Presentation on theme: "World War 2 1939-1945. Essential Questions Trace Japans rise to power and its justifications for igniting war with the U.S. Identify the lessons learned."— Presentation transcript:
Essential Questions Trace Japans rise to power and its justifications for igniting war with the U.S. Identify the lessons learned by the Germans after W. W. 1 Identify 3 turning-point battles & their significance. Discuss the significance of the Yalta Conference & its possible impact on the post-war world.
How to maximize the limited military allowed by Versailles? How to prevent another British blockade? How to make the Schieffen Plan work this time?
Benito Mussolini Il Duce > the leader Founder of fascism Used thugs [Black- shirts] to rise to power Outlawed other political parties Created dictatorship Controls Ethiopia> despite fierce fighting
Adolph Hitler Der Fuhrer> the leader Opposed Treaty of Versailles Joined the National Socialist German Workers party or Nazi party Autobiography Mein Kampf (My struggle) while in prison. Outlined his future plans for Germany
Hitler Blamed Jews for Germanys economic problems [scapegoats] Military expansion Rhineland – Austria – Sudetenland – Poland – Denmark – Norway – Belgium All of Eastern Europe Racism: Pure Aryan race> remove undesirables.
Appeasement Munich Conference: 1938 Hitler occupied Czechoslovakia Hitler threatened: Poland France Britain Russian German Non- Aggression Pact
European Aggression Italy Mussolini > fascism Conquered Ethiopia Intervened in Spanish Civil War Germany Hitler > Nazi- fascism Anti: Treaty – communist – Jewish – liberal Withdrew from League Remilitarized Annexed: Austria Sudetenland
Axis Powers An Axis between Rome and Berlin Triple Pact [when joined by Japan] Alliance between Germany and Italy
ROME / BERLIN AXIS
Let the Show Begin > Poland Preemptive strike Unprovoked attack Poland falls in one month Nazi-Soviet Pact Soviets move into Eastern Poland pre-established border Battle of the Atlantic [submarine warfare ]
Blitzkrieg German tactic: lightening war. Rapid mobility of troops and equipment Use of tanks, artillery, Stuka dive bombers Savage attacks by the Germans against Poland, Belgium, and France.
Germany At War BLITZKREIG Lightening War Mobile warfare Massive fast movement of tanks Supported by mobile artillery Terror bombing of cities Stuka Dive bomber
Junkers Ju.87 Dive Bomber "Stuka"
Germany vs. Western Allies Germany conquers : Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands Poland September 1939 France : fell June 1940 Balkans & N. Africa by 1941 Battle of El Alamein
Fall of France
Allies Great Britain> alone since France fell Joined later by the U.S. and Soviet Union
Continued Fear FDRs plan - provide help without becoming actively involved.
Lend-Lease Act authorized the President to aid any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security.
Atlantic Charter Authored by Roosevelt and Winston Churchill> Post-war plan Formed the basis for the United Nations
Operation Barbarossa [Eastern Front] German invasion of U.S.S.R.  Stalin employed scorched earth policy Stalin tactic = human wave Stalins greatest allies = Generals Jan. & Feb. U.S. Lend-Lease Feeds Soviets [spam] [gives] Studebaker trucks Turning Point > Soviet victory at Stalingrad
Occupation Exploitation Japanese & Germans Pillaged wealth Employed slave labor in war industries Collaboration For personal gain Anti-communists Waffen SS Resistance Most occupied lands France – Denmark – Russian – Poland Employed: sabotage Caused: Brutal reprisals
Battle of Britain air attacks Blitz Killed 40,000 civilians Germans lose Thus unable to mount invasion British have radar & break Enigma
Battle of Britain Hitler sought to force Britain to surrender. Massive air assault on Britain civilian targets Saved by radar heroics of the R.A.F ENIGMA
Battle of the Atlantic Attempt to keep German submarines from Britain Convoy System American warships served as escorts. Germans countered with attacks on merchant ships. German tactics> wolf packs.
Year Ships lost by U-boat Ships lost all enemy causes No. of Crew* Lost by u- boat No. of Crew* Lost all causes ,3755, ,6327, ,4139, ,8264, ,1631, Total1,315 2,17722,89830,132 Battle of the Atlantic
U.S. Maritime Service Veterans: U.S. Maritime Service Veterans:
Murmansk Convoy Run
The Battle of Stalingrad TURNING POINT IN EUROPE Soviet forces used natural resources (cold weather) to counter attack the Germany army. Soviet forces began to regain the territory lost to the Germans.
Red Army Counter-Offensive
North Africa Operation Torch> Allied invasion of North Africa Battle of El Alamein> TURNING POINT > prevented Nazi gaining control of Suez Canal
Italy Operation Sea Lion Allied troops threatened Italy, and its new government surrendered Germans continued fighting against the allies
P 51 Mustang
Allied Victory on Western Front Carpet Bombing round the clock bombing of German cities Dresden > 135,000 K RAF by night USAF by day Invasion Normandy D-Day June 6, 1944 VE DAY Unconditional surrender May 8, 1945
D-Day Operation Overlord> June 6, 1944> largest landing by sea in history. D-Day> code name for the day the invasion began.
Battle of the Bulge Nazi counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg Dec Pushed back American forces Largest battle in W. Europe
Civilian Targets Collateral Damage? Axis Bombing: Blitz on Britain 40 k casualties V1 & V2 > 1 st ICBM V2 > silent terror Britain Dresden 135K> casualties U.S. Firebomb Tokyo 100 K casualties 1 M homeless Atomic Bombs 200 K killed "... the power of the atomic bomb is beyond belief..." Nagasaki Prefecture Report
Carpet Bombing Originally used by Germans in Battle of Britain Royal Air Force (RAF) & U.S. Army Air Corps against Germany in which large numbers of bombs were scattered over a wide area. German cities suffered heavy damages
Carpet Bombing Dresden 135K Britain 40 K killed
Holocaust: Genocide Nazis systematically took away the individual rights of Jews. Nazi Final Solution to the Jewish Problem: Wannsee Conference. Concentration camps and death camps
Holocaust Wannsee Conference [January 20, 1942] Final Solution At first Nazis encouraged Jewish emigration SS Einsatzguppen [death squads] Deported European Jews to camps [East] Auschwitz > 1 M killed Heinrich Himmler Adolph Eichmann Heidrich
Jewish Resistance Warsaw Ghetto Uprising 60 K fought final liquidation of ghetto Raised Star of David flag over ghetto Could not win 5.7 M exterminated in Holocaust
V-E Day Victory in Europe May 8, 1945 German Surrendered> Hitler commits suicide
V-E Day Victory in Europe Day Germany surrendered May 8, 1945 War continued with Japan
Japanese Expansion Japanese Militarists Invasion: China Manchuria / Manchuko Asia for Japan Withdrew from League of Nations Triple Pact Occupation of China Terror bombing Rape of Nanjing CCP/Guomindang Guerrilla war
Comfort Women 300K Forced by Japanese to work in brothels 80% from Korea Serviced men daily Massacred by soldiers Survivors suffer deep shame
Japanese Aggression [Reasons?] Lack of raw materials for their industries Saw the growth and expansion of other nations. Japan seized Manchuria (Northern China) Dominated most of eastern China Sought to gain all of Asia & Australia
American Response FDR began a naval build up > moved American Pacific Fleet from San Diego to Pearl Harbor Remain neutral towards Asia Stay out of world affairs Neutrality Act of 1939 allowed Britain and France to purchase weapons and transport of weapons.
Pearl Harbor Japan wanted French colonies in Indochina US knew Japan was making plans. Japanese air attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii December 7 a day that will live in infamy
GIs and the Armed Forces Government Issue> term American soldiers gave themselves. G.I. Mexican Americans, Native Americans, African Americans and Japanese Americans (segregated) WASPs (Women Air Force Service Pilots) WAVEs (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Services. (naval aviation)
Women & War Four Roles U.S. & Britain.5M G.B 350 K U.S. Forbidden combat Soviet & Chinese Both used in combat roles War Industries All utilized in industry
Axis Occupation Japan: Puppet Govt.s Manchuria – China – Burma – Philippines Direct Control Indochina – Malaya – Dutch East Indies – Hong Kong Germany: West & Northern Europe > maintained autonomy Eastern Europe & Balkans > direct military cont. Why?
The War in the Pacific Bataan Death March> Filipino and American prisoners of war- marched to a railroad. Interred in prison camps. Unknown to Americans until 3 years later. Battle of the Coral Sea: first naval combat carried out by aircraft. Coral Sea was a strategic loss for Japan > could not invade Australia
Battle Coral Sea
More Pacific Action Island Hopping: U.S. strategy to regain all islands occupied by Japan Battle of Midway: fought entirely in the air. Midway [TURNING POINT]> U.S. carrier based planes sunk 4 Japanese aircraft carriers > deprives them of the naval power need to win the war.
Battle of Midway
Manhattan Project Code name for the project that was developing the atomic bomb. Bomb was field tested in New Mexico Top Secret VP didnt even know
Oppenheimer remarked that when seeing the first text explosion of the atomic bomb he was reminded of a passage from the Hindu sacred text the Bhagavad Gita: "I am become death, destroyer of worlds"
Be Careful What You Start Pearl Harbor Hiroshima/Nagasaki
Hiroshima Statistics Distance from Ground Zero (km)KilledInjuredPopulation %10%31, %37%144, %25%80,300 Total27%30%256,300
Nagasaki Statistics Distance from Ground Zero (km)KilledInjuredPopulation %6%30, %29%144, %10%115,200 Total22%12%173,800
War in the Pacific [Overview] Onset: U.S. oil embargo Pearl Harbor [12/7/41] Japanese victories: enormous territory U.S. recovery island hopping Magic Turning Point: Midway
War in the Pacific Japanese desperation: Kamikaze U.S. tactics: saturation bombing Atomic bombs Hiroshima & Nagasaki Soviets declare war get N.Korea Japanese surrender 8/15/45 VJ Day
V-J Day Victory in Japan Day Japanese surrendered after the two bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The War is officially over.
Conferences Teheran  Europe first policy Yalta  Division of Germany & Soviets in Pacific Potsdam  Division of Austria & Red Army occupation
Yalta Conference Split Germany into 4 zones>Berlin in Soviet zone/split among the 4 [U.S. – G.B. – U.S.S.R.- France] Churchill (G. Britain), Roosevelt (U.S), and Stalin (U.S.S.R.)> Stalin did not honor all agreements. Poland is central to this issue Free or communist?
George Marshall Top American general & Roosevelts Army Chief of Staff. Launched a massive effort to rebuild post war Europe. Authored the Marshall Plan Received a Nobel Peace Prize
The Biggest Smart Ever!!!
New York: German Information Center, 1973, pp General Collections. Used by permission of the German Information Center. All rights reserved. (13)
Enduring Questions Why did the U.S. and U.S.S.R. become adversaries for world dominance? What impact did their rivalry have on developing nations and other nations in the world? Why do historians view W.W.2 as the impetus for the assent of the U.S. as the preeminent power in the world?