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UNIT 10 The Bureaucracy UNIT 10 The Bureaucracy The 4th Branch of Government The 4th Branch of Government.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 10 The Bureaucracy UNIT 10 The Bureaucracy The 4th Branch of Government The 4th Branch of Government."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 10 The Bureaucracy UNIT 10 The Bureaucracy The 4th Branch of Government The 4th Branch of Government

2 I. WHAT EXACTLY IS THIS BUREAUCRACY THING? A. The large and complex organization of UNELECTED(hired & appointed) officials of the Executive branch who are charged with running the day-to-day operations of govt. A. The large and complex organization of UNELECTED (hired & appointed) officials of the Executive branch who are charged with running the day-to-day operations of govt.

3 B. Bureaucracys Size Total number: 2.9 million people Total number: 2.9 million people (30% of these work for DoD and 25% work for the USPS) (30% of these work for DoD and 25% work for the USPS) million people serve in the military but are not considered to be bureaucrats million people serve in the military but are not considered to be bureaucrats.

4 The Bureaucracys Size (cont) The Bureaucracys Size (cont) The federal workforce composes ~2% of the total U.S. workforce. The federal workforce composes ~2% of the total U.S. workforce. The size of the civilian bureaucracy shrank as a % of the population from the 1970s to 2004, but grew again under Bush Jr. (homeland security reasons) and Obama (domestic issue reasons) The size of the civilian bureaucracy shrank as a % of the population from the 1970s to 2004, but grew again under Bush Jr. (homeland security reasons) and Obama (domestic issue reasons) U.S. population was 240 million U.S. population was 240 million Bureaucracy size: 2.8 million = 1.2% of population Bureaucracy size: 2.8 million = 1.2% of population U.S. population was 281 million U.S. population was 281 million Bureaucracy size: 2.4 million =.85% Bureaucracy size: 2.4 million =.85% population was 308 million population was 308 million Bureaucracy size: 2.9 million =.94% of population Bureaucracy size: 2.9 million =.94% of population

5 II. Bureaucratic Administration

6 The Bureaucracy is Hierarchical A. The largest units of the Executive branch are the 15 cabinet departments each organized hierarchically and headed by a Secretary (except DOJ which has an Attorney General) who manages a specific policy area. Each dept has an Assistant Secretary as well as numerous Deputy and Under Secretaries who are supported by thousands of high & mid-level managers.

7 Bureaucratic Units Bureaucratic Units The bureaucracy is also composed of 50+ independent agencies and over 2,000 other administrative units based on mission or clientele served: The bureaucracy is also composed of 50+ independent agencies and over 2,000 other administrative units based on mission or clientele served: - services (U.S. Secret Service) - services (U.S. Secret Service) - offices (Office of Management and Budget) - offices (Office of Management and Budget) - administrations (Social Security Administration) - administrations (Social Security Administration) - bureaus (Bureau of Indian Affairs; FBI) - bureaus (Bureau of Indian Affairs; FBI) - agencies (NASA; FEMA) - agencies (NASA; FEMA) - boards (National Labor Relations Board) - boards (National Labor Relations Board) - commissions (Federal Trade Commission; ICC) - commissions (Federal Trade Commission; ICC)

8 B.Cabinet: The Primary Bureaucracy B. Cabinet: The Primary Bureaucracy Created by Congress and expanded over time at various presidents request. Created by Congress and expanded over time at various presidents request. Serves as a key policy sounding board and creates policy in various areas to advance the Presidents ideological agenda. Serves as a key policy sounding board and creates policy in various areas to advance the Presidents ideological agenda. Builds policy coalitions with interest groups, Congress, and the opposition party. Builds policy coalitions with interest groups, Congress, and the opposition party.

9 C. Cabinet Composition - Members are appointed based on experience, diversity, or patronage (close friends, political donor, loyal party member) - Not all cabinet officers or other appointed bureaucrats are experts in their dept… they must rely on career bureaucrats for advice and knowledge.

10 D. Bureaucrats are turf oriented D. Bureaucrats are turf oriented Try to increase their own agencys budget at the expense of the others. Try to increase their own agencys budget at the expense of the others. Promote own organizations prestige and roles by pushing high visibility programs. Promote own organizations prestige and roles by pushing high visibility programs. Resist change and outsider interference. Resist change and outsider interference. - Their loyalty is often split between their departments and the President! - Politicians use the bureaucracy as a scapegoat to assign blame for public policy failures or cost overruns (it may just be bad law).

11 E. Government Corporations E. Government Corporations Government entities that are a cross between a government agency and a private business. They provide a service that could be done by the private sector, but are better left for the government to do. They are self-supporting in that they are expected to make money to run their operations from the services they provide to the public, like the Post Office, the largest one. They are self-supporting in that they are expected to make money to run their operations from the services they provide to the public, like the Post Office, the largest one.

12 Other Government Corporations Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) AMTRAK AMTRAK Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

13 F. Independent Agencies F. Independent Agencies Independent regulatory agency An organization that has broad watchdog powers to implement and regulate key parts of the economy and are largely independent of control by the President. (e.g. stock market, transportation, food and drugs, environment). An organization that has broad watchdog powers to implement and regulate key parts of the economy and are largely independent of control by the President. (e.g. stock market, transportation, food and drugs, environment). - Examples: SEC, FAA, EPA, FDA - Examples: SEC, FAA, EPA, FDA These agencies have powers to enforce laws and punish violators. These agencies have powers to enforce laws and punish violators.

14 Independent Agencies (contd) Independent Agencies (contd) Each independent agency is run by a chairman with a Board of Commissioners. Each independent agency is run by a chairman with a Board of Commissioners. Examples: FEC, FCC, NRC, FRB Examples: FEC, FCC, NRC, FRB - The President appoints Board members and Senate confirms them. - The President appoints Board members and Senate confirms them. - Their terms of office vary (3-14 yrs) and overlap congressional and presidential terms to protect against undue influence and political firings. - Their terms of office vary (3-14 yrs) and overlap congressional and presidential terms to protect against undue influence and political firings.

15 G. The Armed Forces Top levels of military control are in the hands of civilians. Military policy is jointly developed by the military and top civilian leaders. Top levels of military control are in the hands of civilians. Military policy is jointly developed by the military and top civilian leaders. The Secretary of Defense oversees the military bureaucracy day-to-day. The Secretary of Defense oversees the military bureaucracy day-to-day. - He reports directly to the President who is the C-in-C - He reports directly to the President who is the C-in-C Each military branch has its own Secretary who reports directly to the SecDef. Each military branch has its own Secretary who reports directly to the SecDef.

16 Joint Chiefs of Staff Each military service is headed by a senior uniformed officer called a service chief and a Chairman who make up the Joint Chiefs of Staff who report to the Secy of Defense. Chairman Army Air Force Navy Marine Corps

17 H. The Civil Service Created in 1883 by the Pendleton Act to rid govt office seekers from using patronage. What caused this? The Civil Service is the means by which career bureaucrats enter and are promoted within the federal bureaucracy. - Makes lists of job openings - Hires and promotes based on competitive merit. - Investigates corruption, incompetence, whistle-blowing.

18 III. Law and Policy Implementation Im just a bill! Im just a bill, but wait until you see how Im implemented!

19 A. Bureaucrats work in a conflicting environment … A. Bureaucrats work in a conflicting environment … Bureaucrats can interpret the intent of Congressional laws (discretionary authority) and write the necessary rules and regulations to put those laws into effect (implementation) even though they work for the Executive branch. Its called: quasi-legislative power.

20 Implementation Is Difficult Those who are to be controlled often oppose regulation (e.g. oil companies, cigarette companies, auto manufacturers, unions) and make excuses as to why they cant comply with regulations imposed on them. Special interest groups try to weaken implementation by lobbying Congress. Resulting conflict can destroy policy effectiveness through legislative loopholes favorable to such groups (over 1,400 exemptions to OBAMACARE given to date!)

21 Quasi-Judicial Powers Quasi-Judicial Powers Independent regulatory agencies are often given the power to punish (fine, jail, or shut down) those who break the laws. Independent regulatory agencies are often given the power to punish (fine, jail, or shut down) those who break the laws. Those regulated or punished can appeal to the courts for relief by suing to overturn laws or trying to limit authority of regulators. Those regulated or punished can appeal to the courts for relief by suing to overturn laws or trying to limit authority of regulators.

22 Quasi-Judicial Enforcement Aggressive enforcement, when supported by the President or Congress, can be effective in making the laws work by punishing violators. But, a lack of significant enforcement, or weakened requirements, will often result in non-compliance by those regulated.

23 INCREMENTALISM Bureaucrats and Congress are often forced by changing circumstances, public opinion, or political opposition to modify existing law rather than make wholesale departures from them. This leads to… Bureaucrats and Congress are often forced by changing circumstances, public opinion, or political opposition to modify existing law rather than make wholesale departures from them. This leads to… Policy-making that is characterized by a series of decisions, each instituting modest change, bit by bit and step by step, over time. Policy-making that is characterized by a series of decisions, each instituting modest change, bit by bit and step by step, over time.

24 B. Presidential Controls President is head of bureaucracy in his role as Chief Executive. But, he often has LESS control over it than Congress does. - Bureaucracies are permanent, presidents are temporary. Two, 4-year terms Unlimited service Unlimited service

25 Presidential Controls Appointment and promotion: President can fire most political appointees or civil service bureaucrats Appointment and promotion: President can fire most political appointees or civil service bureaucrats Executive orders: to force compliance Executive orders: to force compliance Exercise economic powers: alter department and agency budgets, but Congress does the actual appropriating Exercise economic powers: alter department and agency budgets, but Congress does the actual appropriating Reorganize the bureaucracy: creation of new agencies, deletion of old ones, or combining missions (e.g. Homeland Security Dept required other executive departments to give up turf, $, and people) Reorganize the bureaucracy: creation of new agencies, deletion of old ones, or combining missions (e.g. Homeland Security Dept required other executive departments to give up turf, $, and people)

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27 Congressional Controls Change jurisdiction of agencies Change jurisdiction of agencies Alter budgets of agencies and departments Alter budgets of agencies and departments Deny presidential appointments to bureaucratic posts Deny presidential appointments to bureaucratic posts OVERSIGHT! OVERSIGHT! Compel agencies to interpret and apply laws as Congress intended by holding hearings, investigating bureaucratic failures, rewriting legislation.

28 Congressional Controls (contd) Committee Clearance c Committee Clearance The ability of congressional committees to review and approve agency decisions in advance without the need to change previous laws or pass additional laws.

29 IV. IV. A. An alliance of mid-level bureaucrats, outside interest groups, and staff members of congressional committees formed to promote common causes. Goal Goal: Create or change laws that may be seen as outdated, unfair, or prohibitive to businesses or government policies (client politics).

30 How to Build an Iron Triangle How to Build an Iron Triangle

31 ISSUE NETWORKS ISSUE NETWORKS Networks of interest groups, media outlets, academic institutions, congressional staff members, and private think tanks that meet to advocate public policies. Networks of interest groups, media outlets, academic institutions, congressional staff members, and private think tanks that meet to advocate public policies. Such networks are ideologically driven vs. interest driven like iron triangles.

32 V. REFORMING THE BUREACRACY

33 A. Privatization 1. The government federal programs through bidding to a private company to administer those programs (e.g. running federal prisons, food service, housing, building security, etc). 1. The government outsources federal programs through bidding to a private company to administer those programs (e.g. running federal prisons, food service, housing, building security, etc). 2. Purpose: to encourage competition and job creation in the private business sector while reducing costs to the government.

34 3. Its controversial because… The motivation for the private sector is PROFIT! - Take over and run an established govt entity for profit by cutting overhead and operating costs. The bureaucracy isnt supposed to run govt services for a profit unless its a government corp.

35 Privatization (a negative viewpoint)

36 B. DEREGULATION - The reducing or ending of govt regulations on businesses and the economy by allowing the market to police itself as to behavior and prices. - Those in favor believe freedom in the market place is best way to achieve economic growth. - Those opposed see deregulation as a failure of government to protect consumers, environment, society, etc.

37 C. The Hatch Act (1939) Enact ed to ensure political neutrality of civil service employees in carrying out laws and policy. : PROHIBITED BUREAUCRATS FROM: running for office running for office making political speeches making political speeches managing political campaign managing political campaign using their office to affect election outcome using their office to affect election outcome soliciting campaign contributions from subordinates soliciting campaign contributions from subordinates

38 D. Revised Hatch Act (1993) D. Revised Hatch Act (1993) It upheld a bureaucrats right to: vote vote assist in voter registration assist in voter registration make voluntary campaign contributions make voluntary campaign contributions join political parties join political parties display partisan advertising display partisan advertising campaign for policy changes, laws, etc. campaign for policy changes, laws, etc.

39 E.Other Bureaucracy Reforms E. Other Bureaucracy Reforms More recent bipartisan attempts have had limited success at reform: More recent bipartisan attempts have had limited success at reform: 1. Government Performance and Results Act: - Requires each agency to annually identify goals, adopt a performance plan, and have a system in place to measure performance in meeting its objectives. - Requires each agency to annually identify goals, adopt a performance plan, and have a system in place to measure performance in meeting its objectives. - Are better management techniques key to actually solving the countrys problems? - Are better management techniques key to actually solving the countrys problems?

40 2. CIVIL SERVICE REFORM ACT (1978) Restructur ed how the Civil Service was run and allowed managers to make and implement policy decisions at lower management levels. Restructur ed how the Civil Service was run and allowed managers to make and implement policy decisions at lower management levels. Made it easier to hire, fire, and reassign bureaucrats. Enacted whistleblower protections. Made it easier to hire, fire, and reassign bureaucrats. Enacted whistleblower protections. Created Senior Executive Service (SES) Created Senior Executive Service (SES) Allowed cash bonuses for meritorious performance. Allowed cash bonuses for meritorious performance.

41 3. National Performance Review Carried out during Clintons first term in ; overseen by Mr. Global Warming, Al Gore. Carried out during Clintons first term in ; overseen by Mr. Global Warming, Al Gore. Among Washington insiders NPR was popularly referred to as Among Washington insiders NPR was popularly referred to as Reinventing Government. Bureaucracy believed to be too centralized and turf-oriented, too rule-bound and not caring about program results or their effects. Bureaucracy believed to be too centralized and turf-oriented, too rule-bound and not caring about program results or their effects.

42 National Performance Review National Performance Review Emphasized customer satisfaction within the bureaucratic system Emphasized customer satisfaction within the bureaucratic system - Rewarded employee initiative - Rewarded employee initiative - Eliminated many restrictive rules and excessive paperwork - Eliminated many restrictive rules and excessive paperwork Less centralized management Less centralized management - Better purchasing practices initiated - Better purchasing practices initiated - Reduce duplication & waste among agencies - Reduce duplication & waste among agencies - Made it easier to fire a bureaucrat - Made it easier to fire a bureaucrat RESULT: Marginal change as bureaucrats resisted turf changes and burrowed further into their rules & regulations. WGOF! RESULT: Marginal change as bureaucrats resisted turf changes and burrowed further into their rules & regulations. WGOF!

43 4. Reducing Red Tape Red tape is the complex rules and regulations that must be followed to get the bureaucracy to do something on an issue. Often involves endless paperwork, clearances, or long drawn out procedures and decision-making that overwhelms citizens trying to get anything done.

44 END OF UNIT 10 END OF UNIT 10 THE BUREAUCRACY


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