2What is a Bond? A force that holds atoms together. Why? We will look at it in terms of energy.Bond energy the energy required to break a bond.Why are compounds formed?Because it gives the system the lowest energy (greater stability).
3Ionic BondingAn atom with a low ionization energy reacts with an atom with high electron affinity.The electron moves.Opposite charges hold the atoms together (called electrostatic attraction).
4Coulomb's Law r is the distance between the atom centers. E= (2.31 x J·nm)(Q1Q2)rQ is the charge.r is the distance between the atom centers.If charges are opposite, E is negativeExothermic (lower product energy = increased stability).Same charge, positive E, requires energy to bring them together (decreased stability).
5What about covalent compounds? The electrons in each atom are attracted to the nucleus of the other…however, there are opposing forces involved.The electrons repel each other,The nuclei repel each other.The atoms approach each other and reach a distance with the lowest possible energy.The distance between is the bond length.
12Covalent Bonding Electrons are shared by atoms. Atoms with equal attraction for e- form nonpolar covalent bonds (same E.N. values)Atoms with different E.N. values form polar covalent bonds.The electrons are not shared evenly.One end is slightly positive, the other negative.Indicated using lowercase delta (d).
14H - F H - F H - F H - F H - F H - F H - F H - F d+ d- d+ d- d+ d- d+
15- + H - F H - F H - F H - F H - F H - F H - F H - F d+ d- d+ d- d+ d-
16- + H - F H - F H - F H - F H - F H - F H - F H - F d+ d- d+ d- d+ d-
17ElectronegativityThe ability of an electron to attract shared electrons to itself.Pauling method of calculating the valueImaginary molecule HXExpected H-X energy = H-H energy + X-X energyD = (H-X) actual - (H-X)expectedIf H and X have identical EN values then D is zero! Great, but simply know the trend.
18Electronegativity D is known for almost every element Gives us relative electronegativities of all elements.Tends to increase left to right.Decreases as you go down a group.Noble gases aren’t discussed (shhh!)Difference in electronegativity between atoms tells us how polar.
19ElectronegativitydifferenceBondTypeZeroCovalentCovalent CharacterdecreasesIonic Character increasesPolarCovalentIntermediateIonicLarge
20Dipole MomentsA molecule with a center of negative charge and a center of positive charge is dipolar (two poles),Or…has a “dipole moment”.Center of charge doesn’t have to be on an atom.The molecule will “line up” in the presence of an electric field.
27Geometry and polarityOthers don’t cancelTrigonal Pyramidal
28Geometry and polarity This shape won’t cancel them out. Linear H Br Be Net Dipole Moment
29Ions Atoms tend to react to form noble gas configuration. Metals lose electrons to form cationsNonmetals can share electrons in covalent bonds.Or they can gain electrons to form anions.
30Ionic Compounds We mean the solid crystal. Ions align themselves to maximize attractions between opposite charges,and to minimize repulsion between like ions.Can stabilize ions that would be unstable as a gas.React to achieve noble gas configuration
31Size of ions Ion size increases down a group. Cations are smaller than the atoms they came from.Anions are larger.across a row they get smaller, and then suddenly larger.First half are cations.Second half are anions.
32Periodic Trends N-3 O-2 F-1 B+3 Li+1 C+4 Be+2 Across the period nuclear charge increases so they get smaller.Energy level changes between anions and cations.N-3O-2F-1B+3Li+1C+4Be+2
33Size of Isoelectronic ions Iso - sameIso electronic ions have the same # of electronsAl+3 Mg+2 Na+1 Ne F-1 O-2 and N-3All have 10 electrons.All have the configuration 1s22s22p6
34Size of Isoelectronic ions Positive ions have more protons so they are smaller.N-3O-2F-1NeNa+1Al+3Mg+2
35Forming Ionic Compounds Lattice energy - the energy associated with making a solid ionic compound from its gaseous ions.M+(g) + X-(g) ® MX(s)This is the energy that “pays” for making ionic compounds.Energy is a state function so we can get from reactants to products in a “round about” way.
36Na(s) + ½F2(g) ® NaF(s) Na(s) ®Na(g) DH=109kJ/mol First, sublime NaNa(s) ®Na(g) DH=109kJ/molIonize Na(g)Na(g)®Na+(g) +e-DH = 495kJ/molBreak F-F Bond½F2(g) ® F(g) DH = 77 kJ/molAdd electron to FF(g) + e- ®F- (g)DH= -328 kJ/molLattice energy …allow the ions to bond Na (s) + ½F2 (g) ® NaF (s) DH = -928kJ/mol
37Na(s) + ½F2(g) ® NaF(s)Now…add it all up to determine the overall energy associated with the process.-575 kJ/mol involved in the formation of sodium fluoride.Very exothermic!
38Calculating Lattice Energy Lattice Energy = k(Q1Q2)rk is a constant that depends on the structure of the crystal.Q’s are ion charges.r is “internuclear” distance.Lattice energy is greater with more highly charged ions (larger numerator).Lattice energy is greater when the distance between ions is smaller (smaller denominator).
39Calculating Lattice Energy This bigger lattice energy “pays” for the extra ionization energy.Also “pays” for unfavorable electron affinity.
41Partial Ionic Character There are probably no totally ionic bonds between individual atoms.You can calculate % ionic character, but we will not in this course!Compare measured dipole of X-Y bonds to the calculated dipole of X+Y- if it were a completely ionic case.% dipole = Measured X-Y x Calculated X+Y-In the gas phase.
43How do we deal with it?If bonds can’t be ionic, what are ionic compounds?And what about polyatomic ions?An ionic compound will be defined as any substance that conducts electricity when melted.Also use the generic term salt and expect these substances to ionize in aqueous solutions!
44The Covalent BondThe forces that cause a group of atoms to behave as a unit.Why?Due to the tendency of atoms to achieve the lowest energy state.It takes 1652 kJ to dissociate a mole of CH4 into its ions.Since each hydrogen is bonded to the carbon, we get the average energy for one H-C bond to break = 413 kJ/mol
45CH3Cl has 3 C-H, and 1 C - Clthe C-Cl bond is 339 kJ/molRecall, the bond is a human invention.It is a method of explaining the energy change associated with forming molecules.Bonds don’t exist in nature, but are useful for descriptive purposes (our feeble little minds).We have a model of a bond.
46What is a Model? Explains how nature operates. Derived from observations.It simplifies the and categorizes the information.A model must be sensible, but it has limitations.
47Properties of a ModelA human invention, not a blown up picture of nature.Models can be wrong, because they are based on speculations and over- simplification.Models become more complicated with age…usually following Nobel prizes!You must understand the assumptions in the model, and look for weaknesses.We learn more when the model is wrong than when it is right (welcome to science)!
48Covalent Bond Energies We made some simplifications in describing the bond energy of CH4Each C-H bond has a different energy.CH4 ® CH3 + H DH = 435 kJ/molCH3 ® CH2 + H DH = 453 kJ/molCH2 ® CH + H DH = 425 kJ/molCH® C + H DH = 339 kJ/molEach bond is sensitive to its environment.
49AveragesA table of the averages of different types of bonds is found on pg. 351Single bond: one pair of electrons is shared.Double bond: two pair of electrons are shared.Triple bond: three pair of electrons are shared.More bonds = shorter bond length.
50Using Bond Energies We can find DH for a reaction. It takes energy to break bonds, and end up with atoms (endothermic change = +).We get energy when we use atoms to form bonds (exothermic = -).If we add up the energy it took to break the bonds, and subtract the energy we get from forming the bonds we get the DH.Recall, energy and enthalpy are state functions.
51Find the energy for this 2 CH2 = CHCH3+2NH3+O22 CH2 = CHC º N+6 H2OC-H 413 kJ/molO-H 467 kJ/molC=C 614kJ/molO=O 495 kJ/molN-H 391 kJ/molCºN 891 kJ/molC-C 347 kJ/mol
52Bond Energy Calculations This is one of the only equations this year where we have the following order:Reactants (bonds broken) minus Products (bonds formed)ΔH = ΣD(bonds broken) – ΣD(bonds formed)energy requiring energy releasing
53Localized Electron Model Simple model, easily applied.A molecule is composed of atoms that are bound together by sharing pairs of electrons (using the atomic orbitals of the bound atoms).Consists of Three Parts:Valence electrons using Lewis structuresPrediction of geometry using VSEPRDescription of the types of orbitals (Chapt 9)
54Lewis Structure Shows how the valence electrons are arranged. One dot for each valence electron.A stable compound has all its atoms with a noble gas configuration.Hydrogen follows the duet rule.The rest (mostly) follow the octet rule.Bonding pair is the one between the element symbols.Non-bonding pair is localized on a single element symbol.
55Rules Sum the valence electrons. Use a pair of e- to form a bond between each pair of atoms.Arrange the rest to fulfill the octet rule (except for H and other exceptions).eg. H2OA line can be used instead of a pair of dots.If you “run out” of electrons prior to achieving an octet…multiple bonds are possible.
56Exceptions to the octet BH3Be and B often do not achieve octetHave less than an octet, for electron deficient molecules.SF6Third row and larger elements can exceed the octet…why?Take a look at the Orbital Filling Diagram…Use 3d orbitals?I3-
57Exceptions to the octet When we must exceed the octet, extra electrons go on central atom…if possible!“Fill” from the outside elements back to the inside central atom of the molecule.ClF3XeO3ICl4-BeCl2
58ResonanceSometimes there is more than one valid Lewis structure for a molecule or ion.NO3-Use double arrows to indicate it is the “average” of the structures.It doesn’t switch between them.eg. NO2-Localized electron model is based on pairs of electrons, doesn’t deal with odd numbers.
59Formal ChargeFor molecules and polyatomic ions that exceed the octet…often there are several different structures possibleUse “Formal Charges” on atoms to help decide which.Trying to use the oxidation numbers to put charges on atoms in molecules doesn’t work.
60Formal ChargeThe formal charge is the difference between the number of valence electrons (Ve-) on the free atom and the number of Ve- assigned to the atom in the molecule (p. 364).FC = (# Ve- on free atom) – (# of Ve- assigned to the atom in the molecule)Ve- assigned = (Ve- on atom) + ½ (number of shared e-)
61Formal ChargeWe count half the electrons in each bond as “belonging” to the atom.Molecules try to achieve as low a formal charge as possible.Negative formal charges should be on electronegative elements.
63VSEPRLewis structures tell us how the atoms are connected to each other.They don’t tell us anything about shape.The shape of a molecule can greatly affect its properties.Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory allows us to predict geometry
64VSEPRMolecules take a shape that puts electron pairs as far away from each other as possible.Have to draw the Lewis structure to determine electron pairs.Bonding pair vs. nonbonding lone pairLone pairs occupy more space.Multiple bonds are assumed to occupy the same space as a single bond or “count as one pair”.
65VSEPR The number of pairs determines The number of atoms determines bond anglesunderlying structureThe number of atoms determinesactual shape
66VSEPR Electron pairs Bond Angles Underlying Shape 2 180° Linear 3 120° Trigonal Planar4109.5°Tetrahedral590° &120°Trigonal Bipyramidal690°Octahderal