6Hydrated IonsA particle that is only weakly polar but is much larger than ion aloneThe number of waters of hydration depends on size of ion and strength of charge to be stabilized (typically less than 5)
71. Ion - Ion2. Ion - PermanentDipole3. Dipole - Dipole
8Occurs between molecules with permanent dipoles (SO2 , CHCl3 , etc)
26various intermolecular forces holding a liquid together Cohesive Forcesvarious intermolecular forces holding a liquid together
27VaporizationProcess in which a substance in the liquid state becomes a gas.Vaporization requires energy since it involves separation of particles that are attracted to one another.
28Standard Molar Enthalpy of Vaporization, Hºvap Energy required to convert one mole of liquid to one mole of the corresponding gas at the BP.Always endothermic, Hvap is positive.Liquids having greater attractive forces have higher Hvap
29CondensationOpposite of EvaporationCondensation -- Exothermic
60The unit cell is the smallest representation of the building block of the regular lattice
61Unit Cell Only 23 different unit cells have been defined Called Brave’ LatticesPatterns are determined by crystallography
62CN is the number of atoms closest to any given atom in a crystal Coordination Number CN is related to net atoms found within the unit cellCN is the number of atoms closest to any given atom in a crystal
63There are three Cubic Unit Cell Types (pc) primitive cubic or simple cubic(8 corners of cube) x (1/8 each corner in cell) = 1 net atom in cellCN = 6(bcc) body centered cubic(1 atom in cube) +[(8 corners of cube) x (1/8 each corner in cell)] = 2 net atoms in cellCN = 8(fcc) face centered cubic[(6 faces of cube) x (1/2 of atom in cell)] +[(8 corners of cube) x (1/8 each corner in cell)] = 4 net atoms in cellor CN = 12[(12 edges of cube) x (1/4 each edge in cell)] = 4 net atoms in cellCN = 12
91SUMMARY OF IDEASTO BE CONSIDERED:1. vapor pressure -temperature dependent2. volume determines timeneeded to establishvapor pressure -NOT final pressure
923. H (condensation) =-H (vaporization)4. Critical Point -(T,P) above which vaporcannot be liquefied- regardless of pressure5. Boiling: temperaturewhere vapor pressureof liquid is the same asatmospheric pressure
934. The temperature inside a pressure cooker is 1150C 4. The temperature inside a pressure cooker is 1150C. What is the vapor pressure of water inside the pressure cooker?