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World War 2 1939-1945 Will find the free democracies allied to the communist state against fascist states.

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Presentation on theme: "World War 2 1939-1945 Will find the free democracies allied to the communist state against fascist states."— Presentation transcript:

1 World War 2 Will find the free democracies allied to the communist state against fascist states.

2 Essential Questions Trace Japan’s rise to power and its justifications for igniting war with the U.S. Identify the “lessons learned” by the Germans after W. W. 1 Identify 3 turning-point battles & their significance. Discuss the significance of the Yalta Conference & its possible impact on the post-war world.

3 B 17 Type Strategic bomber Manufacturer Boeing
Designed by Edward C. Wells E. Gifford Emery Maiden flight 28 July 1935[1] Introduction April 1938 Retired 1968 (Brazilian Air Force) Status Retired (14 airframes currently in flying condition[2]) Primary users United States Army Air Force Royal Air Force Produced 1936–1945 Number built 12,731[3] Unit cost US $238,329[4] Variants XB-38 YB-40 C-108

4 How to maximize the limited military allowed by Versailles?
How to prevent another British blockade? How to make the Schieffen Plan work this time? 100K man military = 100k man officer corps Mechanize the military to mobilize quickly and protect a larger area. Annex land in areas to prevent future blockades. Find the flaws in the original Schlieffen and modify it for success. Ann blockade Eex

5 Benito Mussolini Il Duce > the leader
Founder of fascism Used thugs [“Black-shirts”] to rise to power Outlawed other political parties Created dictatorship Controls Ethiopia> despite fierce fighting

6 Adolph Hitler Der Fuhrer> the leader
Opposed Treaty of Versailles Joined the National Socialist German Workers party or Nazi party Autobiography “Mein Kampf “ (My struggle) while in prison. Outlined his future plans for Germany

7 Hitler Blamed Jews for Germany’s economic problems [scapegoats]
Military expansion Rhineland – Austria – Sudetenland – Poland – Denmark – Norway – Belgium All of Eastern Europe Racism: Pure Aryan race> remove undesirables.

8 German Expansion First the Rhineland, then Sudetenland, Auschlus.

9 Appeasement Munich Conference: 1938 Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia
Hitler threatened: Poland France Britain Russian German Non-Aggression Pact

10 German Expansion First the Rhineland, then Sudetenland, Auschlus.

11 European Aggression Italy Mussolini > fascism Conquered Ethiopia
Germany Hitler > Nazi-fascism Anti: Treaty – communist – Jewish – liberal Withdrew from League Remilitarized Annexed: Austria Sudetenland European Aggression Italy Mussolini > fascism Conquered Ethiopia Intervened in Spanish Civil War Benito was the architect of fascism. He sought a return to the glory of Rome. Fasces (a plurale tantum, from the Latin word fascis, meaning bundle[1]) symbolise summary power and jurisdiction, and/or "strength through unity."[2] The traditional Roman fasces consisted of a bundle of birch rods tied together with a red ribbon as a cylinder around an axe. One interpretation of the symbolism suggests that despite the fragility of each independent single rod, as a bundle they exhibit strength.

12 Axis Powers An Axis between Rome and Berlin
Triple Pact [when joined by Japan] Alliance between Germany and Italy The world will revolve around the axis between Rome and Berlin.


14 Let the Show Begin > Poland
Preemptive strike Unprovoked attack Poland falls in one month Nazi-Soviet Pact Soviets move into Eastern Poland pre-established border Battle of the Atlantic [submarine warfare]

15 Blitzkrieg German tactic: “lightening war”.
Rapid mobility of troops and equipment Use of tanks, artillery, Stuka dive bombers Savage attacks by the Germans against Poland, Belgium, and France. Lightening war.

16 Germany At War Stuka Dive bomber BLITZKREIG Lightening War
Mobile warfare Massive fast movement of tanks Supported by mobile artillery Terror bombing of cities Stuka Dive bomber

17 Junkers Ju.87 Dive Bomber "Stuka"
The most famous Sturzkampfflugzeug (dive bomber) was the one nicknamed Stuka. It was the most famous of all planes used by the Germans as a dive bomber. The Stuka was designed strictly as an army cooperation dive bomber at the urging of General Ernst Udet. It is instantly recognizable with its inverted gull-wings, and fixed-undercarriage. The JU 87 was ugly, sturdy, accurate, but very vulnerable to enemy fighters. The Germans learned in the Battle of Britain that its use demanded air superiority. It was too slow, unmaneuverable and under-armed, but its effectiveness in destroying vehicles, fortifications or ships, or just scaring people, was undoubted. Its accuracy was high when in a full dive that was up to 80 degrees. Once the bomb was released it used an automatic pull-up system to ensure that the plane pulled out of the dive even if the pilot blacked out from the high g forces. The Germans fitted the wheel covers with sirens that were used once the planes went into a dive to shatter the morale of enemy troops and civilians. They also fitted whistles onto the fins of the bombs to ensure that the recipients knew just when the bombs were released and could track them on the way down. Over 5700 Stukas were built. Technical Details The Ju 87B-1 flew with a crew of 2, the pilot and a rear-gunner. The engine was an 880kW Junkers Jumo 211Da that could pull the aircraft up to 385km/h. It had an operational ceiling of 8000m and a range of only 600km. Its armament was three 7.9mm machine guns and either one 500kg bomb or four 50kg bombs fitted to racks either under the fuselage or under the inboard portion of the wings. From 1942 on the Ju 87G-1 was a dedicated anti-tank aircraft on the eastern front. It was fitted with a 1400hp Junkers JU MO 211J engine. It had a maximum speed of 314km/h, a ceiling of 8000m and a very limited range of only 320km. The reduced speed and range was due to the armour plating installed to protect the pilot and gunner when flying low-level tank busting missions. It was armed with two 30mm cannons in pods under the wings and a 7.92mm machine gun in the back for the gunner. Canadian Aces Home Page Image From: Richard Bickers. The Battle of Britain. Military Archive Research Services photo.

18 Germany vs. Western Allies
Germany conquers: Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands Poland September 1939 France: fell June 1940 Balkans & N. Africa by 1941 Battle of El Alamein Onset > Germans


20 Fall of France Modifed Schleiffen Plan

21 Vichy

22 Great Britain> alone since France fell
Allies Great Britain> alone since France fell Joined later by the U.S. and Soviet Union

23 Continued Fear FDR’s plan -provide help without becoming actively involved. How we paid others to fight.

24 Lend-Lease Act authorized the President to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security.

25 Atlantic Charter Authored by Roosevelt and Winston Churchill>
Post-war plan Formed the basis for the United Nations Plan for post-war world order and peace-keeping. Off the coast of Canada on British battle ship.


27 Operation Barbarossa [Eastern Front]
German invasion of U.S.S.R. [1941] Stalin employed ‘scorched earth’ policy Stalin tactic = ‘human wave’ Stalin’s greatest allies = Generals Jan. & Feb. U.S. Lend-Lease Feeds Soviets [spam] [gives] Studebaker trucks Turning Point > Soviet victory at Stalingrad

28 Frederick Barbarossa After making his peace with the Pope, Frederick embarked on the Third Crusade (1189), a grand expedition in conjunction with the French, led by king Philip Augustus, and the English, under Richard Lionheart. He organized a grand army of 100,000 men and set out on the overland route to the Holy Land. The Crusaders passed through Hungary and Serbia and then entered Byzantine territory, arriving at Constantinople in the autumn of From there they pushed on through Anatolia (where they were victorious in two battles) and Cilician Armenia. The approach of the immense German army greatly concerned Saladin and the other Muslim leaders, who began to rally troops of their own and prepare to confront Barbarossa's forces.

29 Operation Barbarossa

30 Fortress Europe

31 Occupation Resistance Most occupied lands
France – Denmark – Russian – Poland Employed: sabotage Caused: Brutal reprisals Exploitation Japanese & Germans Pillaged wealth Employed slave labor in war industries Collaboration For personal gain Anti-communists Waffen SS Czech partisans, with British aid, assassinated Nazi Reichprotektor Reinhold Heidrich in Prague. The Nazi authorities retaliated by leveling the village of Lidice, home of the partisans, killing all the men, sending the women to concentration camps, and the children to be brought up by German families

32 During the war, Czechoslovak army units fighting abroad often parachuted foreign-trained Czech and Slovak soldiers into occupied Czech territory to perform special assignments. The most significant of these special assignments was the assassination, in 1942, of Reinhard Heidrich - the German Reichsprotektor of Bohemia and Moravia and one of the architects of the "Final Solution." His assassination by two Czechoslovak parachutists on May 27, 1942 set off a reign of terror throughout the Czech lands. Martial law was declared and the Nazis conducted house-to-house searches looking for the parachutists and the members of the Czech resistance movement who had helped them. More than 1,600 people were executed and more were sent to concentration camps in the period immediately following the assassination. The terror reached its height with the annihilation of the village of Lidice, where 339 men were executed and the women and children of the village were sent to concentration camps. A few weeks later, the village of Lezaky, where the Nazis killed 54 men, women and children, was also razed to the ground. By the time this terror - known as the "Heydrichiada" - was over, the Nazis had damaged the resistance movement so much that it was only able to resume its activities at the very end of the war. The resistance movements in Czechoslovakia culminated in the Slovak National Uprising of which was brutally put down - and in the Prague Uprising in the Czech lands in May of which started just a few days before foreign armies arrived to officially liberate the city.


34 Battle of Britain air attacks Blitz Killed 40,000 civilians
Germans lose Thus unable to mount invasion British have radar & ‘break’ Enigma The gratitude of every home in our Island, in our Empire, and indeed throughout the world, except in the abodes of the guilty, goes out to the British airmen who, undaunted by odds, unwearied in their constant challenge and mortal danger, are turning the tide of the world war by their prowess and by their devotion. Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few. What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilisation. Upon it depends our own British life, and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us. Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of pervert science. let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties and so bear ourselves that, if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will say, ' "This was their Finest Hour'

35 Battle of Britain Hitler sought to force Britain to surrender.
Massive air assault on Britain civilian targets Saved by radar heroics of the R.A.F ENIGMA Best plane in the war Spitfire Best tank= T-34 War winner= B-17 [4 engine long range bombers]

36 Spitfire Type Fighter Manufacturer Supermarine
Designed by R. J. Mitchell Maiden flight 5 March 1936 Introduction 1938 Retired 1952, RAF Primary use rRoyal Air Force Produced 1938–1948 Number built 20,351 Unit cost £15,000 Variants Seafire & Spiteful

37 Battle of the Atlantic Attempt to keep German submarines from Britain
Convoy System American warships served as escorts. Germans countered with attacks on merchant ships. German tactics> wolf packs.

38 Battle of the Atlantic Year Ships lost by U-boat
 Ships lost all enemy causes  No. of Crew* Lost by u-boat   No. of Crew* Lost all causes  1939 50  95 260  495  1940 225 511 3,375 5,622  1941 288 568 5,632 7,838  1942 452 590 8,413 9,736  1943 203 266 3,826 4,606  1944 67 102 1,163 1,512  1945 30 45 229 323  Total 1,315  2,177 22,898 30,132 Battle of the Atlantic Statistics Statistics re Allied losses of men and ships in the Battle of the Atlantic vary widely. We include data from various sources below. Hughes, Terry and Costello, John. The Battle of the Atlantic, New York: Dial Press,1977 The Atlantic war was over. It had been costly to the Allies. No fewer than 2,603 merchant ships had been sunk, totalling over million tons, as well as 175 Allied Naval vessels On the Allied side 30,248 merchant seamen died, as were as thousands of men from the Royal Navy and RAF. It was the one campaign of the Second World War that lasted from the first day to the last.

39 U.S. Maritime Service Veterans:
                                                                                                                                    Casualties The United States Merchant Marine provided the greatest sealift in history between the production army at home and the fighting forces scattered around the globe in World War II. The prewar total of 55,000 experienced mariners was increased to over 215,000 through U.S. Maritime Service training programs. Merchant ships faced danger from submarines, mines, armed raiders and destroyers, aircraft, "kamikaze," and the elements. About 8,300 mariners were killed at sea, 12,000 wounded of whom at least 1,100 died from their wounds, and 663 men and women were taken prisoner. (Total killed estimated 9,300.) Some were blown to death, some incinerated, some drowned, some froze, and some starved. 66 died in prison camps or aboard Japanese ships while being transported to other camps. 31 ships vanished without a trace to a watery grave. [Illustration shows SS Byron D. Benson torpedoed on 4/4/42 off North Carolina: 10 members of the crew of 37 lost their lives.] 1 in 26 mariners serving aboard merchant ships in World WW II died in the line of duty, suffering a greater percentage of war-related deaths than all other U.S. services. Casualties were kept secret during the War to keep information about their success from the enemy and to attract and keep mariners at sea. Newspapers carried essentially the same story each week: "Two medium-sized Allied ships sunk in the Atlantic." In reality, the average for 1942 was 33 Allied ships sunk each week. Bari - the Second Pearl Harbor One of the most costly disasters of the war occurred in the Italian port of Bari, Dec. 2, 1943, during the invasion of Italy. A German air attack sank 17 Allied merchant ships with a loss of more than 1,000 lives. One of the five American ships destroyed that day was the SS John Harvey which carried a secret cargo of 100 tons of mustard gas bombs. When these exploded, hundreds of mariners, navy sailors and civilians were affected. Many died from the effects of the mustard gas. [Illustration at right shows ships burning at Bari.] The Massacre of the SS Jean Nicolet The Liberty ship SS Jean Nicolet was torpedoed by a Japanese submarine on July 2, 1944, off Ceylon (Sri Lanka). She had a 41-man crew, plus 28 Armed Guard, 30 passengers and an Army medic. All survived the explosion. They were taken aboard the sub and their lifeboats and rafts were sunk. With their hands tied behind their backs they were forced to sit on deck. Japanese sailors massacred many with bayonets and rifle butts. Thirty survivors were still on deck with their hands tied when a British plane appeared. The sub crash-dived, washing the survivors into the sea. Only 23 were rescued. Ships Sunk or Damaged in WWII Names of Mariners Killed in World War II Ships attacked before Pearl Harbor Ships that vanished without a trace

40 Murmansk Convoy Run Murmansk Run: Cold, Deadly Voyages The most deadly of 40 convoys sent to Murmansk, USSR, above the Arctic Circle on the Barents Sea, was PQ17 which left Iceland carrying cargo worth $700 million. PQ17 comprised: 33 merchant ships plus 1 oiler to refuel the escorts 3 rescue ships 5 destroyers 3 corvettes 3 minesweepers 4 anti-submarine trawlers 2 anti-aircraft ships 2 submarines A large battle fleet of British and U.S. Navy ships sailed on a parallel course. The Allies hoped to lure the Germans into an uneven battle. But when the British Admiralty mistakenly thought the German battleship Tirpitz with firepower superior to the British ships and the battle cruiser Scheer were on their way to intercept PQ17, the Admiralty ordered British and American warships to abandon the convoy to avoid heavy Navy losses. They told the convoy to: "Scatter fanwise. Proceed to destination at utmost speed." The merchant ships were thus abandoned to almost certain destruction, and an icy death for their crews. The most treacherous of shipping runs. High casualty rate for merchant men and naval personnel. Reinforces Russian ongoing search for a warm water port.

41 Stalingrad Compare the circumstances of Soviet solders in this battle to that of the Americans at Omaha beach.

42 The Battle of Stalingrad
TURNING POINT IN EUROPE Soviet forces used “natural resources” (cold weather) to counter attack the Germany army. Soviet forces began to regain the territory lost to the Germans. Hitler’s ego leads to a dramatic defeat. He thought he was smarter than Napoleon.

43 Red Army Counter-Offensive

44 North Africa Operation Torch> Allied invasion of North Africa
Battle of El Alamein> TURNING POINT > prevented Nazi gaining control of Suez Canal The Battle at the Kasarine Pass was a debacle for the Americans under British command.

45 Al Alamein

46 Montgomery was a brilliant tactician but also a pompous pain to Eishenhower.

47 Italy Operation Sea Lion
Allied troops threatened Italy, and its new government surrendered Germans continued fighting against the allies Gen. George Patton was debatably the most talented American general but was also very controversial. The German respect for him will contribute greatly to Allied success at Normandy.

48 Tiger – Sherman – T 34

49 P 51 Mustang Type Fighter Manufacturer North American Aviation
Designed by Edgar Schmued Raymond H. Rice Larry Waite E. H. Horkey Maiden flight 26 October 1940 Introduction 1942 Retired 1957, US ANG Primary users United States Army Air Forces Royal Air Force, numerous others (see below) Number built 15,875 Unit cost US $50,985 in 1945[1] Variants A-36 Apache F-82 Twin Mustang Cavalier Mustang Piper PA-48 Enforcer Mustang X


51 Allied Victory on Western Front
Carpet Bombing round the clock bombing of German cities Dresden > 135,000 K RAF by night USAF by day Invasion Normandy D-Day June 6, 1944 VE DAY Unconditional surrender May 8, 1945

52 D-Day Operation Overlord> June 6, 1944> largest landing by sea in history. D-Day> code name for the day the invasion began.


54 Battle of the Bulge Nazi counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg Dec Pushed back American forces Largest battle in W. Europe

55 RAF Retaliation Prevented invasion.

56 Civilian Targets “Collateral Damage?”
Britain Dresden 135K> casualties U.S. Firebomb Tokyo 100 K casualties 1 M homeless Atomic Bombs 200 K killed Axis Bombing: Blitz on Britain 40 k casualties V1 & V2 > 1st ICBM V2 > silent terror Robert Oppenheimer Quote: Bagavad Gita > “I am become death. . .” Robert Oppenheimer's name has become almost synonymous with the atomic bomb, and also with the dilemma facing scientists when the interests of the nation and their own conscience collide. His early education was at the Ethical Culture School in New York. He took math and science classes, but also enthusiastically studied Greek, Latin, French, and German. He had a feel for languages and often learned one quickly just to read something in its original language. He learned Dutch in six weeks in order to give a technical talk in the Netherlands. He also maintained an interest in classics and eastern philosophy throughout his life. ". . . the power of the atomic bomb is beyond belief . . ." Nagasaki Prefecture Report

57 B 17 Type Strategic bomber Manufacturer Boeing
Designed by Edward C. Wells E. Gifford Emery Maiden flight 28 July 1935[1] Introduction April 1938 Retired 1968 (Brazilian Air Force) Status Retired (14 airframes currently in flying condition[2]) Primary users United States Army Air Force Royal Air Force Produced 1936–1945 Number built 12,731[3] Unit cost US $238,329[4] Variants XB-38 YB-40 C-108

58 Carpet Bombing Originally used by Germans in Battle of Britain
Royal Air Force (RAF) & U.S. Army Air Corps against Germany in which large numbers of bombs were scattered over a wide area. German cities suffered heavy damages Remember that targeting civilians started with W. W. 1.

59 Carpet Bombing Dresden 135K Britain 40 K killed
German air raids against Britain , following Germany's failure to establish air superiority in the Battle of Britain . It has been estimated that about 40,000 civilians were killed, 46,000 injured, and more than a million homes destroyed and damaged in the Blitz, together with an immense amount of damage caused to industrial installations. The Fire Service (AFS/NFS) THE GREAT FIRE OF THE CITY OF LONDON December 1940 The lull in the bombing continued over Christmas. Then, on 27th December, the sirens sounded again and once more fire bombs began to drop over the City. It was a fairly bad night. Londoners thought that they were in for it again. But the following night nothing happened. The sirens were silent. The man in the street breathed his sigh of relief and speculated on the chances of a resumption of the lull. But twenty-four hours later these speculations were rudely put to an end. On Sunday. 29th December, the Luftwaffe fired the age-old City of London in the most savage attack of the aerial war. The German communiqué said that 100 000 fire bombs were dropped: for once this may be the truth. Here, then, is the story of the Great Fire of the City of London, 1940. The air-raid warning was received at approximately 6 p.m. in the control room at Fire Service Headquarters. Soon after, the City of London report centre telephoned advice of two large falls of incendiary bombs at a certain point in the E.C. district and to the north and south of the Guildhall. In a very few seconds further reports of incendiary showers were received from other parts of London, notable from the X-* District, a sector of the City, and from Y-* District, south of the River, and opposite the City. Soon local stations in these areas were inundated with fire calls and emptied of their first-line engines. About an hour later a serious fire situation had developed in the neighbourhood of St. Paul’s Cathedral. Towards 8 p.m. two further conflagrations were reported spreading, one in the Y-* area and the other in the square quarter mile of narrow City streets comprising X-* District. * Censored In the City Danger Zone Fire was spreading easily in the City danger zone-where the buildings were old and particularly open to fire risk, where narrow alleys and crooked streets ran between warehouses crowded with inflammable stocks, where space was so valuable that courtyards were roofed over with glass to house more and ever more sacks and crates packed with easily-fired goods. An adequate organisation of roof spotters would have saved many buildings and much stock from the peril of sparkstorms. As it was, there were few roof spotters and the fire spread. In addition, to this, the owners of many buildings had padlocked and bolted their doors, thus seriously hampering the firemen. There is normally no shortage of water for the fire services in London, but on this occasion immediate calls were sent for the supply of emergency water. A time-lag necessarily occurs before this water can come through. Pumps must be positioned on the Thames, dockside, canals, lines of hose laid to the fire area, canvas dams erected. These matters are put in hand at high speed; but the water cannot come through in a minute. As soon as possible those tough river boats with their heavy pumps were in position, hose had been flung across the mudflats, powerful hose-laying lorries were setting out their twin lines in the direction of the City danger zone a mile away. At the same time, mobile land pumps were seeking strategic positions by the-riverside where there might be water within reach of their suction pipes. These pumps eventually operated at bridges and dock. basins situated some distance from the fires. Before nine o'clock a message from the Guildhall reported that the spire of a neighbouring church was in imminent danger of collapse and might spread fire to the historic hall itself. Reinforcements were required here-and in a hundred other places too. By that time over three hundred fire engines had been sent to the City. More had been diverted to fight fires in other parts of London. Fires in Their Hundreds The fire situation in that square half-mile of the City called the "danger zone" was assuming alarming proportions. Even in peacetime its narrow, congested streets flanked by warehouses filled with inflammable goods made the possibility of a conflagration in this area an ever-present anxiety for London's fire chiefs. Fires were started in hundreds of buildings and orange fireglow blazed with the bright force of sunlight. A glare rose high into the sky that could be seen from great distances beyond London. Dark City alleyways and passages, curtained for a century by tall walls, exchanged their twilight gloom for a flood of yellow light in one theatrical moment. Firemen walked the streets through blinding spark showers that drove down from the roofs with the intensity and regularity of a snow-blizzard. Waves of flame rolled across whole streets, black clouds of smoke smothered the air. Firemen fought on. It seemed that they fought a lost battle. And high explosives were falling, killing and injuring men. Three important City fire stations were burning and had to be evacuated. The controls retreated out of the immediate danger area and set up again on the outskirts of the fire. Then, towards ten o'clock the roof of the historic Guildhall caught alight. A control staff in the vaults stuck to their posts until the fire had all but reached their door, but eventually these, too, had to be evacuated. Before midnight the all-clear siren sounded: It was a relief to those working that the bombing was at an end; but civilians further overloaded lines of communication with what they thought to be new information as to unreported fires. By this time various units of the emergency water service were in operation and the supply of water was being strongly augmented as the minutes passed. large canvas dams had been erected and firemen cheered as they saw the water pour in. Pumping operations gathered force. Firemen gathered new hope. Reinforcements of fire engines had arrived. So that now there was water and there were pumps and firemen to work them. Almost enough of each: enough anyhow to start effectively the stemming of that ferocious flood of fire. And more engines were racing on their way, more emergency water units were coming into operation every moment. From then on every man was at work. Gutters ran with black water that streamed off the charred buildings. Dispatch riders scrambled their motor-cycles over the maze of snaking hose-lengths that littered every street. Petrol lorries arrived; and here it may be noted that some of these heavy vehicles loaded with inflammable petrol were driven by girls of the Women's Auxiliary Fire Service, driven through dangerous blizzards of spark and flying ember. Women also brought canteen vans into that inferno, working tirelessly on through the night to feed the thousands of firemen on the job. The work of feeding those crowds of men was a problem. What could be done was done. Yet many firemen there had to work the night through and on into the middle of the following day without refreshment or rest. A fifteen-hour stretch of this hard, wet work without so much as a cup of tea is no small order: but the men knew what they had to do and they stuck it. Copyright © 2002 Peter N. Risbey.

60 Dresden

61 Around 600,000 German civilians died during the allies' wartime raids on Germany, including 76,000 German children, Friedrich says. In July 1943, during a single night in Hamburg, 45,000 people perished in a vast firestorm.

62 Wannsee Protocol On January, 20, 1942, Reinhard Heydrich, Himmler's second in command of the SS organization, convened a conference in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee. At the meeting, 15 top Nazi bureaucrats and members of the SS met to coordinate the "Final Solution" in which the Nazis would attempt to exterminate the 11 million Jews of Europe and the Soviet Union. "Europe would be combed of Jews from east to west," Heydrich bluntly stated. The minutes of the conference shown below were taken by Adolf Eichmann, but were personally edited by Heydrich after the meeting, substituting the coded language Nazis often used when referring to lethal actions to be taken against Jews. "...eliminated by natural causes," refers to death by a combination of hard labor and starvation. "...transported to the east," refers to the mass deportations of Jews to ghettos in occupied Poland, then on to the planned gas chamber complexes at Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka, and Auschwitz. "...treated accordingly," refers to execution by SS firing squads or death by gassing - also seen in other Nazi correspondence in a variety of connotations such as "special treatment" and "special actions" regarding the Jews.

63 Holocaust: Genocide Nazis systematically took away the individual rights of Jews. Nazi “Final Solution” to the Jewish Problem: Wannsee Conference. Concentration camps and death camps

64 Holocaust Wannsee Conference “Final Solution”
Heidrich Wannsee Conference [January 20, 1942] “Final Solution” At first Nazis encouraged Jewish emigration SS Einsatzguppen [death squads] Deported European Jews to camps [East] Auschwitz > 1 M killed Adolph Eichmann Heinrich Himmler ( ) Reichsfuhrer-SS, head of the Gestapo and the Waffen-SS, Minister of the Interior from 1943 to 1945 and organizer of the mass murder of Jews in the Third Reich, Heinrich Himmler was born in Munich on 7 October The son of a pious, authoritarian Roman Catholic schoolmaster who had once been tutor to the Bavarian Crown Prince, Himmler was educated at a secondary school in Landshut. He served as an officer cadet in the Eleventh Bavarian Regiment at the end of World War I, later obtaining a diploma in agriculture from Munich Technical High School where he studied from 1918 to 1922. After working briefly as a salesman for a firm of fertilizer manufacturers, the young Himmler joined a para-military, nationalist organization and participated in the Munich Beer-Hall putsch of November 1923 as standard-bearer at the side of Ernst Rohm, Secretary to Gregor Strasser and his deputy district leader in Bavaria, Swabia and the Palatinate, he was also acting propaganda leader of the NSDAP from 1925 to 1930. After marrying in 1927, Himmler returned to poultry farming for a time but was singularly unsuccessful in the business of raising chickens. In January 1929, he was appointed head of Hitler's personal bodyguard, the black-shirted Schutzstaffel (SS), at that time a small body of 200 men which was subsequently to become under his leadership an all-embracing empire within the Nazi State. Elected in 1930 to the Reichstag as Nazi deputy for Weser-Ems, Himmler concentrated on extending SS membership--which reached 52,000 by and securing its independence from control by Rohm's SA, to which it was initially subordinated. He organized the Security Service (SD) under Reinhard Heydrich, originally an ideological intelligence service of the Party, and together the two men ensured that the Nazis consolidated their power over Bavaria in 1933. In March 1933, Himmler was appointed Munich Police President and shortly afterwards he became Commander of the political police throughout Bavaria. In September 1933 he was made Commander of all political police units outside Prussia and, though formally under Goering, became head of the Prussian Police and Gestapo on 20 April The turning-point in Himmler's career was his masterminding of the purge of 30 June 1934 which smashed the power of the SA and paved the way for the emergence of the SS as an independent organization charged with "safeguarding the embodiment of the National Socialist idea" and translating the racism of the regime into a dynamic principle of action. By June 17, 1936, Himmler had successfully completed his bid to win control of the political and criminal police throughout the Third Reich, becoming head of the Gestapo in addition to his position as Reichsfuhrer of the SS. A very able organizer and administrator, meticulous, calculating and efficient, Himmler's astonishing capacity for work and irrepressible power-lust showed itself in his accumulation of official posts and his perfecting of the methods of organized State terrorism against political and other opponents of the regime. In 1933, he had set up the first concentration camp in Dachau and in the next few years, with Hitler's encouragement, greatly extended the range of persons who qualified for internment in the camps. Himmler's philosophical mysticism, his cranky obsessions with mesmerism, the occult, herbal remedies and homeopathy went hand in hand with a narrow-minded fanatical racialism and commitment to the Aryan' myth. In a speech in January 1937, Himmler declared that "there is no more living proof of hereditary and racial laws than in a concentration camp. You find there hydrocephalics, squinters, deformed individuals, semi-Jews: a considerable number of inferior people." The mission of the German people was "the struggle for the extermination of any sub-humans, all over the world who are in league against Germany, which is the nucleus of the Nordic race; against Germany, nucleus of the German nation, against Germany the custodian of human culture: they mean the existence or non-existence of the white man; and we guide his destiny." Himmler's decisive innovation was to transform the race question from "a negative concept based on matter-of-course anti-Semitism" into "an organizational task for building up the SS." Racism was to be safeguarded by the reality of a race society, by the concentration camps presided over by Himmler's Deaths Head Formations in Germany, just as during World War II the theories of "Aryan" supremacy would be established by the systematic extermination of Jews and Slavs in Poland and Russia. Himmler's romantic dream of a race of blue-eyed, blond heroes was to be achieved by cultivating an elite according to "laws of selection" based on criteria of physiognomy, mental and physical tests, character and spirit. His aristocratic concept of leadership aimed at consciously breeding a racially organized order which would combine charismatic authority with bureaucratic discipline. The SS man would represent a new human type--warrior, administrator, "scholar" and leader, all in one - whose messianic mission was to undertake a vast colonization of the East. This synthetic aristocracy, trained in a semi-closed society and superimposed on the Nazi system as a whole, would demonstrate the value of its blood through "creative action" and achievement. From the outset of his career as Reichsfuhrer of the SS, Himmler had introduced the principle of racial selection and special marriage laws which would ensure the systematic coupling of people of "high value." His promotion of illegitimacy by establishing the State-registered human stud farm known as Lebensborn, where young girls selected for their perfect Nordic traits could procreate with SS men and their offspring were better cared for than in maternity homes for married mothers, reflected Himmler's obsession with creating a race of "supermen" by means of breeding. Himmler's notorious procreation order of 28 October 1939 to the entire SS that "it will be the sublime task of German women and girls of good blood acting not frivolously but from a profound moral seriousness to become mothers to children of soldiers setting off to battle" and his demand that war heroes should be allowed a second marriage expressed the same preoccupation. The small, diffident man who looked more like a humble bank clerk than Germany's police dictator, whose pedantic demeanour and 'exquisite courtesy' fooled one English observer into stating that 'nobody I met in Germany is more normal', was a curious mixture of bizarre, romantic fantasy and cold, conscienceless efficiency. Described as "a man of quiet unemotional gestures, a man without nerves," he suffered from psycho-somatic illness, severe headaches and intestinal spasms and almost fainted at the sight of a hundred eastern Jews (including women) being executed for his benefit on the Russian front. Subsequent to this experience, he ordered as a "more humane means" of execution the use of poison gas in specially constructed chambers disguised as shower rooms. The petty-bourgeois eccentric whose natural snobbery led him to welcome old aristocratic blood into the SS, revived a web of obsolete religious and cosmological dogmas linking new recruits to their distant Germanic ancestors. He cultivated the "return to the soil" and the dream of German peasant-soldier farms in the East while at the same time proving himself a diabolically skilful organizer of rationalized modern extermination methods. The supreme technician of totalitarian police power who saw himself as a reincarnation of the pre-Christian Saxon, Henry the Fowler, advancing eastwards against the Slavs--he organized the thousandth anniversary of Henry's death in Himmler perfectly expressed in his own personality the contradictions of National Socialism. For him, the SS was at one and the same time the resurrection of the ancient Order of the Teutonic Knights with himself as grand master, the breeding of a new Herrenvolk aristocracy based on traditional values of honour, obedience, courage and loyalty, and the instrument of a vast experiment in modern racial engineering. Through this privileged caste which was to be the hard core of German imperial dominion in Europe, the nucleus of a new State apparatus would emerge with its tentacles impinging on all spheres of life in the expanded Third Reich. By recruiting "Aryans" of different nationalities into his Waffen-SS Himmler envisaged the creation of "a German Reich of the German Nation" based on the feudal allegiance of its communities to the lordship and protection of the Fuhrer, embodying a Germany that would become the centre of a higher political entity. By the end of the 1930s the possibility of forging this Greater Germanic Reich of the future came closer to realization as Himmler reached the peak of his power. In October 1939 Hitler appointed him Reichskommissar fur die Festigung des Deutschen Volkstums (Reich Commissar for the Strengthening of Germandom) and he was given absolute control over the newly annexed slice of Poland. Responsible for bringing people of German descent back from outside the Reich into its borders, he set out to replace Poles and Jews by Volksdeutsche from the Baltic lands and various outlying parts of Poland. Within a year over a million Poles and 300,000 Jews had been uprooted and driven eastwards. With the characteristic self-pitying and ascetic ethos of self-abnegation that he inculcated into the SS, Himmler informed the SS-Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler Regiment: "Gentlemen, it is much easier in many cases to go into combat with a company than to suppress an obstructive population of low cultural level, or to carry out executions or to haul away people or to evict crying and hysterical women." It was Himmler's master stroke that he succeeded in indoctrinating the SS with an apocalyptic "idealism" beyond all guilt and responsibility, which rationalized mass murder as a form of martyrdom and harshness towards oneself. Nowhere was this more apparent than in Himmler's notorious speech on 4 October 1943 to the SS Group Leaders in Poznan: One principle must be absolute for the SS man: we must be honest, decent, loyal, and comradely to members of our own blood and to no one else. What happens to the Russians, what happens to the Czechs, is a matter of utter indifference to me. Such good blood of our own kind as there may be among the nations we shall acquire for ourselves, if necessary by taking away the children and bringing them up among us. Whether the other peoples live in comfort or perish of hunger interests me only in so far as we need them as slaves for our Kultur. Whether or not 10,000 Russian women collapse from exhaustion while digging a tank ditch interests me only in so far as the tank ditch is completed for Germany. We shall never be rough or heartless where it is not necessary; that is clear. We Germans, who are the only people in the world who have a decent attitude to animals, will also adopt a decent attitude to these human animals, but it is a crime against our own blood to worry about them and to bring them ideals. I shall speak to you here with all frankness of a very grave matter. Among ourselves it should be mentioned quite frankly, and yet we will never speak of it publicly. I mean the evacuation of the Jews, the extermination of the Jewish people Most of you know what it means to see a hundred corpses lying together, five hundred, or a thousand. To have stuck it out and at the same time--apart from exceptions caused by human weakness--to have remained decent fellows, that is what has made us hard. This is a page of glory in our history which has never been written and shall never be written. [Ed. Classified British intelligence documents released by London indicated Himmler sought to win asylum for himself and 200 leading Nazis in the final days of World War II by offering cash and the freedom of 3,500 Jews held in concentration camps. According to the documents, the concentration camp inmates were to be sent to Switzerland in two trainloads (JTA, 9/21/99).] Source: Wistrich, Robert S. Who's Who in Nazi Germany, Routledge, 1997. Heinrich Himmler                                                 

65 Final Solution The most prominent dissenters were the Danes. Even the king of Denmark wore the Jewish star and resisted deportation as long as he had the power to do so. Danes smuggled Jew to neutral Sweden.


67 Camps The Germans were meticulous about keeping order and records; even of their nefarious actions in labor and death camps.

68 Jewish Resistance Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
60 K fought final liquidation of ghetto Raised ‘Star of David’ flag over ghetto Could not win 5.7 M exterminated in Holocaust The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Many Jews in ghettos across eastern Europe tried to organize resistance against the Germans and to arm themselves with smuggled and homemade weapons. Between 1941 and 1943, underground resistance movements formed in about 100 Jewish groups. The most famous attempt by Jews to resist the Germans in armed fighting occurred in the Warsaw ghetto. In the summer of 1942, about 300,000 Jews were deported from Warsaw to Treblinka. When reports of mass murder in the killing center leaked back to the Warsaw ghetto, a surviving group of mostly young people formed an organization called the Z.O.B. (for the Polish name, Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa, which means Jewish Fighting Organization). The Z.O.B., led by 23-year-old Mordecai Anielewicz, issued a proclamation calling for the Jewish people to resist going to the railroad cars. In January 1943, Warsaw ghetto fighters fired upon German troops as they tried to round up another group of ghetto inhabitants for deportation. Fighters used a small supply of weapons that had been smuggled into the ghetto. After a few days, the troops retreated. This small victory inspired the ghetto fighters to prepare for future resistance. On April 19, 1943, the Warsaw ghetto uprising began after German troops and police entered the ghetto to deport its surviving inhabitants. Seven hundred and fifty fighters fought the heavily armed and well-trained Germans. The ghetto fighters were able to hold out for nearly a month, but on May 16, 1943, the revolt ended. The Germans had slowly crushed the resistance. Of the more than 56,000 Jews captured, about 7,000 were shot, and the remainder were deported to killing centers or concentration camps. For more information, see "Warsaw" in the Holocaust Encyclopedia [Home Page]

69 V-E Day Victory in Europe May 8, 1945
German Surrendered> Hitler commits suicide

70 V-E Day Victory in Europe Day Germany surrendered May 8, 1945
War continued with Japan

71 Japanese Expansion Occupation of China Terror bombing Rape of Nanjing
Japanese Militarists Invasion: China Manchuria / Manchuko Asia for Japan Withdrew from League of Nations Triple Pact Occupation of China Terror bombing Rape of Nanjing CCP/Guomindang Guerrilla war Yamamoto was the architect of Japanese expansion. He was educated in the U.S. and advocated against the attack on Pearl Harbor. He planned the attack against his better judgment because he was ordered to do so.

72 Comfort Women “Comfort Women”
300K Forced by Japanese to work in brothels 80% from Korea Serviced men daily Massacred by soldiers Survivors suffer deep shame Korean and Chinese Sex Slaves During , the Japanese Imperial Army forced over 200,000 women to serve as sex slaves to its officers and soldiers. Over 100,000 of the women were Korean. Chinese and Filipino women made up the rest. After the War, many former comfort women hav e stepped forward and claimed that they were forced to become prostitutes for Japanese soldiers. These claims were supported by World War II journalists and Western prisoners of war. For many years, the Japanese Government denied the allegation claiming that the women were prostitutes recruited by private brothel operators and that there were no documents implying the comfort women were forcibly recruited. The Japanese government has remained adamant in their refusal to grant compensation to the ex-slaves, despite acknowledging that these women existed during World War II. In early 1990's, a historian uncovered Japanese military documents that prove conclusively that the Japanese forced Asian women, mostly Koreans, to have sex with Japanese troops since the 1930s up to the end of World War II. The documents carry the person al stamps of Japanese High Command. These documents have forced Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa in 1992 to issue a formal apology to the Korean people. However, Japan continues to refuse to compensate the survivors. 

73 Manchukou

74 Japanese Aggression [Reasons?]
Lack of raw materials for their industries Saw the growth and expansion of other nations. Japan seized Manchuria (Northern China) Dominated most of eastern China Sought to gain all of Asia & Australia Asia for Asians [meaning Asia for Japan] “Rape of Nanking”

75 American Response FDR began a naval build up > moved American Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Pearl Harbor Remain neutral towards Asia Stay out of world affairs Neutrality Act of 1939 allowed Britain and France to purchase weapons and transport of weapons. FDR recognized the looming threat from both Germany and Japan and did all he could to prepare [short of war itself.] It is not true that he knew about Pearl Harbor before hand. We knew an attack was imminent but not the where or when. The attack was truly hard to pinpoint. It was, in fact, an action that hit Pearl, Singapore, Clark Ai r Force Base. The mistake was in relocating all plane and ships in a group to protect from sabatoge.

76 Pearl Harbor Japan wanted French colonies in Indochina
US knew Japan was making plans. Japanese air attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii December 7 “ a day that will live in infamy” From Admiral Perry to this.

77 Zero [Mitsubishi]

78 Pacific Action

79 Propaganda

80 GI’s and the Armed Forces
Government Issue> term American soldiers gave themselves. G.I. Mexican Americans, Native Americans, African Americans and Japanese Americans (segregated) WASPs (Women Air Force Service Pilots) WAVEs (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Services. (naval aviation)

81 Women & War Four Roles U.S. & Britain Soviet & Chinese War Industries
.5M G.B 350 K U.S. Forbidden combat Soviet & Chinese Both used in combat roles War Industries All utilized in industry



84 Axis Occupation Japan: “Puppet” Govt.s
Manchuria – China – Burma – Philippines Direct Control Indochina – Malaya – Dutch East Indies – Hong Kong Germany: West & Northern Europe > maintained autonomy Eastern Europe & Balkans > direct military cont. Why? Vichy government in Southern France and French North Africa were collaborators with the Germans. Northern France was occupied by Nazi troops. The French resistance operated in both sectors.

85 China

86 Japanese Expansion They actually occupied part of the Aleutian Islands at one point.

87 The War in the Pacific Bataan Death March> Filipino and American prisoners of war- marched to a railroad. Interred in prison camps. Unknown to Americans until 3 years later. Battle of the Coral Sea: first naval combat carried out by aircraft. Coral Sea was a strategic loss for Japan > could not invade Australia How does this exemplify bushido?


89 Battle Coral Sea

90 More Pacific Action Island Hopping: U.S. strategy to regain all islands occupied by Japan Battle of Midway: fought entirely in the air. Midway [TURNING POINT]> U.S. carrier based planes sunk 4 Japanese aircraft carriers > deprives them of the naval power need to win the war. Americans broke the Japanese code “magic”.

91 Battle of Midway A combination of surprise and luck for America.

92 Manhattan Project Code name for the project that was developing the atomic bomb. Bomb was field tested in New Mexico Top Secret VP didn’t even know Truman had to be briefed by George Marshall after he became president after F.D.R.’s death.

93 Oppenheimer remarked that when seeing the first text explosion of the atomic bomb he was reminded of a passage from the Hindu sacred text the Bhagavad Gita: "I am become death, destroyer of worlds"

94 Be Careful What You Start
Pearl Harbor Hiroshima/Nagasaki By September 1941 the Japanese had practically completed secret plans for a huge assault against Malaya, the Philippines, and the Netherlands East Indies, to be coordinated with a crushing blow on the Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Island of Oahu. Early in November Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo was named commander of the Pearl Harbor Striking Force, which rendezvoused secretly in the Kuriles. The force of some 30 ships included six aircraft carriers with about 430 planes, of which approximately 360 took part in the subsequent attack. At the same time, a Japanese Advance Expeditionary Force of some 20 submarines was assembled at Kure naval base on the west coast of Honshu to cooperate in the attack. Submarines of the Advance Expeditionary Force began their eastward movement across the Pacific in mid-November, refueled and resupplied in the Marshalls, and arrived near Oahu about December 5 (Hawaiian time). On the night of December 6-7 five midget (two-man) submarines that had been carried "piggy-back" on large submarines cast off and began converging on Pearl Harbor. Nagumo's task force sailed from the Kuriles on 26 November and arrived, undetected by the Americans, at a point about 200 miles north of Oahu at 0600 hours (Hawaiian time) on December 7, Beginning at 0600 and ending at 0715, a total of some 360 planes were launched in three waves. These planes rendezvoused to the south and then flew toward Oahu for coordinated attacks. In Pearl Harbor were 96 vessels, the bulk of the United States Pacific Fleet. Eight battleships of the Fleet were there, but the aircraft carriers were all at sea. The Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet (CINCPAC) was Admiral Husband E. Kimmel. Army forces in Hawaii, including the 24th and 25th Infantry Divisions, were under the command of Lt. Gen. Walter C. Short, Commanding General of the Hawaiian Department. On the several airfields were a total of about 390 Navy and Army planes of all types, of which less than 300 were available for combat or observation purposes. The Japanese air attack on Pearl Harbor and on the airfields of Oahu began at 0755 on December 7, 1941 and ended shortly before Quickly recovering from the initial shock of surprise, the Americans fought back vigorously with antiaircraft fire. Devastation of the airfields was so quick and thorough that only a few American planes were able to participate in the counterattack. The Japanese were successful in accomplishing their principal mission, which was to cripple the Pacific Fleet. They sunk three battleships, caused another to capsize, and severely damaged the other four. All together the Japanese sank or severely damaged 18 ships, including the 8 battleships, three light cruisers, and three destroyers. On the airfields the Japanese destroyed 161 American planes (Army 74, Navy 87) and seriously damaged 102 (Army 71, Navy 31).

95 Distance from Ground Zero (km) Killed Injured Population 0 -1
Distance from Ground Zero (km) Killed Injured Population % 10% 31, % 37% 144, % 25% 80,300 Total 27% 30% 256,300


97 Distance from Ground Zero (km)
Hiroshima Statistics Distance from Ground Zero (km) Killed Injured Population 0 -1.0 86% 10% 31,200 27% 37% 144,800 2% 25% 80,300 Total 30% 256,300

98 Nagasaki

99 Distance from Ground Zero (km)
Nagasaki Statistics Distance from Ground Zero (km) Killed Injured Population 88% 6% 30,900 34% 29% 144,800 11% 10% 115,200 Total 22% 12% 173,800

100 War in the Pacific [Overview]
Onset: U.S. oil embargo Pearl Harbor [12/7/41] Japanese victories: enormous territory U.S. recovery ‘island hopping’ Magic Turning Point: Midway

101 War in the Pacific Japanese desperation: Kamikaze U.S. tactics:
saturation bombing Atomic bombs Hiroshima & Nagasaki Soviets declare war get N.Korea Japanese surrender 8/15/45 VJ Day

102 V-J Day Victory in Japan Day Japanese surrendered after the two bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The War is officially over.

103 VJ DAY


105 Conferences Teheran [1943] Yalta [1945] Potsdam [1945]
Europe first policy Yalta [1945] Division of Germany & Soviets in Pacific Potsdam [1945] Division of Austria & Red Army occupation Teheran: U.S. agrees to focus on defeat of Germany before turning its attention to the Pacific war.

106 Yalta Conference Split Germany into 4 zones>Berlin in Soviet zone/split among the 4 [U.S. – G.B. – U.S.S.R.- France] Churchill (G. Britain), Roosevelt (U.S), and Stalin (U.S.S.R.)> Stalin did not honor all agreements. Poland is central to this issue Free or communist? Remember steppe diplomacy? Why are we surprised? The central issue is the fate of Poland.

107 Yalta

108 Potsdam

109 George Marshall Top American general & Roosevelt’s Army Chief
of Staff. Launched a massive effort to rebuild post war Europe. Authored the Marshall Plan Received a Nobel Peace Prize George Marshall was a true “Renaissance Man” and the Marshall Plan was an absolute stroke of genius. It alone, saved Western Europe from Soviet occupation.

110 Benefits for the U.S. Economy
Because Americans feared that after World War II the financial troubles and unemployment of the 1930s could recur, increasing prosperity in the U.S. was one goal of the Marshall Plan. As a way of boosting exports, the plan had wide appeal to American business people, bankers, workers, and farmers. Soon after passage of the Foreign Assistance Act, Kiplinger Magazine, a publication for business people, printed a guide to show them how to benefit from the plan. "The Marshall Plan is very much a business plan. . . ," it concluded. "At its root is an office and factory and warehouse job. The Marshall Plan means work, and you will be one of the workers." During the years of the Marshall Plan, when much of the money European participants received was spent on U.S.-produced food and manufactured goods, the American economy flourished. Soviet Opposition to the Marshall Plan This cartoon by Edwin Marcus ( ) refers to opposition to the Marshall Plan by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin ( ), pictured as a basketball player. Stalin regarded the plan's vision of an integrated European market with considerable freedom of movement, goods, services, information, and, inevitably, people, as incompatible with his economic, political, and foreign-policy goals. In June 1947, delegates from France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union met in Paris to discuss Marshall's proposal. After several days, Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav M. Molotov walked out, stating that the Soviet government "rejects this plan as totally unsatisfactory." Viewed by Western leaders as one more refusal to support postwar stabilization efforts, Molotov's action contributed to the growth of Cold War tensions. In addition to declining to participate in the Marshall Plan itself, the Soviet Union prevented the Eastern European countries under its control from taking part. Subsequent Soviet propaganda portrayed the plan as an American plot to subjugate Western Europe.


112 The Biggest Smart Ever!!!

113 Stuttgart--Before and After the Marshall Plan
When World War II ended in May 1945, Europe was in ruins. Once-fertile fields were scarred by bomb craters and tank tracks. In cities, seas of rubble--an estimated 500 million cubic tons of it in Germany alone--surrounded abandoned, gutted buildings. With factories and businesses destroyed, many people were unemployed. Food was so scarce that millions were on the verge of starvation. These photographs of Stuttgart, Germany, taken only eight years apart, demonstrate the destruction that existed throughout Europe at the end of the war and how Marshall Plan aid promoted rapid rebuilding. They appear in a booklet intended to inform the American public of Germany's gratitude for U.S. aid and the German government's decision to establish a fund as a memorial to the Marshall Plan, the German Marshall Fund of the United States, on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the plan. New York: German Information Center, 1973, pp General Collections. Used by permission of the German Information Center. All rights reserved. (13)

114 Enduring Questions Why did the U.S. and U.S.S.R. become adversaries for world dominance? What impact did their rivalry have on developing nations and other nations in the world? Why do historians view W.W.2 as the impetus for the assent of the U.S. as the preeminent power in the world?

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