOS: Pathos is appeal based on emotion. The most powerful & immediate appeal.Documents distributed by companies or corporations are logos-driven. Scholarly documents are also often logos-driven.An ethos-driven document relies on the reputation of the author.Advertisements tend to be pathos-driven.
52RHETORICAL MODES Narrative: Tells a story Descriptive: re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture it.
53RHETORICAL MODESExpository: explain & analyze info by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, & appropriate discussion.Argumentative: prove the validity of an idea, or pov, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, & argument that convince the reader.
54RHETORICAL QUESTIONA question that is asked merely for effect and does not expect a reply. The answer is assumed.It is generally stronger than a direct statement. Ex: If Mr. Ferchoff is always fair, as you have said, why did he refuse to listen to Mrs. Baldwing’s statement?Again, in his funeral oration, Antony asks a number of rhetorical questions for effect. The result? He sways the crowd.
55RHETORICAL STRATEGIES Argument & Persuasion: stating opinions & proposalsCause & Effect: asking whyClassification: sorting into kindsDefinition: tracing boundariesDescription: Writing with your senses
56RHETORICAL STRATEGIES Division of Analysis: slicing into partsExample: pointing to instancesNarration: telling a storyProcess analysis: explaining step by step
57SYLLOGISMAn argument or form of reasoning in which two statements or premises are made and a logical conclusion is drawn from them.Ex: All mammals are warm blooded. Whales are mammals. Therefore whales are warm blooded.