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UNIT 10 The Bureaucracy UNIT 10 The Bureaucracy The 4th Branch of Government The 4th Branch of Government.

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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 10 The Bureaucracy UNIT 10 The Bureaucracy The 4th Branch of Government The 4th Branch of Government."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNIT 10 The Bureaucracy UNIT 10 The Bureaucracy The 4th Branch of Government The 4th Branch of Government

2 I. WHAT EXACTLY IS THE BUREAUCRACY ? The large and complex organization of all UNELECTED(hired & appointed) officials of the Executive branch who are charged with running the day-to-day operations of govt. The large and complex organization of all UNELECTED (hired & appointed) officials of the Executive branch who are charged with running the day-to-day operations of govt.

3 A. Bureaucracys Size Total number: 2.9 million people Total number: 2.9 million people (30% of these work for DoD alone (30% of these work for DoD alone - 1.4 million people serve in the military but are not considered to be bureaucrats. - 1.4 million people serve in the military but are not considered to be bureaucrats.

4 The Bureaucracys Size (cont) The Bureaucracys Size (cont) The federal workforce composes about 2% of the total U.S. workforce. The federal workforce composes about 2% of the total U.S. workforce. The size of the civilian bureaucracy shrank as a % of the population from the 1970s to 2002, but grew again under Bush Jr. (homeland security reasons) and Obama (domestic issue reasons) The size of the civilian bureaucracy shrank as a % of the population from the 1970s to 2002, but grew again under Bush Jr. (homeland security reasons) and Obama (domestic issue reasons) - 1970 U.S. population was 240 million - 1970 U.S. population was 240 million Bureaucracy size: 2.8 million = 1.2% of population Bureaucracy size: 2.8 million = 1.2% of population - 1990 U.S. population was 281 million - 1990 U.S. population was 281 million Bureaucracy size: 2.4 million =.85% Bureaucracy size: 2.4 million =.85% - 2012 population was 310 million - 2012 population was 310 million Bureaucracy size: 2.9 million =.94% of population Bureaucracy size: 2.9 million =.94% of population

5 II. Bureaucratic Administration

6 The Bureaucracy is Hierarchical A. Organized hierarchically around 15 executive departments that make up the Cabinet. Each is headed by a Secretary (DOJ has an Attorney General) who manage specific policy areas. 1. Each dept has an Assistant Secretary as well as numerous Deputy and Under Secretaries who head up major divisions within the departments. They are supported by thousands of high & mid-level managers within those divisions.

7 Bureaucratic Units 2. Bureaucratic Units The bureaucracy is also composed of 50+ independent agencies and over 2,000 other administrative units based on mission or clientele served: The bureaucracy is also composed of 50+ independent agencies and over 2,000 other administrative units based on mission or clientele served: - services (U.S. Secret Service) - services (U.S. Secret Service) - offices (Office of Management and Budget) - offices (Office of Management and Budget) - administrations (Social Security Administration) - administrations (Social Security Administration) - bureaus (Bureau of Indian Affairs; FBI) - bureaus (Bureau of Indian Affairs; FBI) - agencies (NASA; FEMA) - agencies (NASA; FEMA) - boards (National Labor Relations Board) - boards (National Labor Relations Board) - commissions (Federal Trade Commission; ICC) - commissions (Federal Trade Commission; ICC)

8 B.Cabinet: The Primary Bureaucracy B. Cabinet: The Primary Bureaucracy Allowed by the Constitution; created by Congress and expanded over time at presidents request. Allowed by the Constitution; created by Congress and expanded over time at presidents request. Serves as a sounding board in various policy areas to advance the presidents ideological agenda. Serves as a sounding board in various policy areas to advance the presidents ideological agenda.

9 C. Cabinet Composition - Members are appointed based on experience, diversity, or patronage (close friends, political donor, loyal party member) - Not all cabinet officers or other appointed bureaucrats are experts in their dept… they must rely on career bureaucrats for advice and knowledge.

10 D. Bureaucrats are turf oriented D. Bureaucrats are turf oriented What is turf? How is it applied? Try to increase their own agencys budget at the expense of the others. Try to increase their own agencys budget at the expense of the others. Promote own organizations prestige and roles by pushing high visibility programs. Promote own organizations prestige and roles by pushing high visibility programs. Resist change and outsider interference. Resist change and outsider interference. - Their loyalty is often split between their departments and the President! - Politicians use the bureaucracy as a scapegoat to assign blame for public policy failures or cost overruns (it may just be bad law).

11 E. Government Corporations E. Government Corporations cross between a government agency and a private business. private sector Entities that are a cross between a government agency and a private business. They provide a service that could be done by the private sector, but are better left to the government to do. They are supposedly self- supporting in that they are expected to make money to run their operations from the services they provide to the public. The U.S. Postal Service is the largest one. They are supposedly self- supporting in that they are expected to make money to run their operations from the services they provide to the public. The U.S. Postal Service is the largest one.

12 Other Government Corporations Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Amtrak (passenger train service) Amtrak (passenger train service)

13 Joe and Delores Delgado of Dallas, Texas wrote Vice President Al Gore about their concerns that Amtrak consolidation was wiping out the Texas Eagle (train service), in their area. Mr. Gore was very sympathetic in his reply letter…. I share your view that the urgent problem of species extinction and the conservation of biological diversity should be addressed. -- In the Loop, 12/6/96 You idiot! Hey Al, Joe Biden called and wants you on his team right now! Bring your shotgun.

14 F. Independent Regulatory Agencies/Commissions Bureaucratic organizations that are independent of executive departments and have broad watchdog powers toenforce laws and punish violators within the U.S. economy or society. Bureaucratic organizations that are independent of executive departments and have broad watchdog powers to enforce laws and punish violators within the U.S. economy or society. - Examples: EPA, SEC, FAA, FDA, FCC, OSHA - Examples: EPA, SEC, FAA, FDA, FCC, OSHA 1. The president has little control over them however, Congress has more control via its oversight role and law-making.

15 Independent Agencies (contd) Independent Agencies (contd) 2. In the U.S. model, the govt regulates privately owned enterprises, rather than operates publicly owned ones. 3. Each independent agency or commission is run by a chairman with a Board of Commissioners. - President appoints Board members and Senate confirms them. - President appoints Board members and Senate confirms them. - Terms of office vary (3-14 yrs) - Terms of office vary (3-14 yrs) - Terms overlap congressional and presidential terms to protect against undue influence and political firings. - Terms overlap congressional and presidential terms to protect against undue influence and political firings.

16 G. The Civil Service The Civil Service establishes the qualifications by which most career bureaucrats enter and are promoted within the bureaucracy. - Makes lists of job openings - Hires and promotes on competitive merit. - Investigates corruption, incompe- tence, and whistle-blowing. Created in 1883 by the Pendleton Act to rid the govt from office seekers using patronage & favoritism to get jobs. - What caused this change?

17 G. The Armed Forces The Secy of Defense oversees the military bureaucracy day-to- day and reports directly to POTUS as C-in-C The Secy of Defense oversees the military bureaucracy day-to- day and reports directly to POTUS as C-in-C - Top levels of military control are in the hands of civilians. - Top levels of military control are in the hands of civilians. Military policy is developed jointly by the military and its civilian leaders. Military policy is developed jointly by the military and its civilian leaders. Each military branch has its own civilian service secretary (e.g. Secy of the Navy) who reports directly to the Secy of Defense. Each military branch has its own civilian service secretary (e.g. Secy of the Navy) who reports directly to the Secy of Defense.

18 Joint Chiefs of Staff Each military service has a senior uniformed officer called a service chief and a Chairman who make up the Joint Chiefs of Staff who reports to the Secy of Def. Chairman Army Air Force Navy Marine Corps

19 III. Law and Policy Implementation Im just a bill! Im just a bill, but wait until you see how Im implemented!

20 A. Bureaucrats work in a conflicting environment … A. Bureaucrats work in a conflicting environment … 1. Even though they work for the Executive branch, bureaucrats can interpret the intent of Congressional laws (discretionary authority) and write the necessary rules and regulations to put those laws into effect (implementation). All the above is commonly referred to as: quasi-legislative power.

21 3. Implementation Is Difficult Those who are to be controlled often oppose regulation (e.g. oil companies, cigarette companies, auto manufacturers, unions) and make excuses as to why they cant comply with regulations imposed on them. Special interest groups try to weaken implementation by lobbying Congress. Resulting conflict can destroy policy effectiveness through legislative loopholes favorable to such groups (over 1,400 exemptions to OBAMACARE given to date!)

22 4. Quasi-Judicial Powers 4. Quasi-Judicial Powers Independent regulatory agencies are often given the power to punish (fine, jail, or shut down) those who break the laws. Independent regulatory agencies are often given the power to punish (fine, jail, or shut down) those who break the laws. Those regulated or punished can appeal to the courts for relief by suing to overturn laws or trying to limit authority of regulators. Those regulated or punished can appeal to the courts for relief by suing to overturn laws or trying to limit authority of regulators.

23 5. Enforcement Aggressive enforcement, when supported by the President or Congress, can be effective in making the laws work by punishing violators. But, a lack of significant enforcement, or weakened requirements, will often result in non-compliance by those regulated.

24 6.INCREMENTALISM 6. INCREMENTALISM Bureaucrats and Congress are often forced by changing circumstances, public opinion, or politics to modify laws rather than make wholesale departures from them (e.g. Gun control; ObamaCare). Bureaucrats and Congress are often forced by changing circumstances, public opinion, or politics to modify laws rather than make wholesale departures from them (e.g. Gun control; ObamaCare). This leads to policy-making characterized by a series of decisions, each instituting modest change, bit by bit and step by step, over time. This leads to policy-making characterized by a series of decisions, each instituting modest change, bit by bit and step by step, over time.

25 B. Presidential Controls divided supervision President is head of bureaucracy in his role as Chief Executive. But, he often has LESS control over it than Congress does under this system of divided supervision (two masters!). Bureaucracies are permanent, presidents are temporary. Two, 4-year terms Two, 4-year terms Unlimited service Unlimited service

26 Presidential Controls Appointment and promotion: President can fire most political appointees or civil service bureaucrats Appointment and promotion: President can fire most political appointees or civil service bureaucrats Executive orders: to force compliance with policy Executive orders: to force compliance with policy Exercise economic powers: alter department and agency budgets, but Congress does the actual appropriating Exercise economic powers: alter department and agency budgets, but Congress does the actual appropriating Reorganize the bureaucracy: creation of new agencies, deletion of old ones, combining missions (e.g. Homeland Security Dept creation required other executive departments to give up turf, $, and people) Reorganize the bureaucracy: creation of new agencies, deletion of old ones, combining missions (e.g. Homeland Security Dept creation required other executive departments to give up turf, $, and people)

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28 Congressional Controls Change jurisdiction of agencies Change jurisdiction of agencies Alter budgets of agencies and departments Alter budgets of agencies and departments Deny presidential appointments to bureaucratic posts Deny presidential appointments to bureaucratic posts OVERSIGHT! OVERSIGHT! Compel agencies to interpret and apply laws as Congress intended by holding hearings, investigating bureaucratic failures, rewriting legislation.

29 Congressional Controls (contd) Committee Clearance c Committee Clearance The ability of congressional committees to review and approve agency decisions in advance without the need to change previous laws or pass additional laws.

30 IV. IV. A. An alliance of mid-level bureaucrats, outside interest groups, and members of congressional committees formed to promote common causes. Goal Goal: Create or change laws that may be seen as outdated, unfair, or prohibitive to business or government policies (client politics).

31 How to Build an Iron Triangle How to Build an Iron Triangle

32 ISSUE NETWORKS ISSUE NETWORKS Networks of interest groups, media outlets, academic institutions, congressional staff members, and private think tanks that meet to advocate public policies. Networks of interest groups, media outlets, academic institutions, congressional staff members, and private think tanks that meet to advocate public policies. Unlike iron triangles, issue networks are ideologically driven vs. interest driven.

33 V. REFORMING THE BUREACRACY

34 Privatization Privatization 1. The government outsources federal programs through bidding to a private company to administer those programs (e.g. running federal prisons, military food services, public housing, building security, etc). 2. Purpose: to encourage competition and job creation in the private business sector while reducing costs to the government.

35 3. Its controversial because… PROFIT The motivation for the private sector is PROFIT! The bureaucracy isnt supposed to run government services for a profit unless its a government corp.

36 B. DEREGULATION Reducing or ending govt regulations on businesses by allowing the market place to police itself as to behavior and prices. - Those in favor believe freedom in the market place is best way to achieve economic growth. - Those opposed see deregulation as a failure of government to protect consumers and society.

37 C. Hatch Act (1939) political neutrality Enact ed to ensure the political neutrality of civil service employees in carrying out laws and policy. : PROHIBITED BUREAUCRATS FROM: running for office running for office making political speeches making political speeches managing political campaigns managing political campaigns using their office to affect election outcomes using their office to affect election outcomes forcing subordinates to give campaign contributions forcing subordinates to give campaign contributions

38 D. Revised Hatch Act (1993) D. Revised Hatch Act (1993) Upheld a bureaucrats right to: vote vote assist in voter registration assist in voter registration make voluntary campaign contributions make voluntary campaign contributions join political parties join political parties display partisan advertising display partisan advertising campaign for policy changes, laws, etc. campaign for policy changes, laws, etc.

39 E.Other Bureaucracy Reforms E. Other Bureaucracy Reforms 1. Government Performance and Results Act (2002): - Requires each agency to annually identify goals, adopt a performance plan, and have a system in place to in meeting its goals & objectives. - Requires each agency to annually identify goals, adopt a performance plan, and have a system in place to measure performance in meeting its goals & objectives. - Marginally effective in creating better management techniques. - Marginally effective in creating better management techniques.

40 2. CIVIL SERVICE REFORM ACT (1978) Restructured the Civil Service top down Restructured the Civil Service top down Lower management levels allowed to make and implement policy decisions Lower management levels allowed to make and implement policy decisions Bonuses for meritorious performances. Bonuses for meritorious performances. Easier to hire, fire and reassign people Easier to hire, fire and reassign people Enacted whistleblower protections Enacted whistleblower protections Created Senior Executive Service (SES) which rotated career senior managers between agencies to bring in new blood with new ideas. Created Senior Executive Service (SES) which rotated career senior managers between agencies to bring in new blood with new ideas.

41 3. National Performance Review Carried out during Clintons first term in 1993-95; overseen by Mr. Global Warming, Al Gore, Clintons V.P. Among Washington insiders, NPR was derisively referred to as Among Washington insiders, NPR was derisively referred to as Reinventing Government. Bureaucracy was seen to be too centralized, turf-oriented, and rule-bound, and not caring about program results or their effects. Bureaucracy was seen to be too centralized, turf-oriented, and rule-bound, and not caring about program results or their effects.

42 N P R Results N P R Results Emphasized within the bureaucratic system and rewarded employee initiative. Emphasized customer satisfaction within the bureaucratic system and rewarded employee initiative. - Eliminated many restrictive rules, practices and excessive paperwork - Eliminated many restrictive rules, practices and excessive paperwork Less centralized management - Better purchasing practices initiated - Better purchasing practices initiated - Reduce duplication & waste among agencies - Reduce duplication & waste among agencies - Made it easier to fire a bureaucrat - Made it easier to fire a bureaucrat RESULT: as bureaucrats resisted turf changes and burrowed further into their rules & regulations. RESULT: Marginal change as bureaucrats resisted turf changes and burrowed further into their rules & regulations. WGOF!

43 4. Reducing Red Tape Red tape is the system of complex rules and regs that must be followed to get the bureaucracy to act quickly on an issue or problem. Often involves endless paperwork, clearances, or long drawn out procedures and decision-making that overwhelms citizens or businesses trying to get anything done with govt.

44 END OF UNIT 10


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