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Probability: The Study of Randomness Lindsey Van Cleave

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6.1: The Idea of Probability Vocabulary: –Random: individual outcomes are uncertain but there is nonetheless a regular distribution of outcomes in a large number of repetitions –Probability: proportion of times the outcome would occur in a very long series of repetitions, long-term relative frequency –Independent Trials: the outcome of one trial must not influence the outcome of any other

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6.1: The Idea of Probability The Main Idea: –Chance behavior is unpredictable in the short run but has a regular and predictable pattern in the long run. Probability theory is the branch of mathematics that describes random behavior. Mathematical probability is an idealization based on imagining what would happen in an indefinitely long series of trials.

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6.2: Probability Models Vocabulary –Random Phenomenon: outcomes that cannot be predicted but that nonetheless have a regular distribution in very many repetitions –Sample Space S: set of all possible outcomes –Event: any outcome or set of outcomes of a random phenomenon; an event is a subset of a sample space –Probability Model: mathematical description of a random phenomenon consisting of two parts: a sample space S and a way of assigning probabilities to events.

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Vocabulary: –Complement: of an event A consists of exactly the outcomes that are not in A. –Disjoint (Mutually Exclusive): when events A and B have no outcomes in common –Independent: when the outcome of event A does not effect the outcome of event B. 6.2: Probability Models

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Multiplication Principle: –If you can do one task in a number of ways and a second task in b number of ways, then both tasks can be done in a x b number of ways. Sampling With Replacement: –For example, when drawing cards if you are trying to determine the probability of drawing a spade and you draw and replace the card so that the probability of selecting the next card is not effected is sampling with replacement. Sampling Without Replacement: –For example, if you draw one spade and then leave it out of the deck so that the probability of drawing another spade has changed is known as sampling without replacement 6.2: Probability Models

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Probability Rules: –1. Any probability is a number between 0 and 1. Any proportion is a number between 0 and 1, so any probability is also a number between 0 and1. An event with probability 0 never occurs, and an event with probability of 1 occurs on every trial. An event with probability.5 occurs in half the trials in the long run. 0 P(A) 1. –2. All possible outcomes together must have a probability of 1. Because some outcome must occur on every trial, the sum of the probabilities for all possible outcomes must be exactly 1. P(S)=1 6.2: Probability Models

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Probability Rules: –3. The probability that an event does not occur is 1 minus the probability that the event does occur. If an event occurs in (say) 70% of all trials, it fails to occur in the other 30%. The probability that an event occurs and the probability that it does not occur always add to 100%, or 1. P(A c )= 1-P(A) –4. If two events have no outcomes in common, the probability that one or the other occurs is the sum of their individual probabilities. If one event occurs in 40% of all trials, a different event occurs in 25% of all trials, and the two can never occur together, then one or the other occurs on 65% of all trials because 40% + 25%= 65%. P(A or B)= P(A) + P(B) 6.2: Probability Models

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Symbols: –The symbol U is called a union. The event {A U B} is read A union B, is the set of all outcomes that are either in A or B. So A union B is another way of saying {A or B}. –The symbol ø indicates an empty event, meaning the event has no outcomes. If two events are mutually exclusive, we can write A B= ø, which read A intersect B is empty. 6.2: Probability Models

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Venn Diagram: –A diagram that shows the sample space S as a rectangular area and events as areas within S. 6.2: Probability Models

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Equally likely outcomes: –If a random phenomenon has k possible outcomes, all equally likely, then each individual outcome has probability 1/k. The probability of any event A is count of outcomes in A P(A)= count of outcomes in S = count of outcomes in A k 6.2: Probability Models

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The Multiplication Rule for Independent Events: –Two events A and B are independent if knowing that one occurs does not change the probability that the other occurs. If A and B are independent, P(A and B)= P(A)P(B) –This is the multiplication rule for independent events. 6.2: Probability Models

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Vocabulary: –Union: {A or B}; contains all outcomes in A, in B, or in both A and B –Intersection: {A and B}; all outcomes that are in both A and B, but not outcomes in A alone or B alone. –Joint Event: The simultaneous occurrence of two events –Joint Probability: The probability of a joint event 6.3: General Probability Rules

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Rules of Elementary Probability: –Legitimate Values: 0 P(A) 1 for any event A –Total Probability 1: P(S)=1 –Complement Rule: P(A c )=1-P(A) –Addition Rule: P(A or B)= P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B) –Multiplication Rule: P(A and B) = P(A)P(B|A) –Conditional Probability P (B|A) of an event B given and event A is defined by… P(A and B) P(B|A)= P(A) 6.3: General Probability Rules

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Tree Diagrams: –Use a tree diagram for problems with several stages in order to organize the multiplication and addition rules. –Example: 6.3: General Probability Rules

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Tree Diagram Example continued: 6.3: General Probability Rules

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For Extra Practice Take the Online Quiz: GOOD LUCK!!!! Chapter 6: Probability: The Study of Randomness

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