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Local Lexical Elements in Jakarta Indonesian Uri Tadmor Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.

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Presentation on theme: "Local Lexical Elements in Jakarta Indonesian Uri Tadmor Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Local Lexical Elements in Jakarta Indonesian Uri Tadmor Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

2 Origin of Betawi Malay Two theories: Malay dialect: Direct continuation of Proto Malayic (Nothofer, Collins, Adelaar) Creole: Developed locally from a form of Bazaar Malay (Prentice, Grijns, Ikranagara)

3 History of the Betawi ethnic group Kelapa Sunda/Jayakarta (before 1619): Mostly Sundanese population with Javanese royalty and aristocracy Batavia (17 th c.): No Sundanese and Javanese allowed to reside in city. Largest ethnic groups: Balinese, Chinese 18 th c. (to present): Large influx of Sundanese and Javanese (and smaller numbers of others, including Malays)

4 Hypothesis on the formation of the Betawi ethnic group 17 th c.: Inter-marriage between Chinese men and Balinese women 18 th -19 th c.: Admixture of mostly Sundanese and Javanese; conversion to Islam; emergence of new ethnic group

5 Hypothesis on the formation of Betawi Malay 17 th -18 th c.: Pidgin/Bazaar Malay (cf. Woordenboek 1780) 18 th -19 th c.: Creolization (cf. Shuchardt 1891) 19 th -20 th c.: Decreolization (influence of Javanese, Sundanese, Standard Malay) Evidence for origin: Culture: Food, dress, music, etc. Language: Mostly lexicon

6 Kinship terms among ethnic Betawi Father: babé < Arabic Mother: nyaq < Mandarin or... babé < babah ‘term of address for a Chinese man’ nyaq < nyonya ‘term of address for the wife of a Chinese man’

7 Grandfather: engkong < Hokkien ang-kong ‘grandfather’ Grandmother: nénék < Balinese nénék (Classical Malay nini) Parent’s older sibling: encang Parent’s younger sibling: encing (Both Chinese, precise source words unindetified)

8 Older brother: abang (dialect borrowing— source?) Older sister: empoq (< *[m]pu + final glottalization and vowel lowering; direct source?) Younger sibling: adéq (Malay)

9 Kinship terms currently used by ethnic Chinese in Jakarta Father: papa (< Dutch) Mother: mama (< Dutch) Grandfather: akong (< Hokkien) Grandmother: maq (< Hokkien)

10 Parents’ siblings: Many different terms (oo, ii, kuku, etc.), but crucially not encang and encing Siblings: Older brother: koko (< Hokkien) Older sister: cici (< Hokkien) Younger sibling: adik (< Malay)

11 Prototypical pronouns: Ethnic Betawi SingularPlural 1 st personguékité 2 nd personlu 3 rd persondiyé-

12 Prototypical pronouns: Ethnic Chinese SingularPlural 1 st personguakita / kita orang 2 nd personlulu orang 3 rd persondiyadiya orang

13 Prototypical pronouns: Jakarta Indonesian. SingularPlural 1 st personakukita 2 nd personkamukalian 3 rd persondiameréka

14 Prototypical possessive constructions Ethnic Betawi: rumah Budi Jakarta Chinese: Budi punya rumah Jakarta Indonesian: rumahnya Budi

15 Pragmatic particles Traditional Malay: lah, pun, pula (rarely used) Malay-derived: nih, tuh, kan, yuk Javanese: koq, ah, sih Sundanese: mah Balinese: dong

16 The Loanword Typology Project A collaborative project coordinated by the Department of Linguistics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. In this project, we study lexical borrowing patterns in about 40 languages from around the world. Each language is the responsibility of a single author, an expert in the language and its history. For each language, lexical data is collected based on a list of 1460 meanings.

17 The Loanword Typology Project The results of the projects will be published in two volumes, one with general findings, the other with case studies; the consolidated database will be included in an electronic form. The aim is to provide a systematic basis for claims about borrowability and borrowing patterns, as well as about grammatical, social, and cultural conditions for borrowing. The lexical meanings include all those on the list of the Intercontinental Dictionary Series, another MPI EVA project.

18 Balinese (4) bianglalathe rainbow menénténgto carry in hand lindungthe freshwater eel sampingthe side Javanese (33) caplakthe flea jénggotthe beard ketombéthe dandruff ususthe intestines or guts cérétthe kettle jagungthe maize/corn singkongthe cassava/manioc jamurthe mushroom kapanwhen?

19 paronthe anvil timbalthe lead merintihto groan mengertito understand Kapanwhen? warga(negara)the citizen kalithe river or stream rembulanthe moon wanitathe woman bocahthe child(1) bapak mertuathe father-in-law ibu mertuathe mother-in-law leluhurthe ancestors bréwokthe beard kerongkonganthe throat kétékthe armpit

20 blangkon the headband or headdress payudarathe breast terpelésétto slide or slip gagasanthe idea konyolstupid menyulutto light enggak/nggakno lontéthe prostitute ani-anithe sickle (actually k.o. small reaping knife) Sundanese (3) monyétthe monkey kelapathe coconut situthe lake (man-made)

21 Balinese/Javanese (10) cerobong (asap)the chimney jongkokto crouch gembokthe padlock kupingthe ear mericathe pepper terwéluthe rabbit kerudungthe veil cangklongthe pipe penanggalanthe calendar langsingthin jambutthe pubic hair

22 Javanese/Sundanese (58) bayithe baby sapithe cattle banténgthe ox kodokthe frog kadalthe lizard jambutthe pubic hair capéktired pancithe pot séndokthe spoon sarapanthe breakfast adonanthe dough kentangthe potato paculthe spade membabatto mow panénthe harvest

23 jerukthe citrus fruit menggebrakto pound menétésto drip menyemprotto splash pojokthe corner énténglight(1) gampangeasy mencegahto prevent bénténgthe fortress rayapthe termites mertuathe parents-in-law pesisirthe shore (ayam) jagothe cock/rooster kalongthe bat (burung) bététthe parrot tawonthe bee kéongthe snail buntutthe tail

24 berjogétto dance menggéndongto carry merangkulto embrace kembang gulathe candy/sweets kontolthe penis pilekthe cold panci (goréng)the pan gubukthe hut gréndél the latch or door-bolt oborthe lamp or torch separothe half kecutsour kagétsurprised or astonished pintarclever goblokstupid bégostupid gara-garabecause

25 prajuritthe soldier sotothe soup paceklikthe famine memencétto press ngobrolto speak or talk mengguyurto splash romothe priest gapurathe door or gate Balinese/Javanese/Sundanese (29) pamanthe uncle bibithe aunt dudathe widower bébékthe duck jempolthe thumb pusarthe navel aritthe sickle or scythe

26 mengocokto shake pajakthe tax garisthe line miripsimilar soréthe afternoon sepiquiet empuksoft désathe village tanpawithout bunglonthe chameleon keponakanthe sibling’s child igathe rib mengungsito flee mengomélito scold menudingto accuse taméngthe shield céléngthe boar

27 Sabukthe belt témbokthe wall kembangthe flower wangifragrant ngomongto speak or talk Old Javanese (11) bapa/bapakthe father ibu the mother merékathey warnathe colour/color belajarto learn mengajarto teach pasticertain ratuthe queen jawawutthe millet or sorghum merusakto damage mengantar(kan)to bring

28 Minangkabau (4) kalianyou (plural) kumuhdirty dangkalshallow (older form) gadisthe girl (older form) Madurese (1) celurit/cluritthe sickle or scythe Toba Batak (1) margathe clan

29 Unidentified sources (5) binatangthe animal pusutthe awl nokénthe netbag [me]ngendusto sniff pesakitanthe captive or prisoner

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