3Some tips… Multiple Choice: Read each question carefully. Don’t fall for the distractorsBubble as you go!FRQS:Define, Identify and ExplainGive examples even if not askedNo intro, thesis or conclusionIf it asks you to choose TWO of the following, choose ALL THREE for insuranceDemarcate your FRQs (A, B, C and so forth) this makes the reader happyAnswer the questions in the order you know them
4The “Big XII” Constitution Civil Liberties and Civil Rights Interest Groups and Policy-makingCivil Liberties and Civil RightsBureaucracyFederalismCongressPublic Opinion & Political ParticipationThe “Big XII”JudiciaryPolitical PartiesPresidencyCampaigns and ElectionsMedia
18Locke and natural rights Shays “Miracle at Philadelphia” I. Constitution (5-15%)Locke and natural rightsShays“Miracle at Philadelphia”Factions and Federalist 10Madisonian ModelTyranny of the majorityGreat compromiseRatification debatesNecessary and Proper clause (“elastic”)Commerce Clause10th AmendmentTheories of democratic gov’t:PluralismHyper pluralismElite theory
19II. Federalism (5-15%) Dual federalism Fiscal federalism Supremacy clauseBlock grantsCategorical grantsGrants-in-aidGibbons v. Ogden (1823)U.S. v. Lopez (1995)MandatesADA (1990)McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)Devolution (New federalism)Welfare Reform Act (1996)“Laboratories of Democracy”Inequality?
23III. Civil Liberties and Civil Rights (5-15%) 14th AmendmentEqual protection clauseDue process clauseIncorporation Doctrine (Selective)Free exercise vs. establishment clauseMUST KNOW Civil Lib cases:Schenck v. U.S. (1919)Gitlow v. New York (1925)Near v. Minnesota (1935)Miller v. California (1973)Texas v. Johnson (1989)New York Times v. U.S. (1971)Engel v. Vitale (1962)Lemon v. Kurzman (1971)Mapp v. Ohio (1961)Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)Miranda v. Arizona (1966)Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)Roe v. Wade (1973)
24“2nd Tier Cases” LESS likely to appear Oregon v. Smith (1990) Reynolds v. U.S. (1878)Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972)Gregg v. Georgia (1976)New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)
25III. Civil Liberties and Civil Rights (5-15%) 14th AmendmentDiscrimination-Strict scrutinyIntermediate scrutinyRational basisKey Civil Rights CasesPlessy v. Ferguson (1896)Korematsu v. U.S. (1944)Brown v. Board (1954)Baker v. Carr (1963)Wesberry v. Sanders (1964)Craig v. Boren (1976)UC Davis v. Bakke (1979)
31IV. Public Opinion & Political Participation 5-15% Political socializationRole of familyRole of EducationPolitical efficacyEquality of opportunity vs. resultsMistrust of governmentPolls and Random Digit Dialing (RDD)ReapportionmentSunbeltForms of political participationUnconventional forms of participation(think time energy and knowledge)
32IV. Public Opinion & Political Participation (5-15%) Who votes and for whom?Blacks? Hispanics? Jews? Catholics? Evangelicals Progressives? Conservatives?
33IV. Public Opinion & Political Participation (5-15%) Geographically…Rural? Urban? Northeast? Rustbelt? Sunbelt? South?
34IV. Public Opinion & Political Participation 5-15% Suffrage Amendments15th, 17th,19th, 24th, 26thOpen vs. Closed primariesBlanket primariesVoter fatigueStraight ticket votingMotor Voter Law (1993)
38V. Political Parties (5-15%) Linkage institutionsParty-in-the-electorateParty-in-governmentParty as an organizationParty realignmentCritical elections1828, 1860, 1896, 1932, 1968GerrymanderingRole of third parties
39US THEM (Europe) Promotes stability Nearly impossible for 3rd parties to break-in
46VI. Campaigns and Elections (5-15%) Super TuesdayFrontloadingMcGovern-Fraser CommissionSuperdelegatesPACSFECA (1974)FECMatching fundsBCRA (2002)Hard $Soft $527 groupsBuckley v. Valeo (1976)Citizens United v. FEC (2010)
48Paid media vs. free media Broadcasting vs. narrowcasting VII. Media (5-15%)Functions:GatekeeperWatchdogScorekeeperTrial balloonsScripted eventsPaid media vs. free mediaBroadcasting vs. narrowcastingSelective attentionHorse-race journalismAgenda-settingSoundbitesRole of Vietnam and Watergate
52Guardian of the Economy VIII. Presidency (20-30%)Seven Roles-Chief of StateChief ExecutiveCommander-in ChiefChief DiplomatChief LegislatorChief of the PartyGuardian of the Economy22nd and 25th AmendmentsWar Powers Resolution (1973)24 hour notification60/90 day to remove troopsVetoes-Regular vetoPocket-vetoLine-itemRole of the CabinetExecutive privilegeExecutive ordersExecutive agreements
53VIII. Presidency (20-30%) Office of the VP Bully Pulpit Agenda-setter “Balancing the Ticket”Bully PulpitAgenda-setterRole of divided governmentPardons and reprievesNational Security Council (1947)OMB
57IX. Judiciary (20-30%) Fed. 78 and the role of the Judiciary Judicial activism vs. judicial restraintOriginal intentMarbury v. Madison (1803)Judicial reviewCollegial court conceptWarren Court ( )Dual court systemTrial courtsOriginal jurisdictionAppellate jurisdictionDistrict courtsCircuit Courts of AppealJusticiable disputesStanding to sueClass action lawsuits“Rule of Four”Majority opinionConcurring opinionDissenting opinionSolicitor General “10th Justice”Political questions
58IX. Judiciary (20-30%) Statutory construction Judicial implementation PrecedentSenatorial courtesyAppointment process“Litmus test”Vetting processAmicus curiae briefsStare decisisWrit of certiorari
64X. Congress (20-30%)…Hope you’re sitting down Coffee pot (House) vs. the Saucer (Senate)BicameralismEnumerated powersKnow your checks and balancesLegislative processLegislative oversightImplied powers (Necessary and Proper Clause)Commerce clauseReapportionmentGerrymanderingCBOGAOModels of representation-DelegateTrusteePolitico
65Legislative Process (what the ?...) ReturnSENATEHOUSE
66X. Congress (20-30%)…Hope you’re sitting down Incumbency advantageName recognitionCaseworkParty IDFranking privilegeAccess to $$$Political “pork”Position-takingWeak opponentsSafe seatsOpen seatsCredit claimingSpeaker of the HousePres. Pro Tempore (Senate)Majority Leader (Senate)Minority Leader (H/S)
67X. Congress (20-30%)…Hope you’re sitting down WhipsCaucusesLogrollingFilibuster (Senate only)Holds (Senate only)Cloture (Senate only)Discharge petition(House only)“Christmas Tree” billsPolicy ridersGridlockLegislative vetoSeniority systemStanding committeesConference committeesHouseRulesWays and MeansSenateJudiciaryForeign Relations
68XI. Interest Groups & Policy-Making (5-15%) Interest groups vs. political partiesPluralism vs. hyperpluralism vs. elite theorySolidary benefitsMaterial benefitsLobbyingElectioneering“Going public”LitigationClass action lawsuitsFree-rider problemSize of groupsFirst Amendment protection
71XI. Interest Groups & Policy-Making (5-15%) Monetary vs. Fiscal PolicyMonetary (FED)Fiscal (President and Congress)Keynesianism vs. Supply-sideThe BudgetDebt vs. deficitEntitlementsUncontrollable spendingDiscretionary spendingPopularity of programsRole of the following in the budget process:President, OMB, Agencies, Cong. Committees, Interest Groups
73XII. Bureaucracy (5-15%) Civil Service Pendleton Act Criticisms of the Bureaucracy?How Congress controls the BureaucracyHow the President controls the BureaucracyHow the Courts control the BureaucracyStructure of the BureaucracyCabinet level agencies (15)…loyalty to the pres?Independent regulatory agenciesGovernment corporationsIndependent Executive Agencies
74Some final thoughtsI will post the keys on my website tonight:All review podcasts are up if you need to review a concept7:30 Tuesday morning in the small gym- Don’t be Late!Good luck!
85Campaign Finance Simplified Return“Big Tex” (private citizen)Hard $- Limits?Soft $- NO LIMITS!Soft $Limits?Quimby for America(PAC)-Private citizensAmericans for Quimby (527)Private citizensMay contribute directlyMay NOT contribute directly or coordinate with(Must report to FEC)(Must report to FEC)(Does NOT have to report toFEC)