Presentation on theme: "Local Lexical Elements in Jakarta Indonesian Uri Tadmor Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology."— Presentation transcript:
Local Lexical Elements in Jakarta Indonesian Uri Tadmor Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Origin of Betawi Malay Two theories: Malay dialect: Direct continuation of Proto Malayic (Nothofer, Collins, Adelaar) Creole: Developed locally from a form of Bazaar Malay (Prentice, Grijns, Ikranagara)
History of the Betawi ethnic group Kelapa Sunda/Jayakarta (before 1619): Mostly Sundanese population with Javanese royalty and aristocracy Batavia (17 th c.): No Sundanese and Javanese allowed to reside in city. Largest ethnic groups: Balinese, Chinese 18 th c. (to present): Large influx of Sundanese and Javanese (and smaller numbers of others, including Malays)
Hypothesis on the formation of the Betawi ethnic group 17 th c.: Inter-marriage between Chinese men and Balinese women 18 th -19 th c.: Admixture of mostly Sundanese and Javanese; conversion to Islam; emergence of new ethnic group
Hypothesis on the formation of Betawi Malay 17 th -18 th c.: Pidgin/Bazaar Malay (cf. Woordenboek 1780) 18 th -19 th c.: Creolization (cf. Shuchardt 1891) 19 th -20 th c.: Decreolization (influence of Javanese, Sundanese, Standard Malay) Evidence for origin: Culture: Food, dress, music, etc. Language: Mostly lexicon
Kinship terms among ethnic Betawi Father: babé < Arabic Mother: nyaq < Mandarin or... babé < babah ‘term of address for a Chinese man’ nyaq < nyonya ‘term of address for the wife of a Chinese man’
Older brother: abang (dialect borrowing— source?) Older sister: empoq (< *[m]pu + final glottalization and vowel lowering; direct source?) Younger sibling: adéq (Malay)
Kinship terms currently used by ethnic Chinese in Jakarta Father: papa (< Dutch) Mother: mama (< Dutch) Grandfather: akong (< Hokkien) Grandmother: maq (< Hokkien)
Parents’ siblings: Many different terms (oo, ii, kuku, etc.), but crucially not encang and encing Siblings: Older brother: koko (< Hokkien) Older sister: cici (< Hokkien) Younger sibling: adik (< Malay)
Prototypical pronouns: Ethnic Chinese SingularPlural 1 st personguakita / kita orang 2 nd personlulu orang 3 rd persondiyadiya orang
Prototypical pronouns: Jakarta Indonesian. SingularPlural 1 st personakukita 2 nd personkamukalian 3 rd persondiameréka
Prototypical possessive constructions Ethnic Betawi: rumah Budi Jakarta Chinese: Budi punya rumah Jakarta Indonesian: rumahnya Budi
Pragmatic particles Traditional Malay: lah, pun, pula (rarely used) Malay-derived: nih, tuh, kan, yuk Javanese: koq, ah, sih Sundanese: mah Balinese: dong
The Loanword Typology Project A collaborative project coordinated by the Department of Linguistics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. In this project, we study lexical borrowing patterns in about 40 languages from around the world. Each language is the responsibility of a single author, an expert in the language and its history. For each language, lexical data is collected based on a list of 1460 meanings.
The Loanword Typology Project The results of the projects will be published in two volumes, one with general findings, the other with case studies; the consolidated database will be included in an electronic form. The aim is to provide a systematic basis for claims about borrowability and borrowing patterns, as well as about grammatical, social, and cultural conditions for borrowing. The lexical meanings include all those on the list of the Intercontinental Dictionary Series, another MPI EVA project.
Balinese (4) bianglalathe rainbow menénténgto carry in hand lindungthe freshwater eel sampingthe side Javanese (33) caplakthe flea jénggotthe beard ketombéthe dandruff ususthe intestines or guts cérétthe kettle jagungthe maize/corn singkongthe cassava/manioc jamurthe mushroom kapanwhen?
paronthe anvil timbalthe lead merintihto groan mengertito understand Kapanwhen? warga(negara)the citizen kalithe river or stream rembulanthe moon wanitathe woman bocahthe child(1) bapak mertuathe father-in-law ibu mertuathe mother-in-law leluhurthe ancestors bréwokthe beard kerongkonganthe throat kétékthe armpit
blangkon the headband or headdress payudarathe breast terpelésétto slide or slip gagasanthe idea konyolstupid menyulutto light enggak/nggakno lontéthe prostitute ani-anithe sickle (actually k.o. small reaping knife) Sundanese (3) monyétthe monkey kelapathe coconut situthe lake (man-made)