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Advanced Placement Articulation and Policy Making for Enrollment Managers February 10, 2008 Boyd Bradshaw, Saint Louis University Michael Kabbaz, College.

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Presentation on theme: "Advanced Placement Articulation and Policy Making for Enrollment Managers February 10, 2008 Boyd Bradshaw, Saint Louis University Michael Kabbaz, College."— Presentation transcript:

1 Advanced Placement Articulation and Policy Making for Enrollment Managers February 10, 2008 Boyd Bradshaw, Saint Louis University Michael Kabbaz, College Board Sally Lindsley, University of Michigan Gordon Mork, Purdue University Ted Spencer, University of Michigan

2 2 Workshop Outline Michael Kabbaz: AP overview - (50 minutes) AP Program Data; Field Research; Latest Validity Research; AP Course Audit Update; and Credit and Placement Policy Considerations 10 minute break Boyd Bradshaw - 25 minutes Ted Spencer and Sally Lindsley - 25 minutes Gordon Mork - 25 minutes

3 3 First Session: AP Overview Agenda AP Program Overview Data highlights Whats New in AP AP Course Audit/Ledger Field Research Recent AP Validity Research Credit and Placement Policy Considerations

4 4 College Boards Mission The College Boards mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. We are a not-for-profit membership organization committed to excellence and equity in education.

5 5 AP Participation Statement: Achieving Equity With a Focus on Quality and Preparation Board encourages the elimination of barriers that restrict access to AP courses for students from ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups that have been traditionally underrepresented All prepared students who are willing to accept the challenge of a rigorous academic curriculum should be considered for admission to AP courses. The Board encourages the elimination of barriers that restrict access to AP courses for students from ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups that have been traditionally underrepresented in the AP Program. Schools should make every effort to ensure that their AP classes reflect the diversity of their student population.

6 6 What Sort of AP Experience Consistently Addresses Student College Success? The College Board encourages participation in AP, and believes students should be encouraged and supported in taking on the challenge of a college-level course in high school. While students may benefit from AP even if they dont learn at the level that will produce a score of 3 or better on the AP Exam, it is vital that partnerships between K-12, higher education, states and the College Board focus on helping students achieve a score of 3 or better, which is the level of performance research consistently finds is predictive of college success.

7 7 AP Overview Since 1955, AP has been providing high school students with rigorous course work that is comparable to entry-level college courses 37 Advanced Placement exams in 22 subject areas World Languages expansion: Italian (2006), Chinese and Japanese (2007) AP Exams, which colleges utilize for credit, placement or both, are given annually in May.

8 8 Some Key Benefits of AP AP courses establish a college-level standard in secondary schools that is measured through a national assessment designed and scored by college faculty. AP courses expose college-bound students to the amounts of homework, study skills, and habits of mind essential for success in college courses. AP provides leverage for aligning and strengthening the grades 6-12 curriculum. Students who take AP Exams and score a 3 or higher typically experience greater academic success and college graduation rates than non-AP students. The AP course is typically the most rigorous curriculum offered in secondary schools and is designated on the student transcript. Because AP is widely used for college credit and/or placement, it attracts motivated students eager to double major, or engage in deeper, upper-division courses at college.

9 9 Who Participates in AP? 16,000+ secondary schools worldwide offer AP exams More than 120,000 AP teachers in over 14,300 schools worldwide teach AP courses In 2007, over 1.4 million students took about 2.5 million exams 4,700+ college faculty develop and score the AP Exams ensuring college-level standards 3,500+ colleges receive AP Exam scores annually

10 10 Faculty Expertise is Essential in Every Facet of AP Course and Exam Development Pre-test AP Exams by embedding them within exams offered in the college classroom Write AP Exam questions and develop all AP course descriptions College faculty serve as Chairs of all AP Development Committees Score the free-response sections of AP Exams by attending the AP Reading at a college campus or convention center every June College faculty serve as Chief Readers for all exam gradings Teach professional development institutes for experienced and new AP teachers Participate in the annual audit of courses labeled AP by reviewing electronic copies of AP teachers syllabi to provide feedback

11 11 What do AP Exam Grades Represent? Each AP Exam grade is a weighted combination of the student's score on the multiple-choice section and on the free-response section. The final grade is reported on a 5-point scale: 5 = extremely well qualified 4 = well qualified 3 = qualified 2 = possibly qualified 1 = no recommendation AP grades of 5 and 4 are comparable to a college course grade of A, while at some institutions, an AP grade of 4 is comparable to a college course grade of B An AP grade of 3 is approximately equal to a college course grade of B at many institutions, while at others it is more nearly comparable to a college course grade of C.

12 12 To identify the number of points AP students must earn on the AP Exam, college professors regularly administer AP Exams to their own college students in order to ensure comparability between the standards applied to college students and the standards AP students must meet. College Faculty Ensure Rigor and Quality of AP Standards by Participating in Comparability Studies

13 13 Faculty at the Following Institutions Pre- Administered AP Exams in 2007 Baylor U Brigham Young U Duke U Grinnell College Harvard U Michigan State U Middlebury College Princeton U Purdue U Smith College Stanford U Tufts U UCLA UC-Berkeley U of Colorado-Boulder U of Maryland-College Park UNC-Chapel Hill U of Pennsylvania University of Southern California U of Virginia U of Washington U of Wisconsin-Madison Washington U Yale U

14 14 AP Continues to Grow in the Number of Participating Schools, Students and Exams AP Growth: No. of Schools AP Growth: Students/Exams Source: The College Board SDRS

15 15 Despite APs Growth, Participation in AP is Limited, Even Among College-Bound Students While about 74% of U.S. high school graduates are entering college, less than a fourth (24.2%) took an AP Exam during their high school years And within the fraction of students who take AP: 82 percent took just 1, 2, or 3 AP Exams during their entire 4 years of high school Less than 4 percent took 7 or more AP Exams during their entire 4 years of high school Source: AP Report to the Nation; College Board SDRS

16 16 AP Exam Fee Reduction for Low-Income Students The College Board believes the cost of the AP Exam should not be a barrier for low-income students. The College Board provides a $22 fee reduction per exam for students with financial need. For each eligible student, secondary schools should also forgo their $8/per exam rebate. More than 40 states and U.S. territories use federal and/or state funds to help cover all or part of the remaining cost to the student. More information on state exam fee subsidies:

17 17 AP Participation Growth Rate is Greatest Among Low- Income, African American, and Latino students Low Income – 142%* Hispanic – 91%* African American – 105%* Source: SDRS American Indian – 82%* Asian – 62%* * - represents percentage growth from 2002

18 18 Increasing Numbers of Traditionally Underserved Students are Now Earning Scores of 3 or Better Source: SDRS * - represents percentage growth from 2002 Hispanic – 62%* Low Income – 97%* African American – 73%* American Indian – 80%*

19 19 However, Significant Achievement Gaps Remain and are a Concern the College Board is Seeking to Address Percent of Total Exams Scored 1, 2, or 3+: All Exams and Low Income (FR) Exams Percent of Total Exams Scored 1, 2, or 3+: By Ethnic / Racial Category Source: SDRS 2006 data

20 20 Whats New in AP? AP Course Audit Release of the AP Course Ledger Field Research Overview Admission Officer Perceptions College Faculty Perceptions

21 21 What is the AP Course Audit? Created at the request of secondary school and college members of the College Board, the AP Course Audit was designed to: Provide teachers and administrators with clear guidelines on curricular and resource requirements that must be in place before labeling a course AP; and Ensure consistency and currency across the curriculum of courses labeled AP.

22 22 How is the AP Course Audit Conducted? From , college faculty nationwide established the criteria for earning the AP designation; these criteria are publicly available on the Web From , teachers and principals desiring to continue to label their courses AP submitted their curricula for review by college faculty. More than 800 select college and university faculty currently conduct the audit on behalf of the College Board. These professors represent a diverse range of institutions such as Yale University, Florida State University, and Haverford College

23 23 The Outcome of the AP Course Audit Qualifying schools receive legal authorization to use the AP label on their school profile and student transcripts, and are included in the public ledger of official AP courses. For , the AP designation is now restricted to courses in approximately 14,300 secondary schools worldwide.

24 24 Course Audit: What Was the Impact? A recent survey of 26,000 teachers who participated in the audit provided such a statistically significant sample size to justify the following claims about the impact of the audit. Hundreds of thousands of high school students will benefit from the increased resources they now receive due to the audit, which enabled a projected: 17,000 teachers to prevent reductions in lab time and instructional time that were scheduled to affect their courses; 16,000 teachers to obtain more current college textbooks for their students; 22,000 teachers to incorporate advances in the discipline that had not yet been added into their curricula; and 16,000 teachers to receive increased funding from their school or district for professional development.

25 25 Course Audit: What Was the Impact? The vast majority of AP teachers felt the AP Course Audit curricular requirements were broad and flexible enough to permit a wide variety of approaches to teaching an AP course, while at the same time, providing them a valuable opportunity to reflect upon their course and its relationship to colleges' rigorous expectations.

26 26 AP Course Audit Results are Accessible: AP Course Ledger Searchable database of over 136,200 courses and 14,300 secondary schools worldwide authorized to carry the AP label Search database by high school, high school code, city, state, and subject Entire database is able to be downloaded to be integrated into campus system

27 27 AP Course Ledger: Possible Uses? Confirmation of AP courses taught in high schools Possible tool for targeted recruitment of high schools Search on secondary schools with specialized content areas, such as world languages

28 28 Field Research: Attitudes, Beliefs, Needs, Wants – What Do We Know? Beginning in spring 2007 and continuing through this year, the AP Program is undertaking the largest study of stakeholders values ever conducted by AP. Large, representative samples are being gathered from the following groups: AP Teachers College Admissions Officers College Department Chairs AP Coordinators School and district administrators AP exam Readers Students Parents

29 29 Higher Educations Support for K-12 is Critical if Secondary Schools are to Continue to Increase Academic Opportunities for Students Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): AP Teachers – Q345 Base: (n=3,417) To sustain your schools current level of participation in AP, how important is it that… % Extremely / Very Important

30 30 School and District Administrators also Affirmed the Importance of Higher Educations Support Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Administrators – Q313_02 Base: (n=604) To sustain your schools/districts level of participation in AP, how important is the fact that colleges award credit for AP Scores? Nearly 90% of Bldg and District Administrators

31 31 Why do Students take AP Courses? Which of these are reasons why you have decided to take AP? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Q310 Intrinsic ReasonsExtrinsic Reasons

32 32 Credit / Placement Opportunities Remain the Strongest Drivers of the Decision to Take the AP Exam Which are key reasons why you would take an AP Exam at the end of an AP course? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Q630 Extrinsic Reasons Intrinsic Reasons

33 What is the Current AP Experience Among Colleges?

34 A Wide Range of Institutions Report Increases in the Proportion of Students with AP Experience Top 200 colleges based on AP score report volume Over the past few years, has the proportion of your departments students who took AP coursework in high school been…? (% Increasing) Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Q630 Dept. Chairs – Q315 Base: (n=125) / Admissions – Q315 Base: (n=125)

35 AP Policies are Not Affecting Application Volume or Tuition Revenue Which of the following are true at your institution? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Admissions – Q245 Base: (n=125) / Dept. Chairs – Q245 Base: (n=125)

36 College Preparedness of Their Incoming AP Students Has Been Either Improving or Constant, Not Worse Over the past few years, has the degree of college preparedness of your students with AP experience been…? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006):Admissions – Q320 Base: (n=125)

37 Most Admissions Officers Find AP Experience Helpful in Evaluating Admissions Candidates When evaluating a candidate for admission, how helpful is it to evaluate their AP course experience? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Admissions – Q300 Base: (n=125) 74% Extremely or Very Helpful We look favorably on students who have taken AP courses. The presence of AP courses is a sign that a student has chosen to challenge him/herself. AP Admissions Officer Online Bulletin Board

38 A Vast Majority of Admissions Officers Report that AP Course Experience Favorably Impacts Admissions Decisions Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Admissions – Q340 Base: (n=125)

39 41% of Admissions Officers Anticipate an Increase in the Use of AP in Admissions in the Future Think about the use of AP in admissions decisions at your institution. Five years from now, do you expect that …? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Admissions – Q705 Base: (n=125) Higher among selective institutions (47%)

40 Many Admissions Officers Find AP to be More Meaningful Today than it has in the Past On the whole, do you feel that having AP on a college transcript is …? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Admissions – Q305 Base: (n=125) Because of the growth of the AP program, such that the coursework is more readily available at schools…thus making it more useful for broad-based comparisons. Admissions Officer telephone survey Because AP is now available to so many different schools, which are clearly not equal. Admissions Officer telephone survey Why?

41 Colleges Use AP to Determine Preparedness, Student Motivation, and for Placement How does your institution use AP, if at all, to support admissions decisions? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Admissions – Q301 Base: (n=125) We consider the learning environment for each applicant – how many APs are offered and how many has the student taken advantage of and grades earned. AP Admissions Officer Online Bulletin Board

42 Strong Support from Department Chairs on Providing AP Credit or Placement to Students In general, would you say you favor or oppose allowing AP students to receive credit or placement in your department? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Dept. Chairs – Q240 Base: (n=125) 76% Strongly Favor or Favor

43 Most Department Chairs Report that Their Institution Uses AP for Both Credit and Placement Does your institutions AP policy allow students to apply AP scores for …? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Dept. Chairs – Q300 Base: (n=125)

44 Most Admissions Officers and Department Chairs Report Little Change in the Ease or Difficulty for Students to Obtain Course Credit Over the past few years, has your institution/department made it harder or easier for students to use their AP exam score to obtain credit or skip introductory courses? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Admissions – Q355 Base: (n=125 / Dept. Chairs – Q355 Base: (n=125)

45 Some Colleges and Universities Tailor Their AP Exam Polices Does your institution/department…? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Admissions – Q375 Base: (n=125) / Dept. Chairs – Q375 Base: (n=125)

46 Colleges Want Assurance that AP Quality is Consistent Across High Schools and are Interested in Seeing the Relationship Between AP and College Success How important is the following to you? % Extremely / Very Important Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Admissions – Q700/Q701 Base: (n=125) / Department Chairs – Q700/Q701 Base: (n=125)

47 The More Selective the Institution, the Less the College is Concerned About Having the Same AP Policies as Peers How important is it that your AP policies are the same as peer institutions? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Admissions – Q235 Base: (n=125) / Dept. Chairs – Q235 Base: (n=125) We care and like to see what other schools are doing in their academic and admission policies. Participant, AP Admissions Officer Online Bulletin Board

48 Most Institutions are Doing Something to Monitor Peer Institution AP Policies; Departments are More Active than Admissions Realizes What does your institution do to monitor what peer institutions are doing with regard to AP? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006): Admissions – Q236 Base: (n=125) / Dept. Chairs – Q236 Base: (n=125)

49 Mean Overall Satisfaction (10 point scale) Satisfaction Levels for AP and IB are Similar Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006) Admissions – Q385 Base: (n=125), Colleges that have students with IB/DE experience Q445/Q540 Base: (n=114/116) Admissions – Q385 Base: (n=125), Colleges that have students with IB/DE experience Q445/Q540 Base: (n=80/53) [AP and IB] are both rigorous programs that should be taken very seriously…both are highly respected by admissions committees. Admissions Officer telephone survey

50 Half of Department Chairs Feel that Students with any Advanced Coursework Experience are Equally Likely to Succeed in Their Department Which students tend to succeed more in your department? Source: Crux Market Research Inc. (2006):Base - Department Chairs from colleges that have students with AP and IB experience – Q615 Base: (n=100)

51 51 While much caution should be exercised in interpreting APs impact, research continues to establish strong connections between AP and college success. AP Research

52 52 Course Placement: Research Two large scale studies have collected official student transcript data from numerous colleges and universities (Morgan & Ramist, 1998; Morgan & Klaric, 2007) Institutions varied by location, selectivity, and curriculum emphasis No. of institutions in both studies exceeded 20 Compared subsequent course grades of AP students with an exam grade of > 3 who were exempted from the introductory course to the subsequent course grades of students who took the introductory course

53 53 Course Placement: Research Results AP students exempted from the introductory course generally did at least as well, if not better, in the subsequent course as those who took the introductory course Magnitude of achievement difference generally varied as a function of the students AP Exams grades That is, students earning higher exam grades tended to do better, on average, in the subsequent course than those earning lower exam grades.

54 54 Course Placement: Research UT Austin Study (Keng & Dodd, 2007) Followed 4 cohorts of entering freshmen ( ) enrolled at the University of Texas at Austin. Results showed that AP students who placed out of introductory college courses as a result of successful AP exam grades (i.e., the AP credit group) earned significantly higher college GPAs in the subject area of their exam and took more credit hours in the subject area of their exam than non-AP students. Non-AP students were matched to the AP group in terms of high school rank and admission test scores (i.e., SAT and ACT).

55 55 AP Students with Credit Outperformed Non-AP Students

56 56 AP & College Success: Results Students who take AP Exams more likely to: Earn at least a B average in their freshman year Maintain that average for the duration of their college career Graduate with academic honors (Willingham & Morris, 1986) Students who earn 3 or better on AP Exam more likely to: Graduate from college in five years or less compared to non-AP students, even after controlling for prior academic achievement, SES, % low income, and district dropout rate (Dougherty, Mellor, & Jian, 2006).

57 57 AP Exam v AP Course Participation Texas Statewide Study (Hargrove, Godin, & Dodd, 2007) Provides an extensive comparison of students performance on several college outcomes (first and fourth-year GPA and 4-year graduation status) by various groups AP course and exam group AP course only group Standard high school courses group Controls for SAT scores and SES (as measured by Free or Reduced Price Lunch status)

58 58 Hargrove, Godin, & Dodd, 2007 The AP course and exam group significantly outperformed the standard high school courses group on all college outcomes in all years, after statistically controlling for SAT scores and SES. The AP course and exam group also significantly outperformed the AP course only group on all college outcomes.

59 59 First-Year College GPA for AP and non- AP groups by SAT Score Category

60 60 AP Exam v AP Course Participation In the context of college admissions, UC-Berkeley researchers Geiser & Santelices (2004) investigated the role of AP course participation and exam performance in predicting: First-year GPA Discipline-specific GPA For admission at University of California, students obtain additional bonus points for approved AP and honors courses. Policy intended to encourage rigorous course taking in high school

61 61 AP & College Admissions: Results Using UC data, the Berkeley researchers studied the role of several variables in predicting college GPA: HSGPA, SAT I scores, SAT II scores SES, Parents education Number of AP/honors courses AP Examination performance Findings indicated that: While the number of AP courses was not a significant predictor of college GPA AP Exam performance was among the very best predictors of college performance.... The subject-specific, curriculum-intensive AP exams are the epitome of achievement tests, and their validity in predicting college performance should not be surprising.

62 62 Source: Chrys Dougherty, Lynn Mellor, and Shuling Jian, The Relationship Between Advanced Placement and College Graduation (National Center for Educational Accountability, 2006) AP Scores of 3+ on AP Exams are Strongly Predictive of a Higher Rate of College Graduation Student Demographic AP Exam Grade of 3 or higher African-American21% higher Hispanic27% higher White19% higher Low-Income32% higher Not Low-Income23% higher College Graduation Rate differences between matched AP and non-AP students

63 63 Does granting AP credit result in student avoidance of further studies in that discipline? Data show the opposite: Source: Morgan, Rick and Behroz Maneckshana. AP Students in College: An Investigation of Their Course Taking Patterns and College Majors. Princeton: ETS, 2000.

64 64 Anecdotal information should not be a basis for evaluating/changing institutional AP credit and placement policies Ensure campus-based research is used Utilize College Boards free placement study service – ACES (Admitted Class Evaluation Service) Before changing any campus AP policies, thoroughly understand how any change could potentially impact student enrollment behavior Are your key overlap institutions providing more AP credit or better placement opportunities for students? Educate faculty, deans and senior administrators on the possible ramifications of restricting AP credit and placement policies without understanding first AP student performance on your campus Ensure AP credit and placement policies are organized and easily accessible on your admission Web site Reminders about Setting Institutional AP Credit & Placement Policies

65 65 What are the Best Guidelines for Establishing AP Credit & Placement Policies? 1) Understand What an AP Exam Grade Represents AP curriculum based on equivalent college courses identified by college faculty AP conducts comparability studies to first-year equivalent courses ensuring AP scores standards meet or exceed the standards of institutions nationally 2) Use Data and Research on the Performance of AP Students in College Utilize recent, peer-reviewed, and published research studies to compare AP performance against non-AP peers in higher-level courses Track subsequent performance of your AP students in upper division courses

66 66 What are the Best Guidelines for Establishing AP Credit & Placement Policies? 3) Review External Recommendations American Council on Education (ACE) recommends a 3, 4 and 5 should be awarded credit 4) Review AP Curricula and AP Exams Review AP curricula and exam questions to gauge level of content mastery required and its relation to your institutions requirements

67 67 AP Credit Policies on Searchable by institution for students, parents and school counselors For each institution that provided their AP credit policy information, you can find the following: A link to the institutions own Web page that details its AP credit and placement policies A statement by the college or university about their AP policy

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