2Humanism –(1400-1650) Francesco Petrarch – “Father of Humanism” Returned to Greek/pagan stories, referred to as“the Classics,” which resulted in the philosophy ofsecularism, the appreciation of worldly pleasures, and above all intensified the assertion of personal independence and individual expression.However, these lessons were thought to teach a moral and effective lifestyleOverall secular view of life, emphasized science and practical studiesPromoted a common, layman languageExpansion of trade, growth of prosperity and luxury, and widening social contacts generated interest in worldly pleasures, in spite of formal allegiance to ascetic Christian doctrine.Men thus affected -- the humanists -- welcomed classical writers who revealed similar social values and secular attitudes
3Calvinism Led by John Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland Published Institutes of the ChristianReligion in 1536, which argued the concept of predestination, that it was predetermined who would and would not be saved.Stressed the absolute sovereigntyof God
45 Points of Calvinism- TULIP T: This usually stands for "Total depravity,” though it is also referred to as the “total inability” or “original sin.” This is the concept that it is impossible for the ordinary human to understand the Gospel’s message. God must decide to intervene, or the person is spiritually lost. Although it does not mean humans are hopelessly sinful, it refers to the fact that all of a human is sin.U: This stands for "Unconditional Election." This is the concept of predestination: that God has divided humanity into two groups.- the “elected,” who god has chosen to be knowledgeable and will be saved, and the rest, who will spend eternity in Hell. God made this selection before the universe was created, and thus before any humans existed. (Hyper-Calvinism believes that God is solely responsible for salvation. Humans can do nothing.)L: This stands for "Limited atonement" or "Particular Redemption." This is the belief that Jesus did not die to save all humans. He only died for the sake of specific sins of the sinners who are saved.I: This stands for "Irresistible Grace:" This is the belief that every human whom God has elected will inevitably come to a knowledge of God. The “elect” cannot resist the call.P: This stands for "Perseverance of the saints:" This is the “Once saved and always saved belief- that once a person is saved in the church, he/she is always in that state.
5UnionismGroups of workers in the same field who tried to achieve certain goals such as better working conditions or better payResulted from poor working conditions stemming from the Industrial Revolution. Another factor was that unskilled labor was higher in demand. However, this allowed employers to have all the power.Started in Britain and spread throughout EuropeTypes include industrial unionism, which organiser all workers in an industry together, regardless of skill or trade, and craft unionism, which organizes workers together based on specific trades. Trade unionism specifically pickets for better conditions, wages, firing policies, etc.
6Mercantilism Termed coined by Adam Smith in his Wealth of Nations system of political economy that sought to enrich the country by restraining imports and encouraging exports.Mostly from 16th to late 18th century. Developed to aid the nations involved and prevent foreign competition, earning them more gold and silver, which in turn could be used to paid professionally trained armies.The goal of these policies was, supposedly, to achieve a “favorable” balance of trade that would bring gold and silver into the country and also to maintain domestic employmentPracticed mostly by Britain with its American and Indian coloniesProtected by high tariffs
7BolshevismOriginated in Lenin’s overthrow of the provisional government in Russia with his Bolsheviks.One of two branches of Russian socialism, based off of Marxist beliefs(the other being Menshevism, which supported and led the provisional government and Constituent Assembly.)Lenin favored a small, disciplined party of professional revolutionaries; the Mensheviks wanted a loosely organized mass party. Lenin believed that the Russian Bourgeoise was too weak to lead its own revolution,so the proletarians and peasants must unite to overthrow the czarist regime and establish a dictatorship of the proletariat and peasantry.The Mensheviks, led by Plekhanov, believed that Russia could not pass directly from its backward state to a rule by the proletariat and that first an intermediary bourgeois/middle class regime must be developed.The world Bolshevik means “majority,” while Menshevik refers to the “minority.”
8ExistentialismOriginated with Jean-Paul Sartre in his lecture “L’existentialisme est un humanisme”, and also included Simone de Beauvoir, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Albert Camus, who were influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche.Post-War literary movement, mainly, rooted in 19th century thought. After the war, authors wanted to reassert human individuality and question pre-war values.Questioned the meaning of life and of human existence, actions, and emotions.Focused on the concrete things in life
9EnvironmentalismSeeks to improve and protect the quality of the natural environment through changes to environmentally harmful human activitiesthrough the adoption of forms of political, economic, and social organization that are thought to be necessary for, or at least conducive to, the benign treatment of the environment by humans; and through a reassessment of humanity’s relationship with nature.Often equals the environment and other living things to humans. Has a moral as well as a political side, and often deals with issues such as global warming or genetic engineering.anthropocentric, or “human-centered,”biocentric, or “life-centered.”Modern pollution mostly originated from Industrial Revolution, and movements against it soon followed, such as the British Alkali Act, which banned products produced by the production of Soda Ash. Modern influences include Silent Spring by Rachel Carson
10Review Questions Who was the “Father of Humanism?” Humanism is the return of what?Name one of the five points of Calvinism.What is an environmentalist view that means “Human-centered?”Name a type of unionism and explain it.Who did the existentialists base their work off of?Name the two socialists groups in Russia.Name the leaders of the successful socialist group.