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Evolutionary Patterns, Rates, and Trends

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Presentation on theme: "Evolutionary Patterns, Rates, and Trends"— Presentation transcript:

1 Evolutionary Patterns, Rates, and Trends
AP Biology: Chapter 19 Starr & Taggart – 11th Edition

2 Key Concepts: All species that have ever lived are related
Macroevolution refers to patterns, trends, and rates of change among lineages over geologic time Fossil and geologic records and radiometric dating of rocks provide evidence of macroevolution Chapter 19

3 Key Concepts: Anatomical comparisons help reconstruct patterns of change through time Biochemical comparisons also provide evidence of macroevolution Diversity characterizes the distribution of species through time Taxonomy is concerned with identifying and naming new species Chapter 19

4 Macroevolution Large scale patterns, trends and rates of change among families and other more inclusive groups of species. Chapter 19

5 What is a Species? A mixed herd of zebroids & horses.
Zebroids – are interspecies hybrids (horses & zebras) Chapter 19

6 What is a Species? Morphological Species Concept
♂ & ♀ fish Morphological Species Concept Based on appearance alone Biological Species Concept A species is one or more populations of individuals that are interbreeding under natural conditions and producing fertile offspring, and are reproductively isolated from other such populations Two plants of the same species Chapter 19

7 Species Example Lions and tigers do not meet in the wild, so don’t interbreed; in captivity can mate to produce a liger (sterile) Chapter 19

8 Reproductive Isolation
Cornerstone of the biological species concept Speciation is the attainment of reproductive isolation Reproductive isolation arises as a by-product of genetic change Chapter 19

9 Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms
Any heritable feature of body, form, functioning, or behavior that prevents breeding between one or more genetically divergent populations Prezygotic or Postzygotic Prezygotic- Mechanical isolation Chapter 19

10 Types of Isolation Chapter 19

11 Isolating Mechanisms Chapter 19

12 Pre-Zygotic Isolation
Temporal- cicada Pre-Zygotic Isolation Mating or zygote formation is blocked Temporal Isolation Behavioral Isolation Mechanical Isolation Ecological Isolation Gamete Mortality Behavioral - albatross Chapter 19

13 Post-Zygotic Isolation
Takes effect after hybrid zygotes form Zygotic mortality - Egg is fertilized but zygote or embryo dies Hybrid inviability - First generation hybrid forms but shows low fitness Hybrid infertility - Hybrid is fully or partially sterile Chapter 19

14 Genetic Divergence Gradual accumulation of differences in the gene pools of genetically separated populations Natural selection, genetic drift and mutation can contribute to divergence Gene flow counters genetic divergence Chapter 19

15 Mechanisms of Speciation
Allopatric speciation Sympatric speciation Parapatric speciation Chapter 19

16 Allopatric Speciation
Physical barrier prevents gene flow between populations of a species Effectiveness of barrier varies with species Archipelago hotbed of speciation Chapter 19

17 Allopatric Speciation on Archipelagos (Island Chain)
Chapter 19 Hawaiian Honeycreepers

18 Hawaiian Honeycreepers
Chapter 19

19 Allopatric Speciation
Physical separation between populations promotes genetic changes that eventually lead to speciation. Chapter 19

20 Speciation without a Barrier
Sympatric speciation Species form within the home range of the parent species Parapatric speciation Neighboring populations become distinct species while maintaining contact along a common barrier Chapter 19

21 Sympatric Speciation New species forms within home range
Polyploidy leads to speciation in plants Self-fertilization and asexual reproduction Chapter 19

22 Sympatric Speciation A species forms within the home range of an existing species, in the absence of a physical barrier. A lake in West Africa in which 9 species of cichlids (a small fish) evolved. Chapter 19

23 Speciation by Polyploidy
Change in chromosome number (3n, 4n, etc.) Offspring with altered chromosome number cannot breed with parent population Common mechanism of speciation in flowering plants Polyploidy cotton Chapter 19

24 Allopatric vs. Sympatric Speciation
Chapter 19

25 Parapatric Speciation
Neighboring populations become distinct species while maintaining contact along a common border, the hybrid zone. Bullock’s oriole Baltimore oriole Chapter 19

26 Models of Speciation Models of speciation Chapter 19

27 Patterns of Change in a Lineage
Cladogenesis Branching pattern Lineage splits, isolated populations diverge Anagenesis No branching Changes occur within single lineage Gene flow throughout process Chapter 19

28 Evolutionary Trees extinction (branch ended before present)
new species branch point (a time of divergence, speciation) a single lineage a new species extinction (branch ended before present) dashed line (only sketchy evidence of presumed evolutionary relationship) Chapter 19

29 Gradual Model Speciation model in which species emerge through many small morphological changes that accumulate over a long time period Fits well with evidence from certain lineages in fossil record Time Punctuated equilibrium Gradualism Chapter 19

30 Punctuation Model Speciation model in which most changes in morphology are compressed into brief period near onset of divergence Supported by fossil evidence in some lineages Chapter 19

31 Adaptive Radiation Burst of divergence
Single lineage gives rise to many new species New species fill vacant adaptive zone Adaptive zone is “way of life” Chapter 19

32 Extinction Irrevocable loss of a species
Mass extinctions have played a major role in evolutionary history Fossil record shows 20 or more large-scale extinctions Reduced diversity is followed by adaptive radiation Chapter 19

33 Who Survives? Species survival is to some extent random
Asteroids have repeatedly struck Earth, destroying many lineages Changes in global temperature favor lineages that are widely distributed Mass extinctions Chapter 19

34 Identifying Species Past and Present
Taxonomy – field of biology concerned with identifying, naming and classifying species Somewhat subjective Devised by Carl von Linne Assigning species names Binomial nomenclature system Genus (generic) and Species (specific) Higher Taxa Family, Order, Class, Phylum, and Kingdom Chapter 19

35 Phylogeny The scientific study of evolutionary relationships among species Practical applications Allows predictions about the needs or weaknesses of one species on the basis of its known relationship to another Chapter 19

36 Examples of Classification
Chapter 19

37 How Many Kingdoms? Whittaker’s Five-Kingdom Scheme (1969) Monera
Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Chapter 19

38 Six Kingdom Scheme Carl Woese Includes the Archaebacteria Eubacteria
Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Chapter 19

39 Three Domain Scheme Favored by microbiologists Eubacteria
Archaebacteria Eukaryotes EUBACTERIA (Bacteria) ARCHAEBACTERIA (Archaea) EUKARYOTES (Eukarya) Chapter 19

40 Constructing A Cladogram
Taxon Traits (Characters) Jaws Limbs Hair Lungs Tail Shell Lamprey - - - - + - Turtle + + - + + + Cat + + + + + - Constructing A Cladogram Gorilla + + + + - - Lungfish + - - + + - Trout + - - - + - Human + + + + - - Taxon Traits (Characters) Jaws Limbs Hair Lungs Tail Shell Lamprey 1 Turtle 1 1 1 1 1 Cat 1 1 1 1 1 Please note: the tail column was changed as it was incorrect in the text. Gorilla 1 1 1 1 Lungfish 1 1 1 Trout 1 1 Chapter 19 Human 1 1 1 1

41 Constructing a Cladogram
lamprey turtle, gorilla, trout, cat, lungfish, human jaws Chapter 19

42 Constructing a Cladogram
turtle, gorilla, cat, lungfish, human lamprey trout lungs jaws Chapter 19

43 Constructing a Cladogram
lamprey trout lungfish turtle, gorilla, cat, human limbs lungs jaws Chapter 19

44 Constructing a Cladogram
lamprey trout lungfish turtle gorilla, cat, human hair limbs lungs jaws Chapter 19

45 Constructing a Cladogram
lamprey trout lungfish turtle cat gorilla human tail loss hair limbs lungs jaws Chapter 19

46 Constructing a Cladogram
Chapter 19

47 Evolutionary Tree ANIMALS PLANTS arthropods FUNGI chordates
flowering plants conifers annelids round-worms ginkgos sac club mollusks echino-derms fungi fungi cycads horsetails rotifers zygospore- ferns forming flatworms fungi lycophytes cnidarians bryophytes chlorophytes sponges chytrids green algae amoeboid PROTISTANS protozoans (stramenopiles) brown algae red ciliates (alveolates) algae chrysophytes sporozoans oomycotes ? dinoflagellates crown of eukaryotes slime molds (rapid divergences) euglenoids kinetoplastids parabasalids (e.g., Trichomonas) EUBACTERIA diplomonads spirochetes ARCHAEBACTERIA (e.g., Giardia) extreme Gram-positive bacteria chlamydias methanogens halophiles cyanobacteria proteobacteria extreme thermophiles Chapter 19 molecular origin of life

48 In Conclusion Macroevolution is the study of patterns, trends, or rates of change among groups of species over long periods of time There is extensive evidence of evolution based on similarities and differences in body form, function, behavior, and biochemistry Completeness of fossil records are variable Fossil and geologic record show that such changes have influenced evolution Chapter 19

49 In Conclusion Comparative morphology reveals similarities in embryonic development and identified homologous structures Comparative biochemistry has identified similarities and differences among species Taxonomists identify, name, and classify species Chapter 19

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