Presentation on theme: "KEY AP LANGUAGE TERMS. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE FIGURE OF SPEECH A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. Ex: apostrophe,"— Presentation transcript:
KEY AP LANGUAGE TERMS
FIGURE OF SPEECH A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. Ex: apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonymy, understatement, etc.
ALLUSION an indirect or passing reference to an event, person, place or artistic work that the author assumes the reader will understand. Can be historical, literary, religious, mythical, etc.
ANADIPLOSIS The repetition of a key word, especially the last one, at the beginning of the next sentence or clause. He gave his life; life was all he could give.
ANALOGY a comparison of similar things, often to explain something unfamiliar with something familiar. (The branching of a river system is often explained using a tree and its branches.)
APOSTROPHE a rhetorical device in which the speaker addresses a dead or absent person, or an inanimate object or abstraction.
CLICHÉ An overused, worn-out, hackneyed expression that used to be fresh but is no more. Blushing bride and clinging vine are clichés used to describe people.
HYPERBOLE exaggeration for the sake of emphasis in a figure of speech not meant literally. Ex: This book weighs a ton!
KENNING a metaphoric compound word or phrase used as a synonym for a common noun. Ring- bestower for king; whale- road for sea; candle of heaven for the sun; war- brand for a sword.
LITOTES Understatement employed for the purpose of enhancing the effect of the ideas expressed. Contains a negative: Im not unhappy
METAPHOR A comparison, like a simile but usually implied and without a comparative word such as like or as. Ex: My heart is a singing bird; He wolfed his food.
TYPES OF METAPHOR Extended: an idea sustained throughout the work Dead: has been used so much it has lost its figurative meaning & is taken literally (eye of a needle, head of the class)
TYPES OF METAPHOR Mixed: a combination of two or more inconsistent metaphors in a single expression (Hell have to take the bull by the horns to keep the business afloat.)
METONYMY The use of the name of one thing for that of another associated with or suggested by it. For example, the White House of the President.
SYNECDOCHE figure of speech that utilizes a part as representative of the whole. (e.g. hands for manual laborers; the law for a police officer).
TROPE A figure of speech
UNDERSTATEMENT AKA Meiosis – The opposite of hyperbole. It is a type of verbal irony in which something is purposely represented as being far less important than it actually is.
Syntax: The way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences. Syntax is similar to diction, but differentiate the two by thinking of syntax as referring to groups of words, while diction refers to individual words.
SYNTAX/GRAMMAR Syntax: When you analyze syntax, consider elements such as length of sentences, unusual sentence constructions, sentence patterns used, & kinds of sentences.
ANAPHORA the regular repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds. We shall fight in the fields and in the streets. – Winston Churchill
ANASTROPHE a rhetorical term for the inversion of the normal order of the parts of a sentence. After great pain a formal feeling comes/The nerves sit ceremonious like tombs. Emily Dickinson
ANTECEDENT the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers.
ANTIMETABOLE Repeating words in reverse order for surprise and emphasis. "But we must remember a crucial fact: East and West do not mistrust each other because we are armed; we're armed because we mistrust each other. – Ronald Regan
ANTITHESIS Figure of speech in which opposing or contrasting ideas are balanced against each other using grammatically parallel syntax. Ex: You are going; I am staying. The exact opposite (Joy is the antithesis of sorrow).
ASYNDETON conjunctions are omitted, producing a fast-paced and rapid prose. I came. I saw. I conquered.
CHIASMUS grammatical structure in which the first clause or phrase is reversed in the second, sometimes repeating the same words. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you: ask what you can do for your country. John F. Kennedy
INVERSION Constructing a sentence so the predicate comes before the subject, e.g. In California grow oranges.
PARALLELISM expressing similar or related ideas in similar grammatical structure. He tried to make the law clear, precise and equitable.
PERIODIC SENTENCE the main idea comes last in the sentence, leaving the reader with a more powerful last impression. Ex: That morning, after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences, we reached Edmonton.
POLYSYNDETON the opposite of asyndeton. Figure of addition and emphasis which intentionally employs a series of conjunctions (and, or, but, for, nor, so, yet) not normally found in successive words, phrases, or clauses. The use of many conjunctions has a slowing effect.
Alliteration The repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in 2+ neighboring words. Can reinforce meaning, unify ideas, and/or supply a musical sound.
ASSONANCE the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds in neighboring words. Ex: Fleet feet sweep by sleeping geeks.
EUPHONY a pleasing smoothness of sound, perceived by the ease with which the words can be spoken in combination. Adjective: euphonious. Antonym: cacophonous
ELEMENTS OF STYLE
STYLE An evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, & other literary devices.
ATTITUDE the authors viewpoint regarding his subject matter. Attitude can usually be detected in authors tone.
AMBIGUITY word, phrase or attitude that has double or even multiple meanings, resulting in multiple interpretations.
CONNOTATION the range of further associations that a word or phrase suggests in addition to its straightforward dictionary meaning.
DENOTATION The precise, literal meaning of a word, without emotional associations or overtones.
DICTION The writers word choices (informal, formal, ornate, plain, etc.)
JUXTAPOSITION the side-by-side comparison of two or more objects or ideals for the purpose of highlighting similarities or differences.
MOOD the prevailing emotional attitude in a literary work, for example, regret, hopefulness, bitterness, etc.
TONE the reflection in a work of the authors attitude toward his or her subject. Tone in writing is comparable to tone of voice in speech, and may be described as brusque, friendly, imperious, insinuating, teasing, etc.
VOICE the sense a written work conveys to a reader of the writers attitude, personality and character.
The skill of using spoken or written communication effectively. It is the art of guiding the reader or listener to agreement with the writer or speaker.
AD HOMINEM ARGUMENT From Latin to or against the man. An argument that appeals to emotion rather than reason, to feeling rather than intellect
APPEALS LOGOS: appeal based on logic or reason. ETHOS: Ethos is appeal based on the character of the speaker. PATHOS: Pathos is appeal based on emotion. The most powerful & immediate appeal.
RHETORICAL MODES Narrative: Tells a story Descriptive: re-create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture it.
RHETORICAL MODES Expository: explain & analyze info by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, & appropriate discussion. Argumentative: prove the validity of an idea, or pov, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, & argument that convince the reader.
RHETORICAL QUESTION A question that is asked merely for effect and does not expect a reply. The answer is assumed.
RHETORICAL STRATEGIES Argument & Persuasion: stating opinions & proposals Cause & Effect: asking why Classification: sorting into kinds Definition: tracing boundaries Description: Writing with your senses
RHETORICAL STRATEGIES Division of Analysis: slicing into parts Example: pointing to instances Narration: telling a story Process analysis: explaining step by step
SYLLOGISM An argument or form of reasoning in which two statements or premises are made and a logical conclusion is drawn from them.