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ISLAM FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM Declaration of Faith (There is no God but God [Allah] and Muhammad is his messenger) Prayer (5 times a day) Alms to the poor.

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Presentation on theme: "ISLAM FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM Declaration of Faith (There is no God but God [Allah] and Muhammad is his messenger) Prayer (5 times a day) Alms to the poor."— Presentation transcript:

1 ISLAM FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM Declaration of Faith (There is no God but God [Allah] and Muhammad is his messenger) Prayer (5 times a day) Alms to the poor Pilgrimage to Mecca (once in ones lifetime) Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan.

2 SUNNI-SHIITE SPLIT Self-flagellation at Ashura gathering

3 Pahlavi – White Revolution White to counter influence of red communists Land reform – government bought land from large absentee owners and sold it to farmers at affordable prices Encourage agricultural entrepreneurship with irrigation canals, dams, & tractors Womens rights (secularization) Suffrage Restricting Polygamy Women allowed to work outside the home

4 Pahlavi - OIL & the Rent-seeking state Iran transformed into rent-seeking state under Pahlavis because of increasing income from oil Rentier Economy: heavily supported by state expenditure, while the state receives rents from other countries Iran received increasing revenue from exporting oil and leasing oil fields to foreign countries Although shah promoted import substitution policies by 1979 oil & associated industries provided 97% of foreign exchange and majority of Irans GNP Oil revenue became so great government did not have to rely on internal taxes to generate income, paid expenses from oil profits The people become unnecessary to the government in a rentier state

5 OIL William Knox DArcy Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) Formerly Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC)

6 OIL Abandoned gas pumps in a U.S. city 1973 Line at gas station in the U.S. 1979

7 OIL Khuzestan Province – Iran-Iraq War Iraqs Invasion of Kuwait – Gulf War 1991

8 OIL Highway in TehranOil Refinery in Tehran

9 SOURCE OF U.S. OIL IMPORTS Oil Production 2004 Million Barrels per Day Former Soviet Union 9.1 Saudi Arabia8.8 United States 5.4 Iran3.9 Mexico 3.8 China 3.3 Norway 2.9 Venezuela2.7 Iraq1.5

10 Constitution of 1979 Document & 40 Amendments (Some added in 1989) Mixture of theocracy and democracy Preamble reflects importance of religion Velayat-e faqih (Jurists guardianship) Gave broad authority to Khomeini and the clerics

11 Khomeini, Fundamentalism, & Revolution Islamic Fundamentalism Literal interpretation of Islamic texts Social conservatism Political traditionalism Resentment towards elites, US, and the Western world US was the Great Satan Velayat-e faqih (jurists guardianship) Senior clergy given authority over entire Shiia community

12 IRAN-IRAQ WAR ( ) Iraqi President Saddam Hussein

13 Khomeini & the Islamic Republic Clerics consolidate power Popular support for regime high World oil prices rise again, allowing for social programs, improvements in medicine & housing Iraq invades Iran, people rally around the government Charisma of Khomeini inspired faith in the government Khomeini dies in 1989, constitution amended Ali Khamenei succeeds Khomeini, does not have the same political charisma as the Ayatollah Iran/Iraq war ends in 1988, country war-torn Oil prices drop in 1990s Population begins to question authoritarian rule of the clerics

14 Constitutional Amendments of 1989 On April 24, 1989, while on his death bed, Khomeini appointed a 25- member Reform Council (first Assembly of Religious Experts) to appoint his successor and amend the constitution Khomeini died in June 1989 The council named Ali Khamenei as Khomeinis successor and made several amendments to the constitution They eliminated the need for the Supreme Leader to be a marja, or senior cleric, Khamenei was not a marja Eliminated the post of Prime Minister Created the Supreme National Security Council Increased the size of the Assembly of Religious Experts to 86 members Gave Assembly of Religious Experts authority to meet once a year & determine if Supreme Leader was mentally & physically capable of carrying out their duties Made the Expediency Council a permanent institution Constitution amendments approved by Iranian voters in national referendum with 97% yes vote on July 28, 1989

15 Religion 89% of Iranians are Shia Muslims 10% are Sunni Muslim The constitution does not mention Sunnis and their legal status is therefore unknown 1% are combination of Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, and Bahai Constitution recognizes rights of religious minorities, many religious minorities have left country since Islamic Revolution Bahai considered unholy offshoot of Islam and they have been persecuted by Shiite governments. Bahai leaders have been executed, imprisoned, tortured, their schools closed and property confiscated

16 Political Culture Authoritarianism (not totalitarianism) – leaders claim to be all powerful, but do not interfere with every aspect of the citizens lives Union of political & religious authority Shiism & Sharia – key components of everyday life Escape from European Colonialism Geographic Limitations – limited arable land forced expansion through military conquest, population of Iran unevenly distributed in cities and northwestern part of country Influence of Ancient Persia

17 Women & the Political System Treatment of women in Iran is probably more contentious for Westerners than the majority of Iranian women When sharia law is interpreted narrowly women are considered wards of their male relatives Equality-with-difference policy – instituted by the Islamic Republic slants law favorably towards men on issues such as divorce and custody Women must wear scarves and long coats in public Women can not leave country without consent of male relatives Occasionally women stoned for committing adultery Women allowed to get education in Iran and entrance into some occupations Expectations for better jobs and increased political rights among educated women Half of college students in Iran are women Women make up 27% of the labor force


19 ISLAMIC DRESS CODES Hijab (Head Scarf) Worn in the West and Iran Chador Iran Abaya Saudi Arabia Burqa Afghanistan Jilbab Indonesia

20 Political Parties Constitution legalized political parties, but they were not allowed until Muhammad Khatamis election (1997) The Iranian Militant Clerics Society – left wing reform party led by Muhammad Khatami. Khatami president from Several prominent politicians belong to this party including former Majlis speaker, and a vice-president Candidate in 2005, Mehdi Karroubi, came in third The Islamic Iran Participation Front – reformist party led by Khatamis brother, Muhammad Reza Khatami Founded in 1998, motto Iran for all Iranians Did well in 2000 Majlis elections Guardian Council barred many members from running in 2004 so membership declined

21 Political Parties II Executives of Construction Party – founded by several former cabinet members of President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani Important supporter of Rafsanjani and his political platform Rafsanjani lost election runoff to Ahmadinejad by a large margin The Islamic Society of Engineers – member of the conservative alliance, party of current president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who secured office in presidential election of 2005 The society however did not support Ahmadinejad in the election, their candidate was Ali Larijani, who lost in first round

22 Reformist Parties Khordad Front ( Alliance between Iranian Militant Clerics Society & Islamic Iran Participation Front ) – the alliance helped win reelection for Khatami in The Second Khordad Front did not survive in 2004 elections as Guardian Council banned many reformist candidates from Majlis elections Liberation Movement – Moderate party, party founded by Mehdi Bazargan (Khomeinis PM) in 1961, it was banned in 2002 as subversive organization National Front – headed by Mossadeq in 1950, it was banned in late 1980s Exile parties – Mojahedin (guerrilla group fought the shah); Fedayin (Marxist guerrillas modeled after Che Guevara); Tudeh (communist party)

23 Elections Citizens over 15 allowed to vote until 2007 In 2007, eligibility age for voting changed to 18 National elections held for the following: Assembly of Religious Experts Representatives to the Majlis President Elections to Majlis and President are by plurality, winner-take all Elections are done over two rounds First round narrows field down to 2 candidates

24 Elections II Majlis Election of 2004 Feb. 20, 2004 Council of Guardians banned thousands of candidates from mostly reformist parties Out of a possible 2 seats (5 reserved for religious minorities) reformist could only introduce 191 candidates 51% - Official voter turnout Conservative candidates won 70% of seats Presidential Election of 2005 Khatami steps down after serving two terms Guardian Council disqualifies about 1000 candidates Only 7 candidates run Akbar Hasemi Rafsanjani and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Rafsanjani received 21% of the vote compared to Ahmadinejads 19% in the first round In second round runoff Ahmadinejad won with 62% of the vote Rafsanjani suffered from being unable to organize reformist vote behind him

25 Iranian Presidential Election Only 4 candidates out of 476 men & women who applied were approved by Guardian Council Election held on June 12, 2009 with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers: Mir-Hossein Mousavi Mohsen Rezaee Mehdi Karroubi Turnout was unexpectedly high, well over 50% and polls had to be kept open until midnight Ahmadinejad announced as winner the next morning with 62% of vote to Mousavis 34% Protest immediately erupted (the Green Revolution) in favor of Mousavi and claiming election fraud

26 Iranian Presidential Election II June 14, Mousavi files formal appeal of results with Guardian Council June 15, Supreme Leader Khamenei announces investigation of electoral results will be done June 16, Guardian Council announces it will recount votes, however, Mousavi states that 14 million ballots were missing, allowing for a chance to manipulate the results June 29, Irans electoral board completes partial recount, and concludes that Ahmadinejad won the election – this leads to more protests

27 2009 Iranian Presidential Electoral Results Mahmoud Ahmadinejad Alliance of Builders Party Popular vote - 24, 527,516 Percent – 62.6% Mir-Houssein Moussavi Independent Reformist Party Popular Vote – 13,216,411 Percent – 33.75% Blank/Invalid Votes – 409, % Mohsen Rezaee Independent Conservative Party Popular vote - 678,240 Percent – 1.7% Mehdi Karroubi National Trust Party Popular vote - 333,635 Percent – 0.9%

28 Interest Groups It is difficult to distinguish between parties and interest groups in Iran Most exile parties have members in Iran that work for their benefit Interest Groups Islamic Association of Women Green Coalition Workers House Interest group for factory workers, have a political party as well, Islamic Labor Party Hold a May Day rally every year, turned into protest in 1999 against conservative policies to water-down labor laws

29 Velayat-e faqih (Jurists guardianship) The principle instituted by Khomeini of overarching authority for different government institutions: Supreme Leader Guardian Council Assembly of Religious Experts Expediency Council This authority is all-encompassing and is over whole community based on their ability to understand sharia and their commitment to champion the rights of the people

30 Supreme Leader Position created for Khomeini, currently held by Ali Khamenei Powers of Supreme Leader: Elimination of presidential candidates Dismissal of the president Command armed forces Declares war & peace Appointment and removal of major administrators and judges Nominates six members of Guardian Council Appoints many non-governmental directors, such as radio/TV and semi-public foundations Responsibilities of Supreme Leader: faqih – he is the leading Islamic jurist to interpret sharia and religious documents Links three branches of government together Determining the interests of Islam

31 IRANS GOVERNMENT PRESIDENTS SUPREME LEADERS Ayatollah Khomeini (r ) Mohammed Khatami (r ) Ayatollah Khamenei (r present) Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (r present)

32 GRAND AYATOLLAH ALI KHAMENEI (Supreme Leader 1989-present)

33 Guardian Council 12 members All Male 6 members appointed by Supreme Leader 6 members nominated by chief judge, approved by Majlis Serve 6-year terms Responsibilities They represent theocratic principles within the government Review bills passed by Majlis to ensure they conform with sharia Guardian Council and Supreme Leader together exercise principle of jurists guardianship (Make sure all democratic bodies adhere to Islamic laws & beliefs) Power to decide who can compete in elections In 2004 & 2008 disqualified thousands of candidates for Majlis elections In 2005 & 2009 also disqualified numerous candidates for presidential elections

34 Assembly of Religious Experts Expanded in 1989 to an 86 man house Directly elected by the people 8 year terms Members originally required to have seminary degree equivalent to a masters, 1998 revision now allows non- clerics to stand for Assembly – candidates still subject to approval by Council of Guardians Responsibilities Broad constitutional interpretation Elected Khomeinis successor (Khamenei) Reserve right to remove supreme leader

35 Expediency Council Created by Khomeini Main purpose to referee disputes between the Guardian Council and the Majlis Began as a 13-member group including: president, chief judge, speaker of Majlis, and six jurists from the Guardian Council Exerts authority over executive, legislative, & judicial branches of govt 1989, Expediency Council passes some bills, and is institutionalized by constitutional amendments Currently consists of 40 permanent members It may originate its own legislation Not all members are clerics Appointed by Supreme Leader for five-year terms Collectively most powerful men in Iran

36 President & the Cabinet Iran is not a presidential system, therefore the executive branch does not have the same authority as presidents in presidential systems such as U.S., Mexico, and Nigeria President does represent highest official representing democratic principles in Iran Chief executive, highest state official after Supreme Leader Directly elected every 4 years for a maximum of two terms Constitution still requires the president to be a Shiite and uphold Islamic principles There have been six presidents of the Islamic Republic since the Revolution, three have been clerics. The non-cleric Abol-Hasan Bani-Sadr was ousted in 1981 for criticizing the regime as a dictatorship. Ahmadinejad, who is not a cleric, is often considered more conservative and religious than some past clerics Ali Khamenei president from before becoming Supreme Leader

37 MOHAMMED KHATAMI (President )

38 MAHMOUD AHMADINEJAD (President 2005-present)

39 Presidents Power Devising the Budget Supervising economic matters Proposing legislation to the Majlis Executing policies Signing of treaties, laws, and agreements Chairing the National Security Council Selecting deputies and cabinet ministers Appointing provincial governors, town mayors, and ambassadors

40 Semipublic Institutions Theoretically autonomous In reality they are directed by clerics appointed by the Supreme Leader Usually called foundations (bonyads), an Islamic charity organization Foundation of the Oppressed Martyrs Foundation Foundation for the Publication of Imam Khomeinis Works Foundations are tax exempt Reputed to have a great deal of wealth Most property they supervise was confiscated from pre elite

41 Legislature: MAJLIS Unicameral legislature Assembly of Religious Experts has served similar to an upper house since 1989 (Both groups are elected representatives) Created by Constitution of 1906, however Constitution of 1979 and 1989 amendments weakened the Majlis power 290 seats All directly elected through single member districts by citizens over 18 years old

42 Majlis Authority Powers of the Majlis Enacting or Changing Laws, qanun (with approval of Guardian Council) The constitution uses the term qanun (statutes) rather than sharia (divine law) to avoid the question of whether laws come from God or the people It accepts the rationale that God formulates divine law (sharia), but elected representatives can draw up statutes (qanun) Interpretation of legislation (as long as it does not contradict judicial authorities) Appointment of 6 of 12 Guardian Council members from list made by chief judge Investigation of the cabinet ministers and public complaints against the executive and judiciary Removal of cabinet ministers, but not the president Approval of budget, cabinet appointments, treaties, & loans

43 Majlis elections Election of 2000 (6 th Majlis) Reformists fill seats through coalition of reformist parties (Khordad Front) Reformists win 80% of the vote, most secular voters whose parties were banned supported the reformists. Participation was over 70% of the electorate Election of 2004 (7 th Majlis) Guardian Council bans thousands of reformist candidates Overwhelming victory for conservatives Control of the Majlis flips from the reformists to the conservative faction Many Iranians were disappointed in failure of Khordad Front to initiate reforms Participation of the electorate dropped to around 50%

44 2008 Majlis Elections The 2008 elections for the 8 th Majlis turned into a repeat performance of 2004 The Guardian Council, assisted by the Interior Ministry, disqualified more than 3,000 potential candidates, including some of the leading reformers who held seats in the 7 th Majlis The conservatives, led by Ahmadinejads Principalists Party, took 190 seats, although many were critical of Ahmadinejads populist rhetoric The reformers, mostly supported by Khatamis Islamic Iran Participation Front and Rafsanjanis Servants of Reconstruction, took 40 seats

45 2008 Majlis Elections II The remaining 60 seats went to independents, many who were sympathetic to the reformers Although the government claimed the turnout was over 50%, it was probably much lower than that, and more than likely closer to 25-30% in Tehran Abstention was considered a form of protest over the actions of the Guardian Council and the current regime The reformers hope to revive nearly 100 reform bills that were passed in the 6 th Majlis but vetoed by the Guardian Council

46 Reform Proposals Eliminate legal distinctions between Muslims and non- Muslims Raise the marriage age for girls Eliminate legal distinctions between men and women Stipulate that divorce courts divide property equally Grant women scholarships to study abroad Allow women deputies to wear the hejab (headscarf) instead of the chadour (full covering) Ratified the UN Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (something not even the US has ratified)

47 Judiciary Distinction between two types of law: sharia & qanun Judicial review does not exist in Iran Principle of jurists guardianship means that the Supreme Leader, the Guardian Council, and the Assembly of Religious Experts have final say regarding interpretation of law Ultimate legal authority does not rest in the constitution, but in sharia law itself Because interpreting sharia is difficult it has been applied in different ways at various times Because of Ayatollah Khomeinis approach, interpretation of sharia came to be the standard that would influence all succeeding Iranian leaders

48 Judiciary II Islamic Republic Islamicized the judiciary code to interpret sharia strictly Retribution Law Permitted families to demand blood money – compensation to the victims family from those responsible for someones death Mandated the death penalty for actions such as adultery, homosexuality, drug dealing and alcoholism Set up unequal treatment between men & women, and Muslims & non-Muslims Banned interest rates on loans, viewed as usury, which means lenders take advantage of people seeking loans

49 Law Shari 'a Islamic law Considered to be foundation of all Islamic civilization Embodies a vision of a community in which all Muslims are brothers and sisters subscribe to the same moral values Sharia supersedes all other law in Iranian society Supreme leaders authority and the jurists guardianship based on importance of sharia Qunan No sacred basis Statutes passed by Majlis the Peoples Law Can never contradict sharia Guardian Council & Supreme Leader must make sure all laws apply interpretations of sharia

50 Law & Justice Khomeini realized that despite the influence of sharia judges, the regime did need a centralized judicial system to tend to matters of justice in an orderly manner The interpretation of sharia was broadened so that the harsh penalties of the Retribution Law are rarely carried out Modern methods of punishment are more common than harsh public retribution Regime retained the shahs court structure Appeals system Hierarchy of state courts Central governments right to appoint and dismiss judges

51 Judicial Structure Supreme Court High Council of the Judiciary Two courts have a single head official High Council has 4 members Both courts supervise enforcement of all laws They establish all judicial and legal policy regarding judicial system - Other courts include: Special Clerical Court, Revolutionary Court, and Special Administrative Court

52 Military Revolutionary Guard – established by Khomeini after the revolution, a parallel military force to the shahs traditional armed forces that were the 5 th largest at the time Commanders of the Revolutionary Guard are appointed by the Supreme Leader According to the constitution, the regular army defends the borders, the Revolutionary Guard protects the republic Both were greatly strained during the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s Basij – volunteer militia of those to young to serve created during Iran-Iraq War. Martyred by Khomeini against the invading Iraqi troops After the war they became the Supreme Leaders private militia Currently serve as the Islamic Republics morality police (Comparable to Hitler Nazi Youth) Irans armed forces currently have over 500,000 active troops making it the 8 th largest military in the world

53 Theocratic & Democratic Elements of Irans Government Structure Structure Supreme Leader Supreme Leader Theocratic Characteristics Jurist guardianship; ultimate interpreter of sharia; appointed for life Jurist guardianship; ultimate interpreter of sharia; appointed for life Democratic Characteristics Guardian Council Guardian Council Jurist guardianship; interpreter of sharia; six members selected by the Supreme Leader Jurist guardianship; interpreter of sharia; six members selected by the Supreme Leader Six members selected by the Majlis; which is popularly elected, indirect democratic tie Six members selected by the Majlis; which is popularly elected, indirect democratic tie Assembly of Religious Experts Assembly of Religious Experts Jurist guardianship; interpreter of sharia Jurist guardianship; interpreter of sharia Directly elected by the people Directly elected by the people

54 Theocratic & Democratic Elements of Irans Government Structure Structure Expediency Council Expediency Council Theocratic Characteristics Appointed by the Supreme Leader; most members are clerics Appointed by the Supreme Leader; most members are clerics Democratic Characteristics Some members are not clerics Some members are not clerics Majlis Majlis Responsibility to uphold sharia Responsibility to uphold sharia Directly elected by the people; pass qanun (statutes) Directly elected by the people; pass qanun (statutes) Judiciary Judiciary Courts held to sharia law; subject to the judicial judgments of the Supreme Leader, Guardian Council Courts held to sharia law; subject to the judicial judgments of the Supreme Leader, Guardian Council Court structure similar to those in democracies; modern penalties, such as fines and imprisonment Court structure similar to those in democracies; modern penalties, such as fines and imprisonment

55 Public Policy: Policy-Making Factions Conservatives Created by often contradictory influences of theocracy & democracy Conservatives uphold principles of regime established in 1979 Against modernization because it threatens Shiism Wary of western influence Political & religious decisions should be one in the same Support right of clerics to run the political system Reformists Believe political system needs reform (but disagree on what reforms) Advocate some degree of international involvement with western countries Believe Shiism is important basis of Iranian society Support idea that political leaders do not have to be clerics

56 Public Policy: Policy-Making Factions II Statists Government should take active role in the economy Not necessarily communists Policy goals include: Redistribute land Redistribute wealth Eliminate unemployment Finance Social Welfare Programs Price restrictions on Consumer goods Free-marketers Similar market principles to the US, but in a theocratic/democratic state Liberal Economic Policies Remove price controls Lower business taxes Encourage private enterprise Balance the budget



59 NUCLEAR POWER: Peaceful or Aggressive Intentions? Energy Un-Islamic (fatwa) Demand for energy outpacing supply Reserve of oil for export Technical developments Permitted according to terms of the NPT Weapons Iran has enough natural gas Aggressive rhetoric of Irans President, Ahmadinejad Secret construction of nuclear power plants Relations with terrorist organizations

60 IRANS NUCLEAR PROGRAM Bushehr Power Plant

61 CAN IRANS NUCLEAR FACILITIES BE DESTROYED? Osirak (1981) Many targets (Bushehr, Natanz, Arak) Domestic supply of uranium Heavily guarded Possible duplicate sites Knowledge to rebuild

62 POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES OF AN ATTACK Close the Strait of Hormuz Withhold Iranian oil Encourage Shia militias to attack U.S. troops Activate Hezbollah, Hamas, Islamic Jihad Destabilize countries with large number of Shias Direct attacks: Israel, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Iraq

63 FUTURE Sanctions War Terrorism

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