Presentation on theme: "Operational Oceanography as a tool for ICZM in the Andalusian Atlantic coast (Conil): Bottom-up approach Contact: ALFREDO IZQUIERDO GONZÁLEZ University."— Presentation transcript:
Operational Oceanography as a tool for ICZM in the Andalusian Atlantic coast (Conil): Bottom-up approach Contact: ALFREDO IZQUIERDO GONZÁLEZ University of Cádiz Faculty of Marine and Environmental Sciences Av. República Saharaui, s/n 11510-Puerto Real (Cádiz) SPAIN Phone: +34 956 01 6753 Fax: +34 956 01 6078 e-mail: email@example.com
OUTLINES I 1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE AREA –1.1.1 Landscape features –1.1.2 Geology –1.1.3 Morphology of the coast –1.1.4 Relevant marine physical processes 1.2. Socio-economic aspects –1.2.1 Population rate –1.2.2 Major functions of the coastal zone –1.2.3 Land use –1.2.4 Assessment of capital at risk
OUTLINES II 2. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION2. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION –2.1. Urban sewage discharges and their management –2.2. Impacts. SOLUTIONS / MEASURES3. SOLUTIONS / MEASURES –3.1 Strategy –3.2 Technical measures 4. EFFECTS AND LESSONS LEARNED4. EFFECTS AND LESSONS LEARNED –4.1 Effects related to socio-economic aspects –4.2 Effects in Andalusia region –4.3 Conclusions
Conil: “a different place in the south European coast” Vacation town on the Atlantic coast in the southwest of Spain (Andalusia) Rocky coast and sandy beaches with a wide forest extension Specially mild climate (in winter it doesn’t get much colder than 15°C )
1.1.1 Classification The area of interest has: –slopes and coastal sandbanks more or less stabilized by the vegetation; –rock cliffs, mainly constituted by calcareous rests, commonly known in the zone as oyster stone “piedra ostionera”.
1.1.2. Geology The geologic characteristics of Conil coast comprises two different types of beaches : –Beaches to the north of Conil: there the most resistant materials have been exposed to the action of the sea, originating multiple coves and cliffs. –Beaches to the south of Conil: where the sea has acted on soft and horizontal materials, generating wide beaches with big sand accumulations.
1.1.3.Morphology of the coast In the beaches of Conil can be distinguished the typical structure of beaches: –The part of the beach which always remains under the water –Low beach covered by the water during the high tide but uncovered during the low tide ( “walking zone”) –High beach: that spreads up to where the water reaches in thunderstorm moments (“sunshades zone”) –Cliff or dunes zone: constituted by the remobilization of the sand of the beach Dunes High Beach Low Beach Storm line Spring tide Neap tide
1.1.4.Hydrodinamic characterization: tidal currents Predominance of the currents in the direction NW-SE, parallel to the coast and to the bathymetry of the zone, intensified towards SE. Tidal currents predominate over other forcings. Fig.1:Statistical analysis with current roses of the currentmeter temporal series (August- October,2004) Fig. 2: Coastal Coordinate System (abscise axis transversal to the coast and ordinates axis longitudinal to the coast) imposed by the own nature of the hydrodynamic in the coastal stripe X Y CABO ROCHE
1.1.4.Hydrodinamic characterization: tidal currents The rotation of the currents, typical characteristic of the tides, presents a semidiurnal period and with clockwise sense, although with a diurnal clear inequality. The intensities of the current (e.g. full moon on September 28 th, 2004) show spring-neap tides. Fig. 3: Roche Cape. Temporal evolution of the current vectors (cm/s) in the coastal coordinates system (ordinates axis is parallel to the coastal line) for August (a), September (b), October (c), November (d) and December (e). Observed hourly series.
1.1.4.Hydrodinamic characterization: tidal currents Transversal component Longitudinal component Fig.4: Measured current velocity series (black), tidal velocity prediction series (red) and residual series (blue) for the transversal and the longitudinal components of the current. (August-October, 2004) Maximum values of the currents are reached in the longitudinal or parallel axis to the coast.
1.1.4.Hydrodinamic characterization: wind field Fig. 5: Annual Wind Rose corresponding to the year 2004 of the analysed meteorological data from the Automatic Meteorological Station of Vejer de la Frontera (Emma Reyes, 2005). The most common winds in Conil coast are from E and W directions The most frequently and energetic is the easterly wind while the westerly wind is associated to storms. Seasonal character of the wind in the area: easterly wind (Levante) is predominant from April to November westerly wind (Poniente) is predominant from December to March
1.1.4.Hydrodinamic characterization: quasi-inertial oscillations Fig.6: Downwelling and quasi-inertial oscillations in Roche Cape. August, 2004 (Emma Reyes, 2005) The effect of the easterly winds (Levantes) would generate a net water transport (Ekman) towards the coast In the coast would take place a water accumulation up and a consequent subsidence of superficial warm water (downwelling) When the easterly wind intensity decreases or vanishes, the downwelling tends to relax generating quasi-inertial oscillations.
Fig.7: Population evolution in 1900-2005 in Conil. (Spanish Statistic National Institute –INE-.Graphic elaboration by Wikipedia, 2005) The population density of Conil is 223.2 inhab/km2 (in 2005) Since 1900 the population of Conil grew from 579 inhabitants to 19,417 in 2005 This population doubles in Summer Season due t tourism. 1.2.1. Population rate
1.2.2 Major functions of the coastal zone Tourism Fishing and aquaculture Agriculture Urbanization Ports and ships
1.2.3 Land use Urban areas Natural areas Camping Agriculture Golf course
1.2.4 Assessment of capital at risk Fishing: the damage of the water quality in the coastal area of Conil by discharges can affect the traditional fishing in which more than 500 families are employed at Conil Tourism: the loss of the blue flag award for the beaches in Conil by the contamination of the bath waters has a direct effect in the tourism, in which hundred of people is involved. Ports: A negative effect in the tourism and in the fishing, principal economic sectors of this locality, culminate in a negative effect in the management and conservation of the industrial and marina port activities.
2.1. Urban sewage discharges and their management The river Salado is a tidal channel with scarce freshwater flow. Approximately at 1500 m up-stream from its mouth it receives the discharge of the effluent of the sewage treatment station of Conil. Sometimes, apparently randomly, water quality analyses demonstrated the presence of faecal coliforms in concentrations over the guideline standards what forced, by law, to loss the blue flag award to the beach of Conil. Residual water treatment Station X Fig. 8: Aerial photograph’s composition of Conil coast.
2.1. Industrial or sewage discharges and wrong management of the residues Fig. 9: Graphics of the wind field (intensity in continuous line and direction with red points) and the concentration of faecal streptococcus, total coliforms and faecal coliforms during July 2005 –left- and August 2005 -right- in Conil. (David Roque Atienza) The graphs inform us that the spilt of the Sewage Treatment Station is a source of microorganisms to the estuary. During summer, when the population doubles (July and August principally) the flow quality diminishes due to the increase of load received by the Sewage Treatment Station.
2.1. Industrial or sewage discharges and wrong management of the residues Taking into account the wind direction high concentrations of microorganisms were found during easterly wind periods (Ekman transport: the sea was returning the contaminated water to the coast) and otherwise low concentrations were found during westerly wind periods. Concerning the time of the sample-taking procedure the results were also different because the processes of dilution and other environmental factors as the salinity and the solar radiation. Fig. 10: Graphics of the wind field (intensity in continuous line and direction with red points) and the concentration of faecal streptococcus, total coliforms and faecal coliforms during easterly wind direction in September 2005 –left- and westerly wind direction in July 2003 -right- in Conil.
2.1. Industrial or sewage discharges and wrong management of the residues Fig. 12: Location of the off-shore aquaculture installation in Conil (left) and one of the aquaculture cages used in this installations (right). (Jaime Andrés Castro) Benefits: Larger surface Larger volume Energy saving Restructuring of the sector Disadvantages: Environment condition Accidents (escapes and breakages) The development of the aquaculture bears a kind of benefits and problematic consequences:
2.2. Impacts The major impact of the discharge and wrong management of the residues is the loss of the “blue flag” award of the beaches due the contamination of the bath water Conil economy depends basically on tourism, and mainly summer tourism. The beaches quality losses are the main worry for all the stakeholders involved. Fig. 13: Photos of the principal beaches, which have lost the award “blue flag”. (Antonio González Ureba)
3.1 Strategy AGENDA 21 Section II: “Conservation and management of the resources for the development” Chapter 17: “Protection of the oceans and seas (included semienclosed seas), coastal zones and protection, rational use and development of their natural resources” “The use and rational development of the coastal areas, of the seas and the marine resources require the capacity to determine the present state of these systems and to forecast their future conditions”
3.2 Technical measures OPERATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY SYSTEM IMPLEMENTING IN THE ANDALUSIAN ATLANTIC COAST “An activity to understand the measures and modeling facts in the oceans, seas and atmosphere, their diffusion and interpretation, everything in a routine way”. Operational Oceanography Development: Bottom-up approach. Local level National level International Networks To give a continuous forecast of the sea future conditions with the possible biggest beforehand. To give the most precise description, from the users point of view, of the sea current state, including the natural resources. To collect climatic data that will give the necessary information to describe last states and to elaborate temporal series that show the tendencies and changes.
4.1 Effects related to socio-economic aspects Socio-economic aspects benefited by the application of the operational oceanography: - Contamination and healthiness of coastal waters. - Accidental Marine Spill - Coastal zone tourism and recreation. - Removal of sediments and coastal erosion. - Global warming and the sea level increase. - Conservation of coastal ecosystems. - Achievement of Hydrotechnique works. - Exploitation of natural resources and marine minerals. - Forecast and alarm of extreme coastal events, including tsunamis. - High risk area of accidental marine spill
4.2 Effects in Andalusia region Up-to-day situation of the operational oceanography in Andalusia: What have we just implemented in the andalusian region? An adapted model in pre-operative state The training human resources What is it lacking? The creation of an operative service The improvement of the oceanographic measurement network. The necessity of an investment
4.3 Conclusions The operational oceanography is an effective instrument for the management of numerous problems related with the coastal zones as a whole Necessities: Methodology "top-down“ from the technological point of view “Bottom-up" approach: from the point of view of the sustainability of the operational oceanography system. Previous research and technology development: what product can we offer? and how can we prove their advantages ? Appropriate training of the human resources Meetings and exchange forums are indispensable with the participation of all the prominent actors in the coastal area.