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AP Government Exam Morning Crash Session

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Presentation on theme: "AP Government Exam Morning Crash Session"— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Government Exam Morning Crash Session

2 What you are up against…

3 Some tips… Multiple Choice:
Read each question carefully. Don’t fall for the distractors Bubble as you go! FRQS: Define, Identify and Explain Give examples even if not asked No intro, thesis or conclusion If it asks you to choose TWO of the following, choose ALL THREE for insurance Demarcate your FRQs (A, B, C and so forth) this makes the reader happy Answer the questions in the order you know them

4 The “Big XII” Constitution Civil Liberties and Civil Rights
Interest Groups and Policy-making Civil Liberties and Civil Rights Bureaucracy Federalism Congress Public Opinion & Political Participation The “Big XII” Judiciary Political Parties Presidency Campaigns and Elections Media

5 Question #1 Congress and the Bureaucracy

6 Congress, Political Participation and Civil Rights
Question #2 Congress, Political Participation and Civil Rights

7 Question #3 Judicial, legislative and executive branches

8 Question #4 Elections, media, interest groups










18 Locke and natural rights Shays “Miracle at Philadelphia”
I. Constitution (5-15%) Locke and natural rights Shays “Miracle at Philadelphia” Factions and Federalist 10 Madisonian Model Tyranny of the majority Great compromise Ratification debates Necessary and Proper clause (“elastic”) Commerce Clause 10th Amendment Theories of democratic gov’t: Pluralism Hyper pluralism Elite theory

19 II. Federalism (5-15%) Dual federalism Fiscal federalism
Supremacy clause Block grants Categorical grants Grants-in-aid Gibbons v. Ogden (1823) U.S. v. Lopez (1995) Mandates ADA (1990) McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Devolution (New federalism) Welfare Reform Act (1996) “Laboratories of Democracy” Inequality?




23 III. Civil Liberties and Civil Rights (5-15%)
14th Amendment Equal protection clause Due process clause Incorporation Doctrine (Selective) Free exercise vs. establishment clause MUST KNOW Civil Lib cases: Schenck v. U.S. (1919) Gitlow v. New York (1925) Near v. Minnesota (1935) Miller v. California (1973) Texas v. Johnson (1989) New York Times v. U.S. (1971) Engel v. Vitale (1962) Lemon v. Kurzman (1971) Mapp v. Ohio (1961) Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) Miranda v. Arizona (1966) Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) Roe v. Wade (1973)

24 “2nd Tier Cases” LESS likely to appear Oregon v. Smith (1990)
Reynolds v. U.S. (1878) Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972) Gregg v. Georgia (1976) New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)

25 III. Civil Liberties and Civil Rights (5-15%)
14th Amendment Discrimination- Strict scrutiny Intermediate scrutiny Rational basis Key Civil Rights Cases Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) Brown v. Board (1954) Baker v. Carr (1963) Wesberry v. Sanders (1964) Craig v. Boren (1976) UC Davis v. Bakke (1979)






31 IV. Public Opinion & Political Participation 5-15%
Political socialization Role of family Role of Education Political efficacy Equality of opportunity vs. results Mistrust of government Polls and Random Digit Dialing (RDD) Reapportionment Sunbelt Forms of political participation Unconventional forms of participation (think time energy and knowledge)

32 IV. Public Opinion & Political Participation (5-15%)
Who votes and for whom? Blacks? Hispanics? Jews? Catholics? Evangelicals Progressives? Conservatives?

33 IV. Public Opinion & Political Participation (5-15%)
Geographically… Rural? Urban? Northeast? Rustbelt? Sunbelt? South?

34 IV. Public Opinion & Political Participation 5-15%
Suffrage Amendments 15th, 17th,19th, 24th, 26th Open vs. Closed primaries Blanket primaries Voter fatigue Straight ticket voting Motor Voter Law (1993)




38 V. Political Parties (5-15%)
Linkage institutions Party-in-the-electorate Party-in-government Party as an organization Party realignment Critical elections 1828, 1860, 1896, 1932, 1968 Gerrymandering Role of third parties

39 US THEM (Europe) Promotes stability
Nearly impossible for 3rd parties to break-in

40 VI. Campaigns and Elections (5-15%)


42 VI. Campaigns and Elections (5-15%)
Primary vs. general elections “Money, momentum and media” “Die-hard Diane” vs. “Donnie Don’t-Care” Caucus Direct primaries Role of the convention Gender gap VS.




46 VI. Campaigns and Elections (5-15%)
Super Tuesday Frontloading McGovern-Fraser Commission Superdelegates PACS FECA (1974) FEC Matching funds BCRA (2002) Hard $ Soft $ 527 groups Buckley v. Valeo (1976) Citizens United v. FEC (2010)


48 Paid media vs. free media Broadcasting vs. narrowcasting
VII. Media (5-15%) Functions: Gatekeeper Watchdog Scorekeeper Trial balloons Scripted events Paid media vs. free media Broadcasting vs. narrowcasting Selective attention Horse-race journalism Agenda-setting Soundbites Role of Vietnam and Watergate




52 Guardian of the Economy
VIII. Presidency (20-30%) Seven Roles- Chief of State Chief Executive Commander-in Chief Chief Diplomat Chief Legislator Chief of the Party Guardian of the Economy 22nd and 25th Amendments War Powers Resolution (1973) 24 hour notification 60/90 day to remove troops Vetoes- Regular veto Pocket-veto Line-item Role of the Cabinet Executive privilege Executive orders Executive agreements

53 VIII. Presidency (20-30%) Office of the VP Bully Pulpit Agenda-setter
“Balancing the Ticket” Bully Pulpit Agenda-setter Role of divided government Pardons and reprieves National Security Council (1947) OMB




57 IX. Judiciary (20-30%) Fed. 78 and the role of the Judiciary
Judicial activism vs. judicial restraint Original intent Marbury v. Madison (1803) Judicial review Collegial court concept Warren Court ( ) Dual court system Trial courts Original jurisdiction Appellate jurisdiction District courts Circuit Courts of Appeal Justiciable disputes Standing to sue Class action lawsuits “Rule of Four” Majority opinion Concurring opinion Dissenting opinion Solicitor General “10th Justice” Political questions

58 IX. Judiciary (20-30%) Statutory construction Judicial implementation
Precedent Senatorial courtesy Appointment process “Litmus test” Vetting process Amicus curiae briefs Stare decisis Writ of certiorari






64 X. Congress (20-30%)…Hope you’re sitting down
Coffee pot (House) vs. the Saucer (Senate) Bicameralism Enumerated powers Know your checks and balances Legislative process Legislative oversight Implied powers (Necessary and Proper Clause) Commerce clause Reapportionment Gerrymandering CBO GAO Models of representation- Delegate Trustee Politico

65 Legislative Process (what the ?...)

66 X. Congress (20-30%)…Hope you’re sitting down
Incumbency advantage Name recognition Casework Party ID Franking privilege Access to $$$ Political “pork” Position-taking Weak opponents Safe seats Open seats Credit claiming Speaker of the House Pres. Pro Tempore (Senate) Majority Leader (Senate) Minority Leader (H/S)

67 X. Congress (20-30%)…Hope you’re sitting down
Whips Caucuses Logrolling Filibuster (Senate only) Holds (Senate only) Cloture (Senate only) Discharge petition (House only) “Christmas Tree” bills Policy riders Gridlock Legislative veto Seniority system Standing committees Conference committees House Rules Ways and Means Senate Judiciary Foreign Relations

68 XI. Interest Groups & Policy-Making (5-15%)
Interest groups vs. political parties Pluralism vs. hyperpluralism vs. elite theory Solidary benefits Material benefits Lobbying Electioneering “Going public” Litigation Class action lawsuits Free-rider problem Size of groups First Amendment protection

69 Iron Triangles vs. Issue Networks

70 XI. Interest Groups & Policy-Making (5-15%)
Policy-making process: Agenda-setting (who sets it?) 2. Policy formulation Implementation (Fed bureaucracy) 4. Evaluation

71 XI. Interest Groups & Policy-Making (5-15%)
Monetary vs. Fiscal Policy Monetary (FED) Fiscal (President and Congress) Keynesianism vs. Supply-side The Budget Debt vs. deficit Entitlements Uncontrollable spending Discretionary spending Popularity of programs Role of the following in the budget process: President, OMB, Agencies, Cong. Committees, Interest Groups


73 XII. Bureaucracy (5-15%) Civil Service Pendleton Act
Criticisms of the Bureaucracy? How Congress controls the Bureaucracy How the President controls the Bureaucracy How the Courts control the Bureaucracy Structure of the Bureaucracy Cabinet level agencies (15)…loyalty to the pres? Independent regulatory agencies Government corporations Independent Executive Agencies

74 Some final thoughts I will post the keys on my website tonight: All review podcasts are up if you need to review a concept 7:30 Tuesday morning in the small gym- Don’t be Late! Good luck!

75 Return

76 Madisonian Model Return

77 Dual vs. Cooperative Federalism
Return Dual vs. Cooperative Federalism

78 Incorporation Doctrine
Return Gitlow v. New York (1925)

79 Road to the White House Iowa then New Hampshire

80 “Last Man Standing”

81 Now who starts to pay attention?


83 IA and NH are now insignificant

84 Consequences? Return

85 Campaign Finance Simplified
Return “Big Tex” (private citizen) Hard $- Limits? Soft $- NO LIMITS! Soft $ Limits? Quimby for America (PAC)- Private citizens Americans for Quimby (527) Private citizens May contribute directly May NOT contribute directly or coordinate with (Must report to FEC) (Must report to FEC) (Does NOT have to report to FEC)

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