Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Texas Literacy Initiative overview Routines/Strategies & Summer InSTITUTE Focus: Grades 6 - 12 2014 - 2015 Presented by PACE EARLY COLLEGE HIGH SCHOOL.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Texas Literacy Initiative overview Routines/Strategies & Summer InSTITUTE Focus: Grades 6 - 12 2014 - 2015 Presented by PACE EARLY COLLEGE HIGH SCHOOL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Texas Literacy Initiative overview Routines/Strategies & Summer InSTITUTE Focus: Grades Presented by PACE EARLY COLLEGE HIGH SCHOOL TLI Teacher Specialist Patricia Cisneros Young Introduce self and welcome participants.

2 Do your students look like this???
Video © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

3 Reading With Purpose

4 Comprehension Purpose Questions (CPQs)
Thoughtful “questions appear to be effective for improving learning from reading because they: give students a purpose for reading; focus students’ attention on what they are to learn; help students to think actively as they read; encourage students to monitor their comprehension; and help students to review content and relate what they have learned to what they already know” (CIERA, 2003). Say: A thoughtful comprehension purpose question can enhance comprehension because it provides a support for students. A purpose question acts as a scaffold to help students navigate through text and to think about the critical information we want them to understand. Copyright 2012 Texas Education Agency and the University of Texas System

5 Going From Good to Great!
A good CPQ: Is answered in the text either explicitly or implicitly. Involves student thinking. Will focus on comprehension. Relates to student learning. A great CPQ: Cannot be completely answered until students have read the entire text. Involves higher order thinking, inferences, text evidence or synthesis of information. Will deepen and extend comprehension. Gets at the heart of what you want students to understand. Relates to the cognitive strategy(ies) currently being taught. Say: Remember our Good to Great card? These are very similar for elementary and high school. Pictured here is the high school card. If we use this card wisely, we should see teachers setting strong CPQs. Let’s review this card now. Click for first bullet. Say: A good CPQ is answered through reading the text. Sometimes we might think of a question that is not answered in the text, either directly or indirectly. That would not be a good CPQ. For example: if I am reading Goldilocks, “Why do the bears like porridge?” would not be a good CPQ because it is not answered in the text. Click for second bullet. Say: A great CPQ, however, is not answered until students have read the entire text. If a question can be answered on the first or second page, we would choose a different CPQ. Click for third bullet. Say: Good CPQs will lead our students to think, not just pick out details from the text. Click for fourth bullet. Say: A great CPQ will lead our students to use higher order thinking. They may have to make inferences, combining text evidence with their background knowledge. Click for fifth bullet. Say: Good CPQs help our students focus on meaning and the important information in a text. Click for sixth bullet. Say: Great CPQs will lead our students to understand more deeply each time they read a text. While my first CPQ might address the story as a whole, with each reading I ask my students to dig deeper and be more thoughtful in their reading. Click for seventh bullet. Say: A good CPQ will not just deepen understanding, but will help our students make links to information they’ve learned previously. Click for final bullet. Say: A great CPQ will link to a comprehension strategy or skill I’m currently teaching. For example, if I’m teaching my students to analyze characters, I might use the question, “How would you describe Goldilocks and why?” because it links to that skill. We have provided you with a Good to Great card that you may wish to keep close by as you plan CPQs.

6 Think-Turn-Talk Introduce yourself and welcome participants.
Say: Let’s begin by reviewing the materials you need for this training. (Hold items up as you talk.) Say: You have 2 sets of handouts. You should have 1 set that says Think-Turn-Talk PowerPoint Handout, and one that says Additional Handouts.    Now that we have all of our materials ready, let’s begin our session.

7 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Think-time Think-Turn-Talk provides think-time (also referred to as wait-time) for all students, but especially for those who need it. Let’s consider think-time. How long do you predict think-time usually lasts after a teacher asks a question? Teachers will be asked to explain what they do in their classrooms. What has worked for you to get students to discuss the topic? What have you done in your classroom that has been successful? © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

8 3 seconds 1.5 seconds Think-time Positive effects on students:
“The length and correctness of their responses increase. The number of their ‘I don't know’ and no answer responses decreases. The number of volunteered, appropriate answers by larger numbers of students greatly increases. The scores of students on academic achievement tests tend to increase.” (Stahl, 1994) 3 seconds 1.5 seconds Click for 1.5 seconds to appear. Say: Mary Budd Rowe (in Stahl, 1994) was the first to investigate wait-time/think-time (periods of silence that followed teacher questions and students' completed responses). She found that think-time “rarely lasted more than 1.5 seconds in typical classrooms” (Stahl, 1994). Often, shorter amounts of think-time are provided to students who are perceived as “slow” or “poor” learners (Cotton, 2001). Researchers have discovered, however, that when these periods of silence lasted at least… Click for 3-5 seconds to appear. Say: 3 seconds, many positive things happened to both students' and teachers' behaviors and attitudes. Click for positive effects on students to appear. Read slide. Copyright 2012 Texas Education Agency and the University of Texas System

9 Application “…the brain learns best when it ‘does’, rather than when it ‘absorbs’ [Pally, 1997]. Thus, all students must think at a high level to solve knotty problems and to transform the ideas and information they encounter.” (Tomlinson & Kalbfleisch, 1998, p. 54) Say: PATRICIA WILL GIVE ANECDOTAL EVIDENCE OF WHAT HAS WORKED WITH HER STUDENTS: GROUP WORK (SIOP), PRESENTING GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS AS A GROUP AND INDIVIDUALLY Think-Turn-Talk allows students to apply learned strategies or skills in context. Brain research tells us that when teachers allow in depth discussion in their classrooms among students and teachers and students with students, knowledge is embedded. What has been your experience in your classrooms with student led discussion? What has been successful in your classrooms? What would you change? What would you improve? Read slide. Copyright 2012 Texas Education Agency and the University of Texas System

10 Vocabulary and Oral Language Development
Good morning/afternoon! My name is ______________. I am a/an ________________ at _________________. Welcome to the Vocabulary and Oral Language Development session. You have a packet of materials that includes the following: Participant Notes, a three-slides-per-page handout of the slides in this presentation Four handouts (including references) Vocabulary Cards, on a ring Seven resources Routine for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction, a laminated card Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts at The University of Texas at Austin © 2013 Texas Education Agency/The University of Texas System

11 Vocabulary and Oral Language Development
Words that make up speech (oral) or text (reading and writing) and their meanings Distinctions: Receptive vocabulary: Requires a reader to associate a specific meaning with a given label Oral vocabulary Reading vocabulary Expressive vocabulary: Requires a speaker or writer to produce a specific label for a particular meaning Writing vocabulary Through this presentation, we will examine vocabulary development, which includes oral language development. Vocabulary includes the words that make up speech or text and their meanings. A first, important distinction to consider is between receptive and expressive vocabulary. Oral vocabulary can be both receptive and expressive. For example, a young child might be able to understand the phrase, “Please place your shoes on top of that shelf,” and would show understanding by carrying out the task. However, this same child might not be able to verbalize all of those words. A second distinction is between oral, reading, and writing vocabulary. Oral vocabulary represents words that students understand and can use both when they speak and when they listen to others speak. Reading vocabulary consists of words that students understand when reading them in text. Writing vocabulary includes words that students understand well and can use in their writing. Reading vocabulary can be thought of as receptive. Students reading a passage or story will use the vocabulary and context of what they are reading to gain meaning from the text. Writing vocabulary can be considered expressive, considering that a young writer would need to use the correct words in context to express or convey the meaning of the written text. (Cunningham, 2005; Nagy, 2005; Stahl & Nagy, 2006) © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts at The University of Texas at Austin © 2013 Texas Education Agency/The University of Texas System

12 Vocabulary Instruction: What It Is
Vocabulary and Oral Language Development Vocabulary Instruction: What It Is Indirect: Engagement in discussions and reading Direct: Explicit instruction of words through the following: Teaching the use of context Using models, demonstrations, illustrations, graphic organizers, and classroom discussions SHARE HOW YOU HELP STUDENTS ACQUIRE VOCABULARY IN YOUR CLASSROOMS. Indirect vocabulary acquisition occurs when students have meaningful conversations with adults and peers as well as when they read or are read to. Thus, listening to and reading a wide variety of text in multiple genres greatly improves students’ oral vocabulary skills. How do you handle students who refuse to use the “big words” that they just learned in their reading or class lesson? What do you do? What has been successful for you? Has anyone here struggled with vocabulary acquisition? How about Dictionary and Thesaurus use? How do you use the Dictionaries and Thesauruses in your classrooms? Students also need to be directly taught vocabulary words. Teaching vocabulary directly builds students’ knowledge of words, improving their reading comprehension. Teachers who actively teach their students vocabulary realize measurable gains in student comprehension of text. Effective vocabulary instruction includes teaching students how to use context to determine the meaning of words encountered in text. Such teaching incorporates models, demonstrations, illustrations, graphic organizers, and classroom discussions to help students learn words and develop oral language skills. (Cunningham, 2005; Nagy, 2005; Stahl & Nagy, 2006) © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts at The University of Texas at Austin © 2013 Texas Education Agency/The University of Texas System

13 Why Should We Teach Vocabulary?
Vocabulary and Oral Language Development Why Should We Teach Vocabulary? Each month, children in high-poverty homes are exposed to 600 fewer different words than children in professional homes. Cumulative Monthly Vocabulary Spoken in the Home Children in professional homes 1,100 words Children in working-class homes 700 words Children in high-poverty homes 500 words Patricia gives a demonstration of a woman shopping in a grocery store: Poor mom vs. professional mom (Eggplant: cookbook, purple, recipe, parmesan cheese) Having large oral and reading vocabularies is essential for academic success. This study and similar research has shown that young children from different socioeconomic backgrounds hear varying numbers of words. The chart shows how significant those disparities are. By age 4, children in professional homes have heard 32 million more words than those in high-poverty homes. As educators, we are challenged to address the level and diversity of our students’ language experiences. By age 4, children in high-poverty homes have heard 32 million fewer words than those in professional homes. (Hart & Risley, 2003) © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts at The University of Texas at Austin © 2013 Texas Education Agency/The University of Texas System

14 Why Should We Teach Vocabulary Explicitly and Systematically?
Vocabulary and Oral Language Development Why Should We Teach Vocabulary Explicitly and Systematically? Vocabulary knowledge is the key that unlocks the meaning of text: Vocabulary knowledge improves comprehension and fluency. Research has shown that direct and explicit vocabulary instruction is an effective way for students to acquire vocabulary knowledge. Many of you have likely said or heard the following: “My students can read or decode the words, but they don’t understand what the words mean.” How do you solve this problem in your classrooms? Would you share some of the techniques you use in your classrooms to help the students embed vocabulary meanings? We have known the connection between reading comprehension and word knowledge for many years. Vocabulary knowledge affects listening and reading comprehension tremendously. Although understanding the meaning of words is not all that is necessary for reading comprehension, it is a significant piece. We can therefore describe vocabulary knowledge as the tool that unlocks the meaning of text. Or, more simply, if students do not know the meaning of a word, they will have difficulty comprehending the text. Research has shown us that direct and explicit vocabulary instruction is an effective way for students to acquire vocabulary knowledge. Teaching words systematically and explicitly will serve us well in helping our students to increase their oral and reading vocabularies. (Hiebert & Kamil, 2005; McKeown & Beck, 2004; National Center for Education Statistics, 2012; Stahl & Nagy, 2006) © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts at The University of Texas at Austin © 2013 Texas Education Agency/The University of Texas System

15 Effective Vocabulary Instruction: Things to Remember
Vocabulary and Oral Language Development Effective Vocabulary Instruction: Things to Remember Teach vocabulary throughout the day and across content areas. Create opportunities for interactive classroom talk. Engage students in discussions of words, their meanings, and their uses, usually through read-alouds. Make connections to students’ background knowledge. Teach word meanings directly. Use multiple strategies to involve students in active exploration of words. Breadth of vocabulary is critical. The more words a student knows, the more he or she is able to learn. It makes sense that vocabulary instruction must be taught throughout the day and across the content areas. Even at lunch or recess, there are often opportunities to incorporate vocabulary instruction. Multiple exposures to new words in differing contexts increase students’ background and context knowledge, which, in turn, increase word knowledge. Students should be engaged in interactive classroom discussions of words, their meanings, and their uses. Ways to engage students include read-alouds, partnering, and using the Think-Turn-Talk strategy. We already know that making connections to students’ background knowledge is crucial. So, if we know that our students do not have particular background knowledge, we need to build it for them. (August et al., 2005; Hiebert & Kamil, 2005; McKeown & Beck, 2004; Stahl & Nagy, 2006) © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts at The University of Texas at Austin © 2013 Texas Education Agency/The University of Texas System

16 Effective Vocabulary Instruction: Things to Remember (cont.)
Vocabulary and Oral Language Development Effective Vocabulary Instruction: Things to Remember (cont.) Ensure that students encounter new words multiple times. Use dictionaries strategically. Use semantic maps and graphic organizers. Use examples and nonexamples. Explain synonyms and antonyms. Engage students in activities that require them to determine relationships among, between, and within words. <Read and discuss the points on the slide.> You also have Spanish and English lessons and activities in your resource materials that you can use as you work to enhance your vocabulary instruction. Please locate Resource 6: Vocabulary Activities for Extended Student Practice and Resource 7: Oral Language Lessons and mark them for future use. <Provide time for participants to locate these resources.> We are in a wonderful position to instill a love of words and language in our students. Through a direct and explicit vocabulary routine, we can heighten our students’ word consciousness and improve their oral, reading, and writing vocabularies. (August et al., 2005; Hiebert & Kamil, 2005; McKeown & Beck, 2004; Stahl & Nagy, 2006) © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts at The University of Texas at Austin © 2013 Texas Education Agency/The University of Texas System

17 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Cognitive Strategies Making Inferences & Predictions Determining Importance & Summarizing Monitoring & Clarifying Making Connections Asking & Answering Questions Creating Mental Images Say: Here are the cognitive strategies that we just discussed. You will notice that we have highlighted 6 thinking processes that proficient readers use. “…[E]ffective readers actually use a small repertoire of strategies…. For students to acquire such skills to the point of internalization probably requires several years of instruction and scaffolded use, although comprehension gains should be quite pronounced even during the first year (Brown et al., 1996; Pressley et al., 1992). Yes, we have a vision of what it takes to create strategic elementary readers” (Pressley, April 2006, p. 18). Say: Here are the cognitive strategies that we just discussed. You will notice that we have highlighted 6 thinking processes that proficient readers use. “…[E]ffective readers actually use a small repertoire of strategies…. For students to acquire such skills to the point of internalization probably requires several years of instruction and scaffolded use, although comprehension gains should be quite pronounced even during the first year (Brown et al.,1996; Pressley et al., 1992). Yes, we have a vision of what it takes to create strategic elementary readers” (Pressley, April 2006, p. 18). © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

18 Instructional Supports
Cognitive Strategies Instructional Supports Strategy Focus Reading With Purpose (K-12) Making Connections (K-12) Think-Turn-Talk (K-12) Creating Mental Images (K-5) Cognitive Strategy Routine (K-12) Making Inferences & Predictions (K-12) (Two Parts Grades 6-12 only) Determining Importance & Summarizing (K-12) Parts 1 & 2 (Four Parts Grades 3-12) Listening Comprehension (PK-1) Asking & Answering Questions (K-12) Monitoring & Clarifying (Multiple Strategy Use) (K-12) © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

19 Why Cognitive Strategies?
“The idea behind explicit instruction of text comprehension is that comprehension can be improved by teaching students to use specific cognitive strategies or to reason strategically when they encounter barriers to comprehension when reading” (NRP as cited in Torgesen, 2007). Say: Before we delve into the routine for teaching these strategies, we want to say a word about why we’re using the term cognitive strategies. Read slide. Say: The words “cognitive” and “cognition” refer to our thoughts and thought processes. We teach our students many ways of analyzing text, but today we’re focusing on those thinking processes that become automatic when we’re proficient readers. We make these strategies visible to our students. We achieve this through systematic, direct and explicit instruction. The six strategies that we’ve talked about are sometimes called skills, strategies, or thinking processes. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

20 Making Connections Grades 6-12
Introduce self and welcome participants. Let’s begin by reviewing the materials you need for this training. (Hold items up as you talk.) Say: You will have two sets of handouts. You will have a PowerPoint Presentation Handout and Additional Handouts. You will also need the blue and white Cognitive Strategy Routine card, and the orange Cognitive Strategy Lesson Planning card.

21 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Making Connections Grades 3-5 3 Types of Connections Activate Background Knowledge and Make Connections Text-to-Self Text-to-Text Text-to-World Paired Selections Say: Patricia gives an anecdote of what has worked for her in her classroom: Pre-reading research using PowerPoint, Moviemaker, and presenting graphic organizers in group. Also, they need to make a connection with other Subjects like World History, US History, Geography. MIP takes up 65% of the EOC so it is CRITICAL that students be connected to current events. When teaching Making Connections, we should be aware that there are three types of connections readers make to text. Read slide. Say: Let’s take a brief moment to understand these types of connections and how this understanding might impact our instruction. Making Inferences and Predictions © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

22 Making Inferences and Predictions
Grades 6 – 12 Introduce self and welcome participants. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

23 “Inferences are really important and great readers make them all the time. An inference is something a reader knows from reading, but the author doesn’t include it in the book. It helps you understand the story more deeply and helps make books mean something very personal to you.” (Keene & Zimmermann, 2007, p. 148) Say: Here is another example of Step 3. Read slide.

24 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Pedigree Charts, Chapter 14, p. 342 What are the genotypes of both parents on the left in the second row? How do you know? My Answers to the CPQ At the top of the chart is a grandfather. Grandfather has the heterozygous trait. At the top of the chart is a grandfather … The grandfather must be heterozygous for the trait. Text direct Square represents male; circle female. Shaded…expresses the trait; not shaded does not express trait. Horizontal line reps marriage. Vertical line reps children. Square represents a male; circle a female. Shaded shape indicates the trait. Horizontal line = marriage. Vertical line = children. direct Figure 14-3 Circle (mom) and square (dad) are shaded. The grandfather of the male has the trait. They are linked to two circles (children). Only one circle is shaded. Dad must be heterozygous, because only one of his parents has the trait and he has the trait. We don’t’ know about mom’s parents, but since only one of their kids has the trait, mom has to be heterozygous. If she was homozygous, then both kids would have the trait. Both parents have the heterozygous genotype for the white forelock. Will this graphic organizer work in your classroom? Why or why not? Here’s what I know. Click through the slide, reading the information as it appears. Use phrases like: It tells me directly in the text. I have to use clues from the text along with my background knowledge to make an inference. Say: Again, this think-aloud lesson has provided a model for students how to use the graphic organizer to help them interpret information. Figure 14-3 inference © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

25 Annotating the Text “Annotating text is one of the most common comprehension-enhancing strategies used by proficient readers (Daniels & Steineke, 2011, p. 41). “When students capture their thinking while reading, they are more likely to return to texts, participate in discussion and have an easier time starting writing assignments. They also use their marked text to review and study” (Tovani, 2004, p. 68). Say: Daniels and Steineke (2011) tell us that … Read slide. How do you use annotation in your classroom? Do you model first? What do you do? What has worked? What has been effective? Share your experiences about annotation with the rest of us?

26 Annotating the Text Text Excerpt 87 years ago (1776 when the Declaration of Independence was signed) marked the beginning of our nation. CPQ: What is Lincoln saying in this speech? Say: MODELING We’ve selected to use the Gettysburg Address for our think-aloud. This is a famous yet complicated text. Many have a difficult time understanding and interpreting exactly what Lincoln is saying in this speech. This is a good example to show students how to annotate the text to increase comprehension. Sample Script for modeling the think-aloud: When we read historical speeches, it can sometimes be difficult to understand the speaker’s message. They often use language that is formal and different from the way we speak today. Let’s read Abraham Lincoln’s speech The Gettysburg Address. When we read this speech, I’m going to show you how I annotate the text to help me understand it better. Making notes on the text allows me to look for the important information. I can take that text evidence along with my background knowledge to make inferences to help me interpret the meaning of the speech. My CPQ is simply going to be, What is Lincoln saying in this speech? BEGIN READING. STOP READING AFTER: “… a new nation ...” Say: Let me stop here because this part is already a bit confusing. No one I know says Fourscore and seven years ago. So how long is that? I happen to know that it is 87 years ago. If I think about the fact that he’s making this speech in 1863, then, 87 years ago would be in That’s when the Declaration of Independence was signed. (click). He’s saying that this marked the beginning of our nation. Let me read this paragraph again. Reread the paragraph. Say: The fact that he chose this phrase from the Declaration of Independence to share helps us to know that he thinks this is very important. What’ most interesting about this, is that I know that Lincoln was set on abolishing slavery. I think he’s saying (click read the sticky note). The country was founded on the idea that all men are created equally. At the time of this speech, Lincoln was looking to abolish slavery.

27 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Now, he’s wondering if our nation will survive because of the war. He’s come to dedicate a portion of the battlefield as a memorial to those who have died in the war. Consecrate: To dedicate, honor. Hallow: To honor as holy. Dedicate, consecrate, and hallow all have similar meanings. So, he’s stressing the importance of this idea. It isn’t necessary to have a president declare this battleground an honored place, because the brave who have died have already made it an honored place. CONTINUE READING. STOP AFTER THE FIRST SENTENCE. MODELING I think that the word now is important. In the last paragraph he talked about the past and now he is talking about the present. This address was given at the time when the civil war had taken its toll on many soldiers. He’s wondering if the nation can endure it much longer. (Click) CONTINUE READING. STOP AFTER “ … the nation might live.” Click read sticky note. CONTINUE READING. STOP AFTER “ … this ground.” These are tricky words. I think I need to look them up. In the dictionary it says … CONTINUE READING THE REST OF THE PARAGRAPH. These are the words that seem most important to me here. The brave men deserve to be remembered. Above our poor power is talking about the president. Say: Now you have seen a brief example of how we might think aloud for students how to annotate the text. As we continued to read this speech, I could invite students to share their thinking and we could note their thinking on sticky notes and add to the text. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

28 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Annotating the Text After we model multiple times for students, we can annotate text together (Step 6). Gradually, we release responsibly so students are able to successfully annotate complex chunks of texts independently (Step 8), increasing their ability to make inferences and predictions while reading. Read slide. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

29 Teaching Making Inferences
Graphic Organizers – highly supportive. Annotating Text – less supportive. Say: Today we have discussed two ways to teach our middle and high school students to make inferences. Let’s take a moment to review: We discussed how to use a graphic organizer as a support or scaffold for making inferences. We talked about the importance of teaching students to annotate complex text while reading. We stressed that we need to keep this process, clear, meaningful and easy to follow. We want to reinforce that annotating text should be consistent process across grade levels and disciplines. This approach is less supportive than using the graphic organizer. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

30 Creating mental Images
Say: Teaching students to create mental images while reading is another way we can support students in making inferences and predictions. We have to be careful not to assume that all readers just naturally create mental images, this is not the case. In fact, if we did a survey right now of the room, we might find that some adults here today don’t create mental images while reading. Research has shown that comprehension is enhanced when students are explicitly taught to create mental images while reading. Students who create mental images while reading, tend to enjoy reading more and also monitor comprehension, both of which enhance understanding of all kinds of texts (Almasi, 2003, p. 150). Creating mental Images © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

31 Creating Mental Images
“Visualizing strengthens our inferential thinking. When we visualize, we are in fact inferring, but with mental images rather than words and thoughts. When we create mental images we take the words from the text and mix them with our background knowledge to create a picture in our mind. We use all of our senses to create mental images. In literary texts, this helps us to understand what the setting looks like, what a character looks like, how characters are behaving, etc. In informational text, creating mental images helps us to understand the dimensions of size, space and time.” (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007, p. 130) Read slide.

32 Why Should We Teach Creating Mental Images?
Increase motivation and engagement Improve literal comprehension Improve integration of new information with background knowledge Aid in making inferences, identifying main ideas, and determining importance Help students to uncover text structures Makes texts memorable and increases retention (Kelley, & Clausen-Grace, 2013, Zwiers, 2010, Wilhelm, 2004) Say: We teach students to create mental images because it leads to deeper understanding. Creating Mental Images during reading has many other benefits as well. When students are encouraged to create mental images while reading, we see an increase in motivation and engagement. The most effective teachers have been found to promote high levels of student engagement (Taylor, Pearson, Clark & Walpole, 1999). Because Creating Mental Images brings the text alive, it is often one of the most enjoyable strategies to teach and learn. Thus, our students become more motivated. When students create mental images while reading we see improvement in literal comprehension, as well, we see improvement in integration of new information with existing background knowledge. Creating Mental Images can also support other cognitive strategies. That is why we often make the decision to teach it before we teach making inferences, determining importance, or asking questions. This strategy helps students uncover text structures as well, it makes texts memorable and increases retention.

33 Creating Mental Images
© 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

34 Big Ideas Don’t make assumptions. All 5 senses and emotions.
Mental images vary. Vivid text. Say: Today we have discussed a variety of ways to teach our students to create mental images. Let’s take a moment to revisit the Big Ideas: We discussed the importance of not assuming all students automatically know how to create mental images. This means we must make our thinking visible to our students through the use of think-alouds. It’s important to remember that when we create mental images, we not only use visual imagery but also all five of our senses and our emotions or feelings. We also learned that the mental images we create are not the same for everyone. Each of us uses our own background knowledge along with the text to create images that belong to us. The final Big Idea for today is the importance of selecting text that uses vivid language for modeling the strategy. With these ideas in mind, I’ll leave you with this quote: Click for next slide.

35 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Determining Importance & Summarizing Informational Text Grade 6 − Grade 12 Say: Welcome to Determining Importance & Summarizing Informational Text. Let’s begin by reviewing the materials you need for this training. (Hold items up as you talk.) Say: You should have four sets of handouts, the PowerPoint Handout, Additional Handouts, Text Excerpts and a package of graphic organizers. You will also need your blue and white Cognitive Strategy Routine Card and the orange Lesson Planning Card for Determining Importance and Summarizing. At the end of this training, you will each pick up a Determining Importance Tools poster. Now that we have all of our materials ready, let’s begin our session. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

36 Say: As we look at and discuss the strategy of Determining Importance & Summarizing, we want to keep in mind that the purpose is to support our students by providing one more piece of the comprehension puzzle. Remember, although we may highlight or focus on one strategy to make the strategy explicit, we need to ensure that our students know that strategies don’t happen in isolation. For example, we don’t just create mental images or just make inferences and predictions as we read, instead, we use multiple strategies automatically, interchangeably and usually, we use more than one at a time. It’s especially important for us to reinforce this notion at the middle and high school level. We do not want to teach isolated strategies for very long at all. Michael Pressley (2000) tells us that, “Strategies are taught just a few at a time and students learn to coordinate multiple strategies as they read. Strategies instruction is long-term and woven through the content areas so students learn to apply appropriate strategies to comprehend a wide range of genres” (Isreal & Duffy, 2009, p. 512).

37 Why Should We Teach Determining Importance & Summarizing?
It helps readers to… Improve overall comprehension. Manage excessive amounts of information. Focus attention. Extract relevant information. Build relationships among concepts contained in text. (CIERA 2003; Coyne, Chard, Zipoli, & Ruby, 2007; Duke & Pearson, 2002; Keene & Zimmermann, 2007 Silver, Strong, & Perini, 2000; Thiede & Anderson, 2003) ) Say: Being able to determine importance and summarize is critical to being a successful student. This cognitive strategy has a number of benefits . It helps readers to … Read bulleted statements on slide. Continue reading bullets on next slide.

38 Why Should We Teach Determining Importance & Summarizing?
It helps readers to… Understand author’s purpose. Remember text. Identify theme. Make connections. Monitor understanding. (CIERA 2003; Coyne, Chard, Zipoli, & Ruby, 2007; Duke & Pearson, 2002; Keene & Zimmermann, 2007 Silver, Strong, & Perini, 2000; Thiede & Anderson, 2003) Read bulleted statements on slide.

39 Determining Importance & Summarizing?
How Should We Teach Determining Importance & Summarizing?

40 Topic, Main Idea, or Summary?
Term Definition Example Topic Who or what the text is about; can often be expressed in one or two words. Sharks Main Idea What the text says about the topic; can often be expressed in one sentence or less. Sharks do many things. Summary A synthesis of the important ideas in a text; may be of varying length, expressed in the reader’s own words and should reflect the structure of the text. Sharks swim through the oceans hunting for prey, such as fish and seals. Sometimes, they work together to attack prey and may even engage in playful activities. Say: Take out Handout 2 and follow along as we go over this chart. This is a simple example for discussion purposes. In order for teachers to explain Determining Importance and Summarizing to students, we must clarify the associated terms in our own minds. Our state standards, the TEKS , expect students to distinguish between topic, main idea, and summary. What are the differences between these three terms? The topic of a text is “who” or “what” it is about (Silver, Strong & Perini, 2000). The topic can often be expressed in one or two words. For an informational book about sharks, the topic may be, simply, “sharks.” The main idea is a brief statement of what the text says about the topic (Silver, Strong & Perini, 2000). The main idea may be expressed as a single sentence or less. If the informational book describes things that sharks do, the main idea might be: “Sharks do many things.” A summary is more complicated than a main idea, as “constructing main ideas [is] .. a critical component of the summarization process” (Johnston & Afflerbach, 1985). A summary synthesizes the important ideas from a text, and the reader expresses them in his or her own words (CIERA, 2003). Summaries include main idea statements from various parts of the text, but they are more than simply stringing together main ideas. The relationships between these main ideas must be probed and interpreted, then expressed in a succinct format – often a few sentences or less. A summary may be as long as necessary to express the important ideas in a text and how they are related and it should reflect the structure of the text that is being summarized. For example, if a text is a compare and contrast piece, then the summary should be written using a compare and contrast structure. Now that we share a common understanding of these components, let’s think about how we might teach them to students. (Silver, Strong, & Perini, 2000; CIERA, 2003)

41 Considerations for Teaching Students to Identify Topic
“Usually the topic will be apparent by looking at the title, pictures, or subheadings … Higher level text may confuse students by dancing around the topic instead of stating it directly. In these cases, teach students to look for repeated references to help them find a topic.” (Kissner, 2006, p. 34) Read slide. MARYANN TALKS ABOUT HER EXPERIENCE WITH FINDING THE TOPIC AND HOW DIFFICULT IT WAS FOR HER. SHARE WHAT YOU DO IN YOUR CLASSROOMS TO IDENTIFY THE TOPIC IN WHATEVER YOU ARE READING? Say: The key here is, repeated references. The text doesn’t always just repeat the same key words. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

42 Determine importance and Identify Main Idea
Considerations for Teaching Students to Say: Looking across content areas, students are exposed to a greater amount of informational text than narrative. Informational text can be more detailed than narrative text and it covers topics that students may have less background knowledge about. “Thus, main idea identification in unfamiliar expository material may come to resemble a guessing game more than an intellectual exercise,” (Sjostrom & Hare, 1984 , p. 116). This means it’s critical that we show students how to approach these types of text in a way that helps them determine what information is most important for understanding the author’s message. Let’s now turn our attention to how we teach students to determine importance and identify main idea. Determine importance and Identify Main Idea © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

43 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Main Idea “Finding the main idea has never been fun for most struggling readers. They have been asked to find it countless times and have produced inadequate answers.” “Getting the main idea is a complex and challenging habit to develop, and it gets more challenging as texts become more complex in middle school and high school.” (Zwiers, 210, pp ) Read slide. MARYANN’S EXCERPT WILL BE HANDED OUT BY SONIA AND PATRICIA WHILE MARYANN WAITS UNTIL EVERYONE HAS A HANDOUT AND THEN EXPLAINS HER DILEMMA. Say: How many of you have students who struggle to find the main idea? Do they tend to produce inadequate answers? Likely, this is frustrating for both of you. Research tells us that, “Despite general agreement about both the importance of main idea comprehension and the difficulty that students experience with main idea tasks, systematic main idea instruction is seriously lacking at all academic levels,” (Sjostrom & Hare, 1984, p. 114). To support students who struggle, we ensure that our instruction is clear and explicit. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

44 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Main Idea The main idea can usually be stated in one sentence or less. A main idea sentence: Includes the topic. Includes the important information that is said about the topic. Might include a statement about the purpose of the text (Why was the text written?). Say: When identifying main idea, it is helpful to clarify for students what should be included in a good main idea statement or sentence. First, students should remember that a main idea can usually be stated in one sentence or less. If they have been asked to produce a main idea sentence, then they should write the main idea in a complete sentence. Students need to be taught that main idea sentences include two components and by middle school, a possible third component might be required: Read bullets. Say: Typically, the most challenging component of the main idea statement is knowing which information is important to include. This is why we need to teach students how to determine importance. Luckily, we have many tools in our Determining Importance Toolbox which we can teach students so that they can be more successful in identifying important information. Let’s take time now to get acquainted with these tools or scaffolds. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

45 Determining Importance Toolbox
Say: THIS IS A NEAT PINUP TO HAVE LAMINATED FOR YOUR CLASSROOMS SO THAT YOU CAN REMEMBER WHAT TO DO. After reading the text Mathematical Formulation in our opening activity, we discussed that good readers use many tools to help them determine what is important in a text. For example, before reading, good readers think about their purpose for reading and rely on their background knowledge. During reading, they think about text structure and where the important information might be presented. Important information is sometimes found at the beginning or ending of a paragraph in descriptive text like it was in the math paragraph example. Important information may also be repeated several times like it was in our example. These are the types of tools good readers rely on to make sense of challenging informational text. In addition to these tools, information text provides us with a wealth of text features which may also indicate importance. They include, but are not limited to: headings, font effects (such as italics or bold text), graphics and maps, definitions of terms, and captions (Harvey & Goudvis, 2007). After reading, good readers reread parts they found confusing or thought might be important. They certainly take time to process the text by continuing to think or discuss what they have read.    We have provided you a handout that includes the scaffolds in our “Determining Importance Toolbox.” It is Handout 3. You may want to enlarge this handout and hang it in the classroom as a reference for students and may even add to it as you discover other “tools” that help you to determine importance. It is important to be explicit about how these tools can help readers determine importance while reading. If we present all of these tools at once to our students, they may become overwhelmed. Therefore, in a single lesson, the teacher must decide in advance which tools to reinforce in their think-aloud lesson. In other words, the teacher must determine which tools are most important, in a given situation, to help students determine importance. Let’s now take some time to talk in-depth about each of these tools or scaffolds. Remember, the way we teach each of these scaffolds to students is by following our Cognitive Strategy Routine. You will notice that the tools have been organized by what good readers do before, during and after reading.

46 Look for a Main Idea Sentence
Main ideas can be directly stated in the text or inferred. “Baumann (1986) found that only about 15% of paragraphs in adult expository material have the topic sentence in the initial position. He also found that only 30% of the paragraphs have the main idea explicitly stated anywhere in the paragraph. These findings strongly suggest that we must teach students to overcome the lack of an explicitly stated main idea.” (Zwiers, 2010, p. 36) Read slide. SHARE YOUR EXPERIENCES WITH FINDING THE MAIN IDEA. Say: As we saw when we were identifying topic, informational texts don’t always just clearly lay out the topic and main idea for the reader. So, we share this information with students. We let them know that 15% of the time the main idea will be found in the first sentence and 30% of the time it is located elsewhere and then we teach students how to locate those main idea statements that are explicitly stated. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

47 Look for Repeated Words or Phrases
Important information is often repeated. Good readers look for repeated words or phrases that carry similar meaning. If authors are repeating ideas or concepts in various ways, then likely that information is important. Say: Just like we do when trying to identify topic, we can look for repeated words or phrases to help us identify important information. For example, there may be an overall topic for a section of reading and then a main idea for each paragraph contained in the section. Quite often, important information is repeated using similar words or phrases. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

48 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Use Text Features Table of Contents Titles, headings and subheadings Font (colored, italics, bold) Graphics (e.g., photos, diagrams, maps, timelines, etc.) Captions and labels Definitions and pronunciation guide Say: Before reading, the reader takes note of the obvious text features to help them get a sense of what the text is going to be about. During reading, the reader actually uses the features and must be aware of how specific features help them navigate the text. Text features are included in text to provide additional information as well as to support the reader’s comprehension. It is important that we not make assumptions that students just know what various text features are or why an author has included them in the reading. Often, when you know the reason for something, you value it that much more, and more importantly, know how to use it effectively. As teachers, we look for texts that use a variety of text features and we explain in our think-alouds how those features help us navigate through the text. We tell students what the feature is called and how it helps the reader. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

49 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Chunk the Text “…readers who are unaware of text structure do not approach text with any particular plan of action. Consequently, they tend to retrieve information from the text in a seemingly random way. Students aware of text structure on the other hand, tend to “chunk” or organize the text as they read.” (Snow, 2002, p.40) Say: Text features also help to guide the reader in knowing how to chunk the text. For example, headings and sub-headings help students to clearly see how the text can be chunked. As well, students who are aware of text structure have a better sense of how to chunk the text as they read. Read slide. Say: We want to model for students how we as proficient readers recognize text structure and how it helps us to identify main ideas and summarize the text. “Research based on schema theory has shown that the structure of text and how adeptly a reader recognizes that structure affects the amount of information the students remembers”(Mcgee & Richgels, 1985, p. 739 in Piccolo, 1987). © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

50 Five Main Text Structures
? Descriptive Sequential/Chronological Cause and Effect Compare and Contrast Problem and Solution Say: The best way to help students understand various text structure is by providing students with direct and explicit instruction on the various structures of informational text. By middle school and certainly by high school, we hope and expect that our students know this information. Often however, they have not received any direct instruction on how to identify text structure and how to use that information to identify main idea and create a summary. They have been “told” to do it many times, but they may not have ever been “shown” how to do it. Let’s consider the type of common text structures students encounter in informational texts. Read slide. Say: The more students know about text structure the better equipped they are to locate the important information and make sense of the text. Keep in mind, that if students are to summarize text, then their summary should reflect the structure of the text. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

51 Reread and Discuss to Clarify and Identify Main Ideas in the Text
“Helping students become conscious and engaged about what they are reading is an important aspect of reading for meaning and summarization. ‘Good readers read text passages at least twice: once to get the general overview and then again to determine what is salient’(Wormeli, 2005, p. 22). Providing them practice and time to reread text will help them have a better understanding of the purpose for the reading.” (Smith & Zygouris-Coe, 2006, July) Read slide. PATRICIA: I BELIEVE THAT STUDENTS NEED TO BE TAUGHT TO RE-READ EVERYTHING. I ALWAYS ASK MY STUDENTS ‘HOW MANY OF YOU NEED TO READ SOMETHING 4 OR 5 TIMES TO ‘GET IT’?’” AND THEN I RAISE MY HAND ALSO TO LET THEM KNOW THAT EVEN A TEACHER WITH A MASTER’S DEGREE AND WHO IS A PUBLISHED WRITER NEEDS TO RE-READ. YOU MUST MAKE IT CLEAR TO THE STUDENTS THAT RE-READING IS ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

52 Reread and Discuss to Clarify and Identify Main Ideas in the Text
Reread to clarify and confirm the main idea. Discuss to consolidate understanding and remember the text better. Say: After reading, we prompt students to reread to ensure that they have a good understanding of what they hoped to learn from the text and to confirm that they’ve identified the true main idea. We also provide opportunities for students to share their thinking and discuss with one another. When students engage in discussion about informational text, they typically have to restate the main ideas in their own words which helps to consolidate their understanding and remember the text better. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

53 Summarize informational text
Considerations for Teaching Students to Say: Let’s now move on to thinking about considerations for teaching students to summarize informational text. Summarizing is an important skill that often has never been directly taught to students. In fact, few students even at the college level are proficient at summarizing (University of Kansas, n.d.). “Summarizing can be used as both an assessment tool and a strategy to enhance comprehension” (Kissner, 2006, p. 3). Summarize informational text © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

54 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Summarizing “…summarizing helps us to understand and make meaning of the events of everyday life—what we read, what we view, what we experience.” (Kissner, 2006, p.3) Say: We use summarization in our day-to-day lives when we update a friend on a favorite television show or tell a spouse about our day at work. Read slide. Say: Most of our students know that in summarizing something, they are providing a shortened version which includes the most important details. Even so, effective summarizing is much more than this. We cannot assume our students know how to summarize effectively and in a manner that supports comprehension. Many students have not received direct instruction in summarization. Instead, from the early grades to the later grades, most students have been told to write a summary but have not been shown or provided a clear explanation of what a good summary should include. For many students it has become a guessing game. We must also keep in mind that the demands of summarization increases as text becomes more complex. For example, a student could be successful with summarizing in fifth grade, but struggle with this skill in high school. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

55 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Summarizing “To summarize effectively, students need to recognize main ideas and key details, disregard unimportant or repetitive ideas, construct topic sentences, paraphrase, and collapse or combine lists or events into general statements.” (Graham, S., MacArthur, C., & Fitzgerald, J., 2013, p.339) Read slide. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

56 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Summarizing A summary should: Reflect the structure of the text. Include a topic sentence. Include the main ideas. Include important details. Be paraphrased and shorter than the original text. Read slide. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

57 © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Keep in mind that identifying text structure is not the goal. The goal is for students to internalize knowledge about text structure and use it to enhance their reading comprehension and improve their writing organization. (Orcutt, K., n.d.) Read slide. © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

58 Cognitive Strategies Coming Attractions
Making Inferences & Predictions Determining Importance & Summarizing Monitoring & Clarifying Making Connections Asking & Answering Questions Creating Mental Images Say: Here are the cognitive strategies that we just discussed. You will notice that we have highlighted 6 thinking processes that proficient readers use. “…[E]ffective readers actually use a small repertoire of strategies…. For students to acquire such skills to the point of internalization probably requires several years of instruction and scaffolded use, although comprehension gains should be quite pronounced even during the first year (Brown et al., 1996; Pressley et al., 1992). Yes, we have a vision of what it takes to create strategic elementary readers” (Pressley, April 2006, p. 18). © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

59 Every Kid Needs A Champion
Video Here I say…… © 2013 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

60 Texas Literacy Initiative Highlights
2014 LEADERSHIP SUMMIT & TLI SUMMER INSTITUTE District Level Support of the Texas State Literacy Plan Presenter Notes: Welcome to the Texas Literacy Initiative Highlights. I am_________________. Say: I will be providing the Texas Literacy Initiative highlights that were presented throughout the 3 days of the 2014 Leadership, Summit, and Institute this summer. A Letter by Kathy Stewart addresses the Texas Literacy Initiative Educators on the TEA & TLI team with the intent to: “further refine your comprehensive literacy plan by utilizing the Draft Version 2.0 of the Texas State Literacy Plan (TSLP). NOTE: Show copy of new spiral version book of the Lasers on Literacy TSLP State Plan book. Prepared by, BISD DLL’s at UT Health Science Center at Houston

61 Presenter Notes: Read Slides highlighted by state level TLI Director (left to right) during the Opening sessions Say: There are reports like the comparison from NAEP that indicates High School seniors’ performance in math and reading has become idle since 2009. (Top right quadrant.) Say: Whereas, looking at TLI at a Glance, 75% of reported 4 yr old children made significant gains in oral language after first year of implementation. (Bottom left quadrant) Say: Since the implementation of federal and state literacy initiatives, special education programs noted a decrease of students served from 11.8% to 8.7% over the past ten years. Say: The last quadrant compares the percent of TLI Districts with all Texas districts from grades 3 to 8 in both reading and writing demonstrating greater percent increase (gains) during the 2012 to 2014 years. (Read green numbers)

62 Presenter Notes: Say: The TLI State Literacy Director Kathy Stewart provided these visuals that exemplify the pathway to ensure Student Success. Read #1. The instruction and teachers are key for students’ success. Read #2. If only the core instruction is being done and interventions are done without any consideration as to what was covered within the core instruction. Then everyone is out of alignment. But if there are intentional plans on what intervention to support the student with from the core program, the student has a better opportunity to grasp the learning. In other words, interventionists and core teachers need to plan or communicate to better serve the student. Read #3. A key element to plan for effective and explicit instruction. Read #4. TLI focuses on Age 0 to Grade 12. Read #5. The LASERS framework of Leadership, Assessment, Student Based Instruction, Effective Instructional Frameworks, Reporting and Accountability, lastly, Sustainability. Read #6. PD cannot be visited one time and then it passes by; instead, it is a result of data outcomes to lead us in the direction to improve instruction, with active monitoring and ongoing support that will act as a catalyst for sustaining TLI efforts.

63 Opening Session Objectives
Review the Texas Literacy Initiative (TLI) grant goals Review the Texas State Literacy Plan (TSLP) components Introduce the TSLP Version 2.0 Review the TSLP resources Presenter Notes: Say: With that in mind these are the Opening Session Objectives: Read Slide: © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

64 Texas Literacy Initiative Grant Goals
Increase the oral language and pre-literacy skills of preschool children. Increase the performance of students in K-2 on early reading assessments. Increase the percentage of students who meet or exceed proficiency on the state English Language Arts assessments in grades 3-12. Increase the use of data to inform all decision making. Increase the implementation of effective literacy instruction. Presenter Notes: Summarize the TLI Grant Goals: Say: What is the operative verb in these goals? Response: “INCREASE.” Emphasize or Say: 1. oral language, preschool children’s pre-literacy skills 2. K-2 students’ performance on early reading assessments Read #3. Increase the percentage of students who meet or exceed proficiency on the state English Language Arts assessments in grades 3-12, especially the ELL population. 4. Decision making based on use of student data. 5. Implementation of effective literacy instruction © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

65 The Texas State Literacy Plan (TSLP)
Presenter Notes: (Point to each component as you explain) Say: The Texas State Literacy Plan (TSLP) is customized by three age/grade level groupings. The framework is organized into 6 essential components: Leadership, Assessment, Standards-based instruction, Effective Instructional Framework, Reporting/Accountability and Sustainability. The TSLP is composed of Action Steps for each component of the framework at each age/grade level Implementation ratings allow campuses to assess their level of implementation and indicators further define these ratings for each action step Samples of evidence provide tools for implementing each Action Step Lastly, Resources help campuses move towards full implementation of each Action Step © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

66 © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
The TSLP Online Presenter Notes: Say: Two websites facilitate learning about the TSLP: Project Share has many professional development resources and courses (including the TSLP course) The TSLP Resource Website is designed to support the development of a comprehensive literacy program at your campus. © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

67 The Texas State Literacy Plan
Presenter Notes: Say: In the following slides we will re-capture the Six Essential Components of the Framework. (Optional activity for audience to be engaged and review all the components.) Note: You may want to write out the components on index cards and pass out to some participants so they can Read Aloud the sections that are bulleted. Let your audience know that you will call out the letter of the acronym, the audience will chorally chime out the name, for example: I say, “L”, audience says “Leadership”, then the reader will read out components out loud as participants are listening and following the text. Keep in mind that Leadership is lengthy and you may want to have two participants share the read aloud. © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

68 TSLP Component Specifics
Leadership Leadership teams meet regularly to examine student performance data; determine what students need to be successful; create a plan of action for providing resources of time, materials, and professional development; and implement the plan and evaluate results. Presenter Notes: Say: The first component is Leadership. (Read Slide pertaining to Leadership) © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

69 Language & Pre-literacy Development Plan/Data-informed Plan
District TLI goals for the Literacy Line Site/Campus Improvement Plans A Language and Pre-Literacy Development Plan (LPLD) for each age 0-School Entry site A Data-informed Plan (DiP) for each K-12 campus LPLD/DIP include targeted goals; action steps to accomplish the goals; resources necessary to support achievement of the goals; individuals responsible for monitoring progress towards the goals; interim progress monitoring checkpoints; and timelines for completion of the action steps. Presenter Notes: Say: CBLT members created the Data Informed Plan for their campus. Read the elements of the DIP listed on the slide © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

70 Language & Pre-literacy Development Plan/Data-informed Plan
District TLI goals for the Literacy Line Site/Campus Improvement Plans A Language and Pre-Literacy Development Plan (LPLD) for each age 0-School Entry site A Data-informed Plan (DiP) for each K-12 campus LPLD/DIP include targeted goals; action steps to accomplish the goals; resources necessary to support achievement of the goals; individuals responsible for monitoring progress towards the goals; interim progress monitoring checkpoints; and timelines for completion of the action steps. Presenter Notes: Say: CBLT members created the Data Informed Plan for their campus. Read the elements of the DIP listed on the slide © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

71 TSLP Component Specifics
Assessment Assessment provides the foundation for collecting student data and guides decision making at every level including determining specific instructional needs; identifying students at risk of difficulties; and evaluating the success of learning. Presenter Notes: Say: The second component is Assessment (Read Slide pertaining to Assessment) © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

72 TSLP Component Specifics
Standards-Based Instruction SBI ensures that there is a solid foundation of instruction based on the Texas Infant, Toddler, and Three-Year-Old Early Learning Guidelines; Texas Prekindergarten Guidelines; and Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (in both English and Spanish). Presenter Notes: Say: The third component is Standards Based Instruction (Read Slide pertaining to Standards Based Instruction) © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

73 TSLP Component Specifics
Effective Instructional Framework EIF is built on a Response to Intervention (RtI) model that provides a foundation of high quality literacy instruction to all students; and provides additional literacy instruction for students who demonstrate a need for more support. Presenter Notes: Say: The fourth component is Effective Instructional Framework (Read Slide pertaining to Effective Instructional Framework) © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

74 TSLP Component Specifics
Reporting and Accountability Reporting and Accountability ensures that systems are in place to collect and share student data; examine performance data; and communicate progress toward goals. Presenter Notes: Say: The fifth component is Reporting/Accountability (Read Slide pertaining to Reporting/Accountability) © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

75 TSLP Component Specifics
Sustainability The ultimate key to ensuring students leave our public schools as college- and career-ready Texans includes leveraging funding resources; evaluating implementation continuously; providing effective professional development; monitoring and supporting teaching and learning; and focusing decision making on data. Presenter Notes: Say: The sixth component is Sustainability (Read Slide pertaining to Sustainability) This school year CBLTs will be focusing on Assessment in the Fall and Reporting/Accountability and Sustainability in the Spring. © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

76 © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Daryl Michel Assistant Director, Academic Foundation Initiatives Institute for Public School Initiatives (IPSI) College of Education The University of Texas at Austin Presenter Notes: Say: Daryl Michel provided the highlights on the TSLP Online Courses at the Institute. © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

77 © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
The TSLP Online Presenter Notes: Say: Lets take a closer look at how these websites (Project Share and TSLP Resource) help facilitate learning about and using the TSLP online courses and resources. The TSLP Online courses are on Project Share. The TSLP online courses are professional development activities with resources that help support a the development of a comprehensive literacy program at the campus level. © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

78 © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
TSLP Version 2.0 All components were revised to facilitate greater alignment across age/grade levels. Substantial revisions were made to Assessment; Effective Instructional Framework; Reporting and Accountability; and Sustainability. Presenter Notes: Say: TSLP components were revised this year to facilitate greater alignment across age/grade levels. These were the areas revised. Read the components: Assessment; Effective Instructional Framework; Reporting and Accountability; and Sustainability. © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

79 © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
TSLP Online Course Presenter Notes: Say: This is a screen shot of the TSLP online course. On the left side you can see the Home-Course menu with and on the right you can see the course description, objectives and the course schedule for the CBLT members. © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

80 © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Implementation Map Presenter Notes: Say: As mentioned before, the course helps you plan and rate your improvement activities on a campus customized implementation map that the CBLT members create. This an example of a campus implementation map. © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

81 © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Resource Library Presenter Notes: Say: This a screen shot of the Resource Library and the search options offered to find resources for the different components and action steps and indicators. © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

82 © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System
Reports Presenter Notes: Say: This is a screen shot of the new section on generating school district Reports. © 2014 Texas Education Agency / The University of Texas System

83 2014 Summit Focus & Session Objectives
Define your role as a Grant Implementation Team (GIT) in supporting TSLP work. Learn a process for GIT support of TSLP implementation. Apply the process at the district level. Presenter Notes: Say: During the Grant Implementation Team Session the Summit Focus & Session Objectives were stated: Read points section:

84 GIT Support at the District Level
What are your district’s current literacy needs and priorities? Which TSLP Action Step is the most commonly selected by sites/campuses? How do the literacy needs and priorities of your district align with the Action Step that was commonly selected? Please explain. For the Action Step selected above, which level C Indicator(s) will be the primary focus for your GIT to support? What action(s) will the GIT take to impact the level C Indicator(s) you have selected? How will the GIT build accountability for the actions planned in question 5? Presenter Notes: Say: Six main questions were discussed as the main framework to support the districts while taking them through the process.

85 Effective Instructional Framework (EIF) Action Steps
2 Effective Instructional Framework (EIF) Action Steps Presenter Notes: Say: The EIF Framework in the TSLP newly revised version 2.0 was referenced. Effective Instructional Framework: Action Steps

86 DISTRICT TSLP SUPPORT Modeling - GIT Support for TSLP Implementation
1. What are your district’s current literacy needs and priorities? 2. Which TSLP Action Step is the most commonly selected by sites/campuses? 3. How do the literacy needs and priorities of your district align with the Action Step that was commonly selected? Please explain. 4. For the Action Step selected above, which level C Indicator(s) will be the primary focus for your GIT to support? 5. What action(s) will the GIT take to impact the level C Indicator(s) you have selected? 6. How will the GIT build accountability for the actions planned in question 5? Presenter Notes: Say: The presenters used the I Do, We Do, You Do to guide and deliver the process and included the documents to write the responses. All districts had the opportunity to present the responses to the following questions. Read Questions:

87 DISTRICT TSLP SUPPORT Defining – Campus TSLP Support
1. How will the GIT monitor the TSLP Implementation Plan Timeline for each site/campus? 2. How will the GIT support sites/campuses to make adjustments if implementation slows or stalls? 3. How will the GIT provide opportunities for sites/campuses to collaborate? 4. For the Action Step selected above, which level C Indicator(s) will be the primary focus for your GIT to support? Presenter Notes: Say: Presenters defined and included scenarios of the four questions posed to the GIT team. All districts had the opportunity to present the responses to the following questions.

88 Returning to Your District – NEXT STEPS
DISTRICT TSLP SUPPORT Returning to Your District – NEXT STEPS Accessing Summit Resources: There is a Project Share group where you can access the Summit resources you’ll need. Log into: Find and/or join the group: Texas Literacy Initiative Grantees PLC. Access materials in the Drop Box File: 2014 TLI Leadership Summit. Presenter Notes: Say: The culminating activity was providing the next steps: the GIT turns around and provides the information to their respective districts. Joining the Texas Literacy Initiative Grantees PLC Log into: On your “My Portal” page in Project Share, click on “Collaboration,” and then on “Groups” in the menu on the left.

89 5 Final Reflection How will we share what was learned and the work we started at the Summit? When will our GIT meet next? What work did not get done today that our GIT will need to continue? What are the most important points from the Summit to convey to our district, and how will we go about disseminating Summit information? Presenter Notes: Say: These were the Final Reflection questions the participants were to include in their NEXT STEPS.

90 “Implementation is a process, not an event
“Implementation is a process, not an event. Implementation will not happen all at once or proceed smoothly, at least not at first.” (Blase, K., Fixsen, D., Friedman, R., Naoom, S., & Wallace, F., 2005) Presentation Notes: Say: Listen carefully to this quote as you reflect your thoughts of how Implementation impacts student learning in your content/classroom. (or at your campus) Read quote: Think……Turn to a partner beside you….Talk.

91 Foundations Description Highlights
Discuss the foundation on which explicit instruction is based. Describe the research, 16 elements, and three underlying principles of explicit instruction. How well you teach = How well they learn Optimizing academic learning time Promoting high levels of success Optimizing amount of content covered Presenter Notes: Lets look at the important information covered during the Foundations Module: Read the Description and Foundations motto: How well you teach=How well they learn Rosenshine says that explicit instruction is “…a systematic method of teaching with emphasis on proceeding in small steps, checking for student understanding, and achieving active and successful participation by all students.” Read Highlights of the Foundations Module Archer and Hughes summarize the Explicit Instruction as: a series of supports or scaffolds; students being guided through the learning process; teachers using clear explanations and demonstrations; and teachers supporting practice with feedback.

92 Lesson Design Description Highlights
Outline an explicit instruction lesson: opening, closing, and body (I DO, WE DO, YOU DO). Teaching is never a static procedure Opening Gaining attention Reviewing and previewing Body Teaching skills and strategies Guided practice Types of prompts Closing Assigning independent work Presenter Notes: Read the Description and Lesson design motto: Teacher is never a static procedure The lesson opening consists of gaining attention, reviewing previously learned skills, and previewing the skills you are planning to cover. The body of the lesson includes the teaching of skills and strategies, introduction of vocabulary and concepts, or the teaching of rules or facts. The lesson closing involves reviewing what was covered during the body of the lesson, previewing what is to come tomorrow or in future lessons, and assigning independent work. When teaching a skill or strategy during the body of the lesson the teacher can organize the lesson by I do, we do, and you do. During the “I do” the teacher demonstrates and describes while students participate. During the “We do” the teacher continues to demonstrate and describe the skill or strategy and begins to prompt students to do the same. During the “You do” the teacher monitors, checks for understanding and provides guided support while the students perform the skill or strategy. Teachers must be cognizant of the gradual release of responsibility depending on the skills/strategies being taught and the readiness of the students.

93 Lesson Design Description Highlights
Outline an explicit instruction lesson: opening, closing, and body (I DO, WE DO, YOU DO). Teaching is never a static procedure Opening Gaining attention Reviewing and previewing Body Teaching skills and strategies Guided practice Types of prompts Closing Assigning independent work Presenter Notes: Read the Description and Lesson design motto: Teacher is never a static procedure The lesson opening consists of gaining attention, reviewing previously learned skills, and previewing the skills you are planning to cover. The body of the lesson includes the teaching of skills and strategies, introduction of vocabulary and concepts, or the teaching of rules or facts. The lesson closing involves reviewing what was covered during the body of the lesson, previewing what is to come tomorrow or in future lessons, and assigning independent work. When teaching a skill or strategy during the body of the lesson the teacher can organize the lesson by I do, we do, and you do. During the “I do” the teacher demonstrates and describes while students participate. During the “We do” the teacher continues to demonstrate and describe the skill or strategy and begins to prompt students to do the same. During the “You do” the teacher monitors, checks for understanding and provides guided support while the students perform the skill or strategy. Teachers must be cognizant of the gradual release of responsibility depending on the skills/strategies being taught and the readiness of the students.

94 Classroom Organization
Description Highlights Emphasize the effective use of available space and the development of rules, routines, and procedures. Space communicates What you expect = What you get Classroom organization Goals and rules Routines and procedures Active engagement Buffer activities Sponge activities Presenter Notes: Read Description and Classroom Organization mottos In addition to selecting content and designing lessons, the teacher must set the stage for instruction by organizing the physical space and establishing classroom rules and routines. All of this is necessary so that the performance (modeling) can be effective. Read Classroom Organization Highlights Predictability predicts ability Avoid the void, for they will fill it

95 Instructional Delivery
Description Highlights Active participation Verbal responses Partner considerations Team considerations Structured choral responses Written responses Response slates Response cards Action responses Focus on fostering active participation and eliciting responses. Many responses, many responders Presenter Notes: Read the Description and motto for Instructional Delivery: Many responses, many responders” The amount of time students are successfully engaged in academic tasks increases academic achievement. If we increased engagement opportunities for our students and delivered instruction at the appropriate level of difficulty, we would see a strong impact on student achievement. Read Highlights of Instructional Delivery These are the many ways to get students to respond to increase participation. When teachers explicitly teach and promote high levels of student engagement they might expect 80% correct responses during initial instruction and 90-95% correct responses during independent practice.

96 Responsive Literacy Instruction
Description Highlights Defining RTI Using data to identify needs Examining Tier I instruction Examining Tier II strategic interventions Examining Tier III intensive interventions Define response to intervention (RTI). Explore how the RTI model can help us create a framework for all students’ success, not just struggling students. Presenter Notes: Read Description and Highlights for Responsive Literacy Instruction We can use a tiered RtI model to systematically support students who are struggling. Research says that implementing an RtI framework can increase student achievement. It encourages teacher to intervene before students fall to far behind. Teachers who implement RtI improve instruction for all students and close achievement gaps. Data is used to identify needs and plan for instruction. Tier 1 instruction should be differentiated to meet the needs of all students. Tier II instruction is additional, strategic interventions provided to struggling students, and Tier III is individualized interventions for students who do not respond to Tier II. We know that quality core instruction with skilled intervention can reduce the # of referrals. No student should be in Tier II or Tier III interventions due to lack of effective core instruction.

97 Planning for Tier I Instruction
Description Highlights Planning steps critical for Tier I instruction Planning considerations for literacy components I DO, WE DO, YOU DO lesson cycle and planning for Tier I instruction Reflection on planning for Tier I instruction Take an in-­-depth look at planning considerations for core literacy instruction. Presenter Notes: Read Description and Highlights for Planning for Tier I When planning for Tier I Instruction teachers need to: -Identify students’ learning needs -Prepare and organize instructional materials and resources Plan day to day instruction including components of literacy, features of effective instruction, and differentiated instruction - Communicate and collaborate with all stakeholders

98 Planning for Tiers II and III Instruction
Description Highlights Take an in-­‐depth look at planning literacy instruction in Tiers II and III. Planning steps critical for Tiers II and III instruction Planning considerations for literacy components I DO, WE DO, YOU DO lesson cycle and planning for Tiers II and III instruction Reflection on planning for Tiers II and III instruction Presenter Notes: Read Description and Highlights for Planning for Tier I When preparing an intervention lesson in both Tier II and Tier III, we want to be dynamic and flexible. We should plan a full intervention lesson with the thought that if students still struggle with the concept or skill, we will need to make adaptations during the intervention to meet their needs. In addition, we want anything that occurs in Tiers II and III to align with the core Tier I instruction. When we reflect back on the data from our Tier I instruction implemented with our students in Tiers II and III, we can determine the learning gaps and consider individual needs. Again, we should be thoughtful and plan for necessary adaptations and other approaches to help struggling students. Finally, we should plan our intervention instruction carefully, including the components of literacy as well as effective instruction and differentiation.

99 Conclusion Description Highlights Reviewing important learning
Identifying goals Identifying benefits Identifying next steps Recall what we learned and identify our goals, benefits, and next steps. Presenter Notes: Read Description and Highlights In conclusion, participants were able to reflect on how explicit instruction can benefit all the diverse learners we have in our classrooms. They also planned and created goals on how they can better implement explicit instruction in their own schools.

100 References Blase, K. A., Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., & Wallace, F. (2005). Operationalizing implementation: Strategies and methods. Tampa: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute. McKinsey & Co. (2007). How the world’s best-performing schools come out on top. Retrieved from Texas Literacy Initiative. (2014). The Texas state literacy plan: A guide for creating comprehensive site/campus-based literacy programs (version 2.0). Texas Education Agency.


Download ppt "Texas Literacy Initiative overview Routines/Strategies & Summer InSTITUTE Focus: Grades 6 - 12 2014 - 2015 Presented by PACE EARLY COLLEGE HIGH SCHOOL."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google