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Starr & Taggart – 11 th Edition Evolutionary Patterns, Rates, and Trends AP Biology: Chapter 19.

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Presentation on theme: "Starr & Taggart – 11 th Edition Evolutionary Patterns, Rates, and Trends AP Biology: Chapter 19."— Presentation transcript:

1 Starr & Taggart – 11 th Edition Evolutionary Patterns, Rates, and Trends AP Biology: Chapter 19

2 Key Concepts: All species that have ever lived are related Macroevolution refers to patterns, trends, and rates of change among lineages over geologic time Fossil and geologic records and radiometric dating of rocks provide evidence of macroevolution

3 Chapter 19 Key Concepts: Anatomical comparisons help reconstruct patterns of change through time Biochemical comparisons also provide evidence of macroevolution Diversity characterizes the distribution of species through time Taxonomy is concerned with identifying and naming new species

4 Chapter 19 Macroevolution Large scale patterns, trends and rates of change among families and other more inclusive groups of species.

5 Chapter 19 What is a Species? A mixed herd of zebroids & horses. Zebroids – are interspecies hybrids (horses & zebras)

6 Chapter 19 What is a Species? Morphological Species Concept Based on appearance alone Biological Species Concept A species is one or more populations of individuals that are interbreeding under natural conditions and producing fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such populations Two plants of the same species & fish

7 Chapter 19 Species Example Lions and tigers do not meet in the wild, so dont interbreed; in captivity can mate to produce a liger (sterile)

8 Chapter 19 Reproductive Isolation Cornerstone of the biological species concept Speciation is the attainment of reproductive isolation Reproductive isolation arises as a by-product of genetic change

9 Chapter 19 Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms Any heritable feature of body, form, functioning, or behavior that prevents breeding between one or more genetically divergent populations Prezygotic or Postzygotic Prezygotic- Mechanical isolation

10 Chapter 19 Types of Isolation

11 Chapter 19 Isolating Mechanisms

12 Chapter 19 Pre-Zygotic Isolation Mating or zygote formation is blocked Temporal Isolation Behavioral Isolation Mechanical Isolation Ecological Isolation Gamete Mortality Behavioral - albatross Temporal- cicada

13 Chapter 19 Post-Zygotic Isolation Takes effect after hybrid zygotes form Zygotic mortality - Egg is fertilized but zygote or embryo dies Hybrid inviability - First generation hybrid forms but shows low fitness Hybrid infertility - Hybrid is fully or partially sterile

14 Chapter 19 Genetic Divergence Gradual accumulation of differences in the gene pools of genetically separated populations Natural selection, genetic drift and mutation can contribute to divergence Gene flow counters genetic divergence

15 Chapter 19 Mechanisms of Speciation Allopatric speciation Sympatric speciation Parapatric speciation

16 Chapter 19 Allopatric Speciation Physical barrier prevents gene flow between populations of a species Effectiveness of barrier varies with species Archipelago hotbed of speciation

17 Chapter 19 Allopatric Speciation on Archipelagos (Island Chain) Hawaiian Honeycreepers

18 Chapter 19 Hawaiian Honeycreepers

19 Chapter 19 Allopatric Speciation Physical separation between populations promotes genetic changes that eventually lead to speciation.

20 Chapter 19 Speciation without a Barrier Sympatric speciation Species form within the home range of the parent species Parapatric speciation Neighboring populations become distinct species while maintaining contact along a common barrier

21 Chapter 19 Sympatric Speciation New species forms within home range Polyploidy leads to speciation in plants Self-fertilization and asexual reproduction

22 Chapter 19 Sympatric Speciation A species forms within the home range of an existing species, in the absence of a physical barrier. A lake in West Africa in which 9 species of cichlids (a small fish) evolved.

23 Chapter 19 Speciation by Polyploidy Change in chromosome number (3n, 4n, etc.) Offspring with altered chromosome number cannot breed with parent population Common mechanism of speciation in flowering plants Polyploidy cotton

24 Chapter 19 Allopatric vs. Sympatric Speciation

25 Chapter 19 Parapatric Speciation Neighboring populations become distinct species while maintaining contact along a common border, the hybrid zone. Bullocks oriole Baltimore oriole

26 Chapter 19 Models of speciation Models of Speciation

27 Chapter 19 Patterns of Change in a Lineage Cladogenesis Branching pattern Lineage splits, isolated populations diverge Anagenesis No branching Changes occur within single lineage Gene flow throughout process

28 Chapter 19 Evolutionary Trees new species branch point (a time of divergence, speciation) a single lineage branch point (a time of divergence, speciation) a new species a single lineage extinction (branch ended before present) dashed line (only sketchy evidence of presumed evolutionary relationship)

29 Chapter 19 Gradual Model Speciation model in which species emerge through many small morphological changes that accumulate over a long time period Fits well with evidence from certain lineages in fossil record Punctuated equilibrium Gradualism Time

30 Chapter 19 Punctuation Model Speciation model in which most changes in morphology are compressed into brief period near onset of divergence Supported by fossil evidence in some lineages

31 Chapter 19 Adaptive Radiation Burst of divergence Single lineage gives rise to many new species New species fill vacant adaptive zone Adaptive zone is way of life

32 Chapter 19 Extinction Irrevocable loss of a species Mass extinctions have played a major role in evolutionary history Fossil record shows 20 or more large- scale extinctions Reduced diversity is followed by adaptive radiation

33 Chapter 19 Who Survives? Species survival is to some extent random Asteroids have repeatedly struck Earth, destroying many lineages Changes in global temperature favor lineages that are widely distributed Mass extinctions

34 Chapter 19 Identifying Species Past and Present Taxonomy – field of biology concerned with identifying, naming and classifying species Somewhat subjective Devised by Carl von Linne Assigning species names Binomial nomenclature system Genus (generic) and Species (specific) Higher Taxa Family, Order, Class, Phylum, and Kingdom

35 Chapter 19 Phylogeny The scientific study of evolutionary relationships among species Practical applications Allows predictions about the needs or weaknesses of one species on the basis of its known relationship to another

36 Chapter 19 Examples of Classification

37 Chapter 19 How Many Kingdoms? Whittakers Five-Kingdom Scheme (1969) Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia

38 Chapter 19 Six Kingdom Scheme Carl Woese Includes the Archaebacteria EubacteriaArchaebacteriaProtistaFungiPlantaeAnimalia

39 Chapter 19 Three Domain Scheme Favored by microbiologists Eubacteria Archaebacteria Eukaryotes EUBACTERIA (Bacteria) ARCHAEBACTERIA (Archaea) EUKARYOTES (Eukarya)

40 Chapter 19 Constructing A Cladogram JawsLimbsHairLungsTailShell Lamprey Turtle Cat Gorilla Lungfish Trout Human TaxonTraits (Characters) JawsLimbsHairLungsTailShell Lamprey Turtle Cat Gorilla Lungfish Trout Human TaxonTraits (Characters) Please note: the tail column was changed as it was incorrect in the text.

41 Chapter 19 jaws lamprey turtle, gorilla, trout, cat, lungfish, human Constructing a Cladogram

42 Chapter 19 trout Constructing a Cladogram jaws lamprey turtle, gorilla, cat, lungfish, human lungs

43 Chapter 19 lungfish Constructing a Cladogram trout jaws lamprey turtle, gorilla, cat, human lungs limbs

44 Chapter 19 gorilla, cat, humanturtle Constructing a Cladogram lungfishtrout jaws lamprey lungs limbs hair

45 Chapter 19 gorilla Constructing a Cladogram humanturtlelungfishtrout jaws lamprey lungs limbs hair tail loss cat

46 Chapter 19 Constructing a Cladogram A Cladogram

47 Chapter 19 Evolutionary Tree extreme thermophiles halophiles methanogens cyanobacteria ARCHAEBACTERIA PROTISTANS FUNGI PLANTS ANIMALS club fungi sac fungi zygospore- forming fungi echino- derms chordates annelids mollusks flatworms sponges cnidarians flowering plants conifers horsetails lycophytes ferns bryophytes sporozoans green algae amoeboid protozoans slime molds ciliates red algae brown algae chrysophytes cycads ginkgos rotifers arthropods round- worms chytrids oomycotes euglenoids dinoflagellates Gram-positive bacteria spirochetes chlamydias proteobacteria ? crown of eukaryotes (rapid divergences) molecular origin of life EUBACTERIA parabasalids diplomonads (e.g., Giardia) (alveolates) (stramenopiles) chlorophytes kinetoplastids extreme (e.g., Trichomonas)

48 Chapter 19 In Conclusion Macroevolution is the study of patterns, trends, or rates of change among groups of species over long periods of time There is extensive evidence of evolution based on similarities and differences in body form, function, behavior, and biochemistry Completeness of fossil records are variable Fossil and geologic record show that such changes have influenced evolution

49 Chapter 19 In Conclusion Comparative morphology reveals similarities in embryonic development and identified homologous structures Comparative biochemistry has identified similarities and differences among species Taxonomists identify, name, and classify species

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