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**Science Process, Graphing, SI System**

Unit 1 Science Process, Graphing, SI System

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**Science Pure Science versus Technology**

Pure science is the study of the natural world Technology is applied science. Use of pure science knowledge to make an application or make something new.

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**Scientific Theories and Laws**

Scientific Theory- is an explanation of a natural event that has been tested by repeated observations. Scientific Law- states a repeated observation about nature. Has been tested and always holds true.

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**Description versus Math**

Qualitative Statements: describe events in nature. Qualities Example: the effects of gravity on falling bodies. Data: collected in the form of statements describing observations Quantitative Statements: laws and theories stated as mathematic equations. Mathematics is the language of science that is universal. Data: Use of equations, measurements, numbers

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**Models Model is a representation of an object or event.**

Example: cell model, model of an atom, molecule

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Critical Thinking! Critical Thinking: applying logic and reason to solve problems. Experimental Design Format: Observe Question Hypothesis Test/Experiment Collect/Analyze Data Draw Conclusions

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**Observations and Inferences**

Observations can be direct or indirect. Direct: made by using the 5 senses. What you see, hear, taste, touch, or smell. Indirect: Made by making a measurement Examples: length, temperature, mass, volume Inferences: educated guesses that explain an event. Basis for hypothesis statements

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**How Do You Get Started……**

Make an Observation and then ask a Question. Question: Identifies the problem Only asks one thing at a time. Stated clearly Looks for a specific outcome.

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**Variables and Controls**

Variable: part that is changed in an experiment Independent variable: The part that you purposely change in an experiment. Graphed on the x-axis in line graphs (horizontal axis) Dependent Variable: The part that changes as a result of what was manipulated. Graphed on the y-axis in line graphs (vertical) Control: experimental set-up where no factors are changed. Comparison Group.

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Hypothesis A possible explanation for a set of observations or answer to a question If/Then format A formal hypothesis does not use first person terminology No personal pronouns. It should include the independent variable (factor that is changed) followed by the dependent variable (what changed in response).

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**Hypothesis Statement Format**

If (the independent variable) is (describe how you change it), the (dependent variable) will (describe the effect). If __ is __, then ___ will ___.

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**Setting up the Experiment…**

Procedure: Well defined set of step by step instructions. ( No personal Pronouns) Includes an experimental group set-up to test (independent variable change). Includes a control group. Identifies the constants Constant- factors that are given to both the experimental group and the control group. **Remember that only one factor will be different for the experimental group. All other factors should be the same.

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Collecting Data….. Qualitative: Description in the form of a paragraph, non measured, can be in a chart. Quantitative: Measured values, in the form of charts and graphs

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Types of Graphs Line Graph: usually used to show changes over time, or data that changes Bar Graphs: used when comparing data for several different individual items or events. Pie Chart: used when comparing parts of a whole

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**Graphing Data….. Remember:**

independent variable should be graphed on the x-axis dependent variable on the y-axis. y x

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**Drawing Conclusions…. Paragraph format: Restatement of Hypothesis**

Claim: based on data Evidence: site specific data Reason statement: give reason for claim Formal writing format based on fact. Not opinion based No personal Pronouns

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**SI System Based on the metric system**

Units of 10 International use by scientist to communicate data. 7 Base Units Length meter m Mass kilogram kg Time second s Temperature kelvin K Electric Current ampere A Amount of a substance mole mol Luminous intensity candela cd

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**Derived Units Combinations of the base units:**

Examples: speed, density, weight, force, area, volume

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SI Prefixes…. To avoid the use of a lot of decimal places and zeroes we use metric prefixes to express very large and very small amounts. Are all multiples of 10

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**Common Metric Prefixes**

Memorize the basics and their power of 10 Milli m Centi c Deci 0.1 d Base 1.0 Base Unit (Meter, Liter, Gram) Deka 10 dK Hecto 100 h Kilo K

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**Prefix Symbol Numerical Exponential **

Multiplier Prefix Symbol Numerical Exponential Yotta Y 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, zetta Z ,000,000,000,000,000,000, exa E ,000,000,000,000,000, pta P ,000,000,000,000, tera T ,000,000,000, giga G ,000,000, Mega M ,000, kilo k , hecto h deca da no prefix means: deci d ¯1 centi c ¯2 milli m ¯3 micro µ ¯6 nano n ¯9 pico p ¯12 femto f ¯15 atto a ¯18 zepto z ¯21 yocto y ¯24

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Common Measurements Length: The straight-line distance between two points Mass: a measure of the amount of matter in an object Volume: a measure of the space an object takes up or the capacity of a container Weight: the force that gravity pulls on a quantity of matter.

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**Temperature Celsius to Kelvin Conversions: Celsius and Fahrenheit**

C = 5/9(F-32) F = (9/5C) + 32

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**Dimensional Analysis and Conversions**

If you are converting to a smaller unit, multiply. If you are converting to a larger unit, divide. 100cm 1.85m x = 185 cm 1m

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**Keys For Success With Dimensional Analysis**

Must Use Correct Conversion Factor ** know the prefixes and what they stand for Don’t forget to treat the Units of Measure just like numbers (Canceling out the U/M’s) Set up equations so X is a numerator.

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**Conversion Factors of One**

1 cm3 = 1ml of space 1g of water takes up 1ml of space or 1 cm3

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Scientific Notation Scientific Notation: a value written as a simple number multiplied by a power of 10.

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**Scientific Notation Steps**

Shortcut Steps: Put the decimal between the first two numbers. Count the number of places you moved the decimal and that becomes the power of 10. When a quantity smaller than one is converted the power becomes negative. (The decimal moves to the right)

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**Examples of Scientific Notation**

cm = 4.8 x 10-4cm 35,000,000 mm = 3.5 x 107mm

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**Calculators and Scientific Notation**

E values Example: x 104 3.12E4 The E value is the exponent power of 10.

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Significant Figures Significant Figures: the digits in a measurement that are known for certain. Precision: The degree of exactness of a measurement. Depends on the instrument used. Accuracy: the extent to which a measurement approaches the true value. Rounding to get significant figures: Always round to the even number. Example: = 3.2

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Sig Fig Rules Only keep the number of digits in a number that are known to be accurate When doing math, the answer can not be more precise that the least precise measurement used in the calculation.

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**Sig Fig’s: Why???? Precise measurement can be important!**

Historical Perspective: Hubble Telescope Save time and computations of needless numbers Why multiply m when the measurement is only accurate to 1.34m?

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**Instrument Precision Triple Beam Balance = 0.1g Meter Stick = 1mm**

Measure of Mass Meter Stick = 1mm Length Time = 0.01 s Second Graduated Cylinder = 0.1mL to 1mL depending on size used. Volume Can also be solid volume = 0.001m or 1mm Thermometer = 1C

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SI Rules All measurements must have a unit of measure attached to the end. Zero’s mean something! No naked decimals Put a zero in front 0.5cm Zeroes at the end indicate the accuracy of the measurement 5.6 is less precise than but only put the 00’s if measurement is that precise.

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CHEMISTRY = the study of the composition of matter, its chemical and physical changes, and the changes that accompany these changes.

CHEMISTRY = the study of the composition of matter, its chemical and physical changes, and the changes that accompany these changes.

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