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Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim

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Presentation on theme: "Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim"— Presentation transcript:

1 Nation-Building in East Asia and the Pacific Rim

2 I. Postwar Settlements Divisions after WWII
Korea divided between Russian/U.S. zones Taiwan returned to China - ruled by Nationalist leader, Chiang Kai-Shek, emerges as separate republic U.S. regained Philippines, quickly grants independence (with military presence) Europeans retook control of Vietnam, Malay and Indonesia Japan occupied by U.S. forces By 1980s, Pacific Rim nations considered developed nations Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia Defined by economic growth, political stability China, Vietnam join ranks later, once turmoil and instability decreased

3 II. Japan Recovered from WWII quickly (with plenty of aid from U.S.) New political scene, run by Gen. Douglas MacArthur (until 1952) Rid Japan of wartime political structure Military disbanded, police decentralized, officials removed, political prisoners released Democratization New constitution - reintroduced parliamentary system, stripped emperor of power Vote for women, encouraged labor unions, abolished Shintoism as state religion Reduced teaching of nationalism, introduced rigid examination systems at all levels Economy By 1983, only behind U.S. and Germany in terms of growth Automobiles/electronics – high quality, mass quantity Why so successful? Active gov’t encouragement – limit imports, very small military budget Education system – highly skilled middle class

4 II. Continued… Why so successful? (continued…)
Labor policies favored union/business cooperation Group activities encouraged loyalty Lifetime employment to many workers Individuals highly motivated – few vacations, dedication to particular firm

5 III. Korea North Korea - People's Democratic Republic of Korea
Communist totalitarian state - Kim Il-Sung leader until 1994 South Korea - Republic of Korea Parliamentary institutions but authoritarian (relaxed in recent years) Korean War N. Korea invades, S. Korea w/ U.N. pushes toward China China gets involved, pushes back to original borders (38th parallel) Sign armistice, ends war Two divergent paths since then N. Korea - isolated one-man rule Power to one political party + military, essentially cut off from world S. Korea - help from U.S. economic aid + military bases Economy surges, similar to Japan – large corporations aided by gov’t Tensions continued between two nations with occasional border clashes

6 IV. China Chiang Kai-shek’s (Nationalist) attacks on communists halted by Japanese imperialism (1930s) Communists’ guerilla tactics better able to resist Japanese, win public favor Communist propaganda attack wins converts Ensuing civil war – Communists win (1949) Many switch sides – Communists treated soldiers better Kai-shek retreats to Taiwan, Mao proclaims People’s Republic of China Communists in power People’s Liberation Army – administered local politics Repressed secessionist movements – Tibet and Inner Mongolia Fought U.S. out of N. Korea Supported liberation struggle in Vietnam Elimination of landlord class (3 million executed), became land of peasant farmers Early 1960s – defeat India in brief war, first nonindustrial nation to develop working nuclear device

7 IV. Continued… 1955 – push the Mass Line approach
Form large agricultural collectives, 90% of China’s peasant population 1958 – Great Leap Forward Industrialization push at the farms, not cities/factories Production of steel in “backyard furnaces” Human-labor intensive, rather than machine based Initiative failed, forced to import grain, other resources 1960s, 70s – Cultural Revolution Formation of Red Guard – used to eliminate opposition Mao faced opposition from his own party – Pragmatists Many opposed Great Leap Forward After Mao’s death, China firmly in hands of pragmatists – more open to West, individual enterprise, set on path to modern economic superpower

8 V. Vietnam Long history of resisting colonization
China  France  United States Rise of Vietnamese Nationalist party (1920s) – committed to violent revolution against French Communist party of Vietnam rises from original nationalist movement Led by Ho Chi Minh – educated in France and Russia during/after WWI Similar problem as China – no large urban work force to rally, becomes peasant revolution Viet Mihn (communist-nationalist movement) take over north after WWII (southern counterparts called Viet Cong) Embarrass the French at battle of Dien Bien Phu (1954) Land, education reforms gain supporters, scares Western powers United States sees Vietnam as first “domino” – if it falls, all of SE Asia falls Fail to contain/eliminate communist threat – N. & S. Vietnam unite (1975)

9 Key Vocabulary – ch. 34 Pacific Rim Viet Minh Korean War Hong Kong
People’s Republic of China Mass Line Great Leap Forward Red Guard Cultural Revolution Ho Chi Minh Viet Minh

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