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Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim.

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Presentation on theme: "Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim

2 I. Postwar Settlements Divisions after WWII – Korea divided between Russian/U.S. zones – Taiwan returned to China - ruled by Nationalist leader, Chiang Kai- Shek, emerges as separate republic – U.S. regained Philippines, quickly grants independence (with military presence) – Europeans retook control of Vietnam, Malay and Indonesia – Japan occupied by U.S. forces By 1980s, Pacific Rim nations considered developed nations – Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia – Defined by economic growth, political stability – China, Vietnam join ranks later, once turmoil and instability decreased

3 II. Japan Recovered from WWII quickly (with plenty of aid from U.S.) New political scene, run by Gen. Douglas MacArthur (until 1952) – Rid Japan of wartime political structure Military disbanded, police decentralized, officials removed, political prisoners released – Democratization New constitution - reintroduced parliamentary system, stripped emperor of power Vote for women, encouraged labor unions, abolished Shintoism as state religion Reduced teaching of nationalism, introduced rigid examination systems at all levels Economy – By 1983, only behind U.S. and Germany in terms of growth Automobiles/electronics – high quality, mass quantity – Why so successful? Active govt encouragement – limit imports, very small military budget Education system – highly skilled middle class

4 II. Continued… Why so successful? (continued…) Labor policies favored union/business cooperation Group activities encouraged loyalty Lifetime employment to many workers Individuals highly motivated – few vacations, dedication to particular firm

5 III. Korea North Korea - People's Democratic Republic of Korea – Communist totalitarian state - Kim Il-Sung leader until 1994 South Korea - Republic of Korea – Parliamentary institutions but authoritarian (relaxed in recent years) Korean War – 1950-1953 - N. Korea invades, S. Korea w/ U.N. pushes toward China – China gets involved, pushes back to original borders (38 th parallel) – Sign armistice, ends war Two divergent paths since then – N. Korea - isolated one-man rule Power to one political party + military, essentially cut off from world – S. Korea - help from U.S. economic aid + military bases Economy surges, similar to Japan – large corporations aided by govt – Tensions continued between two nations with occasional border clashes

6 IV. China Chiang Kai-sheks (Nationalist) attacks on communists halted by Japanese imperialism (1930s) – Communists guerilla tactics better able to resist Japanese, win public favor – Communist propaganda attack wins converts – Ensuing civil war – Communists win (1949) Many switch sides – Communists treated soldiers better Kai-shek retreats to Taiwan, Mao proclaims Peoples Republic of China Communists in power – Peoples Liberation Army – administered local politics Repressed secessionist movements – Tibet and Inner Mongolia Fought U.S. out of N. Korea Supported liberation struggle in Vietnam – Elimination of landlord class (3 million executed), became land of peasant farmers – Early 1960s – defeat India in brief war, first nonindustrial nation to develop working nuclear device

7 IV. Continued… 1955 – push the Mass Line approach – Form large agricultural collectives, 90% of Chinas peasant population 1958 – Great Leap Forward – Industrialization push at the farms, not cities/factories – Production of steel in backyard furnaces – Human-labor intensive, rather than machine based – Initiative failed, forced to import grain, other resources 1960s, 70s – Cultural Revolution – Formation of Red Guard – used to eliminate opposition Mao faced opposition from his own party – Pragmatists – Many opposed Great Leap Forward – After Maos death, China firmly in hands of pragmatists – more open to West, individual enterprise, set on path to modern economic superpower

8 V. Vietnam Long history of resisting colonization – China France United States Rise of Vietnamese Nationalist party (1920s) – committed to violent revolution against French Communist party of Vietnam rises from original nationalist movement – Led by Ho Chi Minh – educated in France and Russia during/after WWI – Similar problem as China – no large urban work force to rally, becomes peasant revolution Viet Mihn (communist-nationalist movement) take over north after WWII (southern counterparts called Viet Cong) – Embarrass the French at battle of Dien Bien Phu (1954) – Land, education reforms gain supporters, scares Western powers United States sees Vietnam as first domino – if it falls, all of SE Asia falls – Fail to contain/eliminate communist threat – N. & S. Vietnam unite (1975)

9 Key Vocabulary – ch. 34 Pacific Rim Korean War Hong Kong Peoples Republic of China Mass Line Great Leap Forward Red Guard Cultural Revolution Ho Chi Minh Viet Minh

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