3What is Behavior?The way an animal responds to stimuli in its environment.Proximate Causation vs Ultimate Causation (Nature vs Nurture Debate)Inate Behavior-example egg-rolling response in geeseSupernormal Stimuli
4Is Smart Genetic?1940’s Rat ExperimentTwin Studies
5Specific Genes can be linked to specific behaviors. FosB gene
6Learning Altering ones behavior as a result of previous experience TypesNonassociative aka HabituationAssociative aka ConditioningClassical Conditioning ( Pavlov’s dogs)Operant Conditioning (Reward/Punishment)
7Can we learn anything? Nope Instinct vs Learning What can be learned is biologically influenced.Example- Pigeon can associate food with color but not sounds. Can associate danger with sounds but not with colors.
8Parent influence on Cognitin and Behavior Imprinting- social attachments effecting behavior latter in life.Filial imprintingDucks, monkeys and orphans…Oh MY!!!!Sexual ImprintingLigers
9Instinct and Learning Song Sparrows Raised listening to no song or to the song of another species had undeveloped songs as adultsRaised listening to their own species song developed normally.
10Do animals think? Yup Chimps- termite eating technique Japanese macaques wash sand off of potatoes
11Orientation and Migration Orientation- tracking stimuli in the environment ex to and from watering holeTaxisMigration- large groups traveling long distancesUse both orientation and navigation (compass and map)
12Animal CommunicationSpecies specific- example fireflies, dance language of the honeybee, primate languageLong Distance- pheromonesNon-species specific- marking territory, persuit deterrent in deer
14Reproductive Strategies Determines how many mates , and how much time and energy to devote to rearing offspringMales and females differ in their reproductive strategies- males will mate with anyone!Why? Parental Investment
15Sexual SelectionIntrasexual Selection-individuals of one sex competing to get some.Sexual Dimorphism- differences between males and femalesSperm CompititionIntersexual Selection-Mate Choice
20The Environmental Challenge Animals must meet the challenge of the environment they live in to survivePhysiological ResponsesMorphological CapabilitiesBehavioral ResponsesNatural Selection Reinforces the responses to the environment
21Populations Groups of Individuals of the same species in one space Random DistributionUniform DistributionClumped Distribution
22Population Demography and Dynamics Sex Ratio and Generation time affect population growth ratesAge at first reproduction correlates with life spane
23AltruismThe performance of an action that benefits another individual at a cost to the actorGroup SelectionKin Selection- 2 brothers or 8 1st cousinsHaplodiploidy- bees
24Carrying CapacityThe maximum number of individuals an environment can supportSigmoidal growth curve
25Factors that Regulate Populations Density Dependent Factors- as population size increases either birth rates decrease or death rates increase (Negative Feedback)Allee EffectDensity Independent effectsOutside factors effect population size ( ex natural disasters)
26K vs r selected individuals r - selected usually smaller, have a lot of babies at onceK- selected usually larger, have fewer babies at one time
27Human Population Growth Human Populations have grown exponentiallyHuman population growth has declined in developed countries but is still increasing in developing countries
29Communities All of the species living in a particular area Can be characterized by either the species present or properties of the community such as species richness and primary productivity
30Individualistic vs Holistic Communities Individualistic says that a community us just a bunch of species that happen to be in the same place at the same timeHolistic says that communities are a integrated unitWhich argument do scientists agree with and why?
31NichesThe total of all the ways it uses the resources in the environmentFundamental vs Realized Niche example deep and shallow barniclesCompetitive exclusion and niche overlap
32Predator Prey Relationships A lot of predators = low prey….then low prey= death of predators….then death of predators = high prey…and so on and so on.
33CoevolutionWhen predators and prey accumulate adaptations to protect against being preyed upon then overcome these protections.Examples plant develops secondary chemical compounds to poison predators, then certain predators develop immunity and continue to prey on plants
34MimicrySome non-poisoness species “mimic” the coloration of poisoness or harmful ones as a means of discouraging predation.Batesian Mimicry- palatalbe insects resemble distasteful speciesMullerian mimicry- unrelated species resemble one another.
35Types of Species Interactions SymbiosisCommensalismMutualismParasitism
36Keystone SpeciesSpecies that have a greater effect on the composition of a community than one may expectExample- Starfish
37Succession When communities build at a specific site Primary SuccessionSecondary SuccesionTolerance, Facilitation, Inhibition
38Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis Greater diversity of species where there is slight disturbances happening oftenWhy?
46Trophic Level Interactions Top Down EffectsWhen changing something at the top of a trophic level effects the lower levels- taking away carnivoreBottom Up effectsWhen changes in primary producers effect higher trophic levels-increasing or decreasing primary productivity