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Communication In today’s turbulent environment, communication is at the top of everyone’s needed-skills list. Effective communication, both within the.

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Presentation on theme: "Communication In today’s turbulent environment, communication is at the top of everyone’s needed-skills list. Effective communication, both within the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communication In today’s turbulent environment, communication is at the top of everyone’s needed-skills list. Effective communication, both within the organization and with people outside the company, is a major challenge and responsibility for managers. 1

2 What is Communication? Process by which information is exchanged and understood by two or more people, usually with the intent to motivate or influence behavior Manager = 80% every working day in direct communication with others – 48 min/hour Manager = 20% every work day in communication in the form of reading and writing -12 min/hour 2

3 What is Communication? The transfer and understanding of meaning if no information has been conveyed, communication has not occurred everything that a manager does involves communicating effective communication does not equal agreement ineffective communication is the basis for many managerial problems

4 The Manager as Communication Champion 4

5 interpersonal communication - occurs between people organizational communication - all the patterns, networks, and systems of communication in an organization 11-5

6 Process Of Communication Elements of the Process message - expresses the purpose of the communication encoding - converting the message in symbolic form affected by the skills, attitudes, and knowledge of the sender, and by the culture of the organization channel - medium for conveying the message decoding - retranslating symbols into a message affected by personal characteristics of the receiver noise - disturbances that interfere with the transmission, receipt, or feedback of a message message itself and channel can distort communications feedback also subject to same sources of noise

7 The Communication Process Sender MessageMediumReceiver Encoding Feedback Message Decoding Noise

8 Channel Richness 8

9 nonverbal communication - communication without words types body language - gestures, facial expressions, and other body movements that convey meaning verbal intonation - emphasis someone gives to words or phrases that conveys meaning every oral communication is accompanied by a nonverbal message nonverbal component usually carries the greatest impact

10 Nonverbal Communications Messages transmitted human actions and behaviors rather than through words Occurs mostly face-to-face Verbal Impact = 7 % Vocal Impact = 38 % Facial Impact = 55 % 10 Most nonverbal communication is unconscious or subconscious

11 Facial Expressions Convey Emotions

12 Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication Filtering - the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver upward communication is condensed by senders to avoid information overload by top-level receivers extent of filtering affected by: the number of vertical levels in the organization culture of the organization Selective Perception - what people see and hear influenced by their attitudes, background, and experience

13 Emotions - interpretation of a message affected by the way the receiver feels extreme emotions likely to hinder effective communication Information Overload - information available exceeds processing capacity frequent complaint of executives

14 Defensiveness - behaviors that result from feeling threatened hinders effective communication Language - meaning of words differs among people with diverse backgrounds jargon - specialized terminology used by a group even those who speak the same language may use it quite differently National Culture - cultural values affect the way people communicate

15 Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Interpersonal Communication Use Feedback - Simplify Language – Listen Actively -

16 Active Listening Behaviors Don’t overtalk Be empathetic Make eye contact Exhibit affirmative head nods and appropriate facial expressions Active Listening Avoid distracting actions or gestures Avoid interrupting the speaker Ask questions

17 Listening One of the most important tools of manager communication – both to employees and to customers Listening = skill of receiving messages to accurately grasp facts and feelings to interpret the genuine meaning 75% of effective communication is listening – most people spend only 30-40% listening 17

18 Keys to Effective Listening Listen actively Find areas of interest Resist distractions Capitalize on the fact that thought is faster tan speech Be responsive Judge content, not delivery Hold one’s fire Listen for ideas Work at listening Exercise one’s mind 18

19 Constrain Emotions - emotions severely cloud and distort the transference of meaning refrain from communicating until one regains her/his composure Watch Nonverbal Cues - actions should be aligned with words nonverbal message should reinforce verbal message

20 Organizational Communication Formal Communication communication that follows the official chain of command or is communication required to do one’s job takes place within prescribed organizational work arrangements Informal Communication not defined by the organization’s structural hierarchy fulfills two purposes permits employees to satisfy their needs for social interaction creates alternative, and frequently faster and more efficient, channels of communication

21 Formal Channels of Communication 21

22 Direction of Communication Flow Downward - flows from a manager to subordinates used to inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees Upward - flows from subordinates to managers keeps managers aware of employees’ feelings source for ideas on improving operations amount of upward communication affected by the culture of the organization trust and empowerment increase upward flow mechanistic and authoritarian environment decrease upward flow

23 Diagonal - cuts across both work areas and organizational levels benefits efficiency and speed facilitates diagonal communication

24 Horizontal Communications Lateral or diagonal exchange of messages among peers or coworkers Horizontal communications categories 1. Intradepartmental problem solving 2. Interdepartmental coordination 3. Change initiatives and improvement 24 Inform and request support as well as coordinate activities Particularly important in learning organizations

25 Team Communication Channels Organizational Implications  With complex and difficult team activities, all members should share information in a decentralized structure – all information with all members  With simple problems, centralized communication structure – communicating through one individual to solve problems or make decisions 25

26 Organizational Communication Networks combination of vertical and horizontal flows into a variety of patterns Types of Networks chain - communication flows according to the formal chain of command wheel - flows between a clearly identifiable and strong leader and others in a work group or team all-channel - flows freely among all members of a work team no single network is best for all situations

27 Three Common Organizations Communication Networks and How They Rate on Effectiveness Criteria

28 Personal Communication Channels Exist outside formal authorized channels Do not adhere to organization’s hierarchy of authority Primary way information spreads and work gets accomplished 28 Coexist with formal communication channels

29 Developing Personal Communication Networks Build it before you need it Never eat lunch alone Make it win-win Focus on diversity 29

30 Personal Communication Channels Three important types of channels 1. Personal Networks 2. Grapevine-rumour is undesirable feature of grapevine 3. Management By Wondering Around 30

31 Communicating during turbulent times Open Communication Sharing all types of information throughout the company, across functional and hierarchical levels Recent trend - reflects manager’s increased emphasis on Empowering employees Building trust and commitment Enhancing collaboration 31

32 Crisis Communication Primary Skills Maintain your focus Be visible Get the awful truth out Communicate a vision for the future 32

33 Feedback and Learning Feedback – Enables managers to determine whether they have been successful in communicating with others Is often neglected Giving & receiving feedback is typically difficult –both for managers & employees Successful managers focus their feedback To help develop the capacities of subordinates To teach the organization how to better reach its goals 33 Managers use evaluation & communication to help individuals

34 Semantics Meaning of words and the way they are used 34


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