3How are students identified? By base line assesments – CATs, SATs, reading and spelling scoresPrimary liaisonConcerns expressed by subject staffParents concernsOutside agencies
4National Curriculum Inclusion statement This statement contains 3 principles that areSetting suitable learning challengesResponding to students diverse learning needs.Overcoming potential barriers to learningQCA/DfEE (1999) Inclusion: Providing effective learning opportunities for all pupils
5Disability Discrimination Act (1995) Education Act (1996) SEN and Disability Act (2001) These are designed to ensure access to education and the inclusion of disabled students in every aspect of school life. It requires schools to make reasonable adjustments to ensure that disabled students are not disadvantaged by their disability.The DDA defines a disabled person as someone who has ‘ a physical or mental impairment which has substantial and long term adverse effect on his or her ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities.’
6Every Child MattersThe ECM Agenda should drive the ethos and the vision of your classroom practiceBeing HealthyStaying SafeEnjoying and AchievingMaking a positive contributionEconomic wellbeing
7Your responsibilities Identification of pupils’ needs will support the effective design of lessons to personalise the learning and ensure progress for pupils with SEN.It is the responsibility of the InCo to identify their needs and inform staff. It is the duty of staff to access that information through the Inclusion ( Special Needs) Register and IEPs, and act on it by planning appropriate teaching approaches.
8Assessment for Learning AfL When assessment for learning is well established in a classroom, pupils are:• actively involved in their own learning;• able to judge the success of their work and understand targets for improvement;• able to take responsibility for their own progress……………..Regardless of their diverse learning needs!!
9Types of Difficulties students might have in your classroom Dyslexic (Specific Learning Difficulties)Dyspraxic (Fine and gross motor difficulties)Visual/hearing impairedASD – Autisitic spectrum disorder (Aspergers)ADHD – Attention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderBESD behaviour/emotional/social difficultiesSLCN – speech and language/communication difficultiesGLD – Global learning difficultiesBEWARE NEGATIVITY!!
10Why inclusion?There is clear evidence that lower-attaining pupils learn more effectively in mixed ability settings because working together with more able pupils develops communication skills and social skills such as adaptability, tolerance and turn-taking.It is desirable that most learning for pupils with SEN and disability takes place in the social context of the mainstream classroom.
11Approaches to learning and teaching in the mainstream classroom One of the most limiting factors for pupil with SEN or disability as learners is being rendered overly dependent on adults to help them learn.Many pupils with learning difficulties lack self-confidence. Pupils need opportunities to apply their skills, working collaboratively with other pupils and independently.
12All pupils need to move from dependence on the teacher, through modelled, shared and guided group activities to a point where they are sufficiently skilled and confident to work independently.The InCo promotes teaching that represents the move from dependence on the teacher to independent study.
13What do good inclusive teachers do? Inclusive teachers believe that all pupils in all classes have an entitlement to effective teaching that raises their learning attainment. They plan lessons carefully so that all pupils:• are able to participate;• can access the key learning at their own level;• take some new learning away with them.
14Good inclusive teachers will Set suitable learning challengesRespond to student’s diverse learning needsOvercome barriers to learning by making reasonable adjustments
15In successful lessons, pupils are made aware of: what is to be learned; How this fits in with what they already know.Helping pupils maximise learning:Currently, far fewer pupils with SEN make sufficient progress at Key Stage 3 compared with others in their peer group. All pupils, including those with SEN, respond to a positive learning environment where there are high expectations through:a belief in what may be possible;a view of ability as flexible not fixed.
16Designing lessonsIdentification of pupils’ needs will support the effective design of lessons to personalise the learning and ensure progress for pupils with SEN.It is the responsibility of the InCo to identify their needs and inform staff. It is the duty of staff to access that information through the inclusion register and IEPs and act on it.
17students an opportunity to consolidate learning Learning BreaksLearning breaks givestudents an opportunityto consolidate learning
22The phenomenal power of the human mind I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid! Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer inwaht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? Yaeh, and I awlyas thought slpeling was ipmorantt.
24Concentrate on the cross in the middle, after a while you will notice that this moving purple dot will turn green!Look at the cross a bit longer and you‘ll notice that all dots except the green one will disappear.
25Making reasonable adjustments Good practice in the classroom may includeGood liaison with support staffPlanning and differentiating workConsidering student groupingDeveloping peer workingReviewing and evaluating progress regularlyWorking with InCo and outside agencies
27Structuring learningLow-attaining pupils often benefit from lessons that are structured into a number of shorter chunks. Each of these episodes will need distinct outcomes, shared with the pupils and may require a mini-plenary.Teachers will need to deploy a range of different approaches and teaching strategies that address the type of objective and match the maturity of the pupils in order to meet learning needs.Bloom’s taxonomy
29Learning styles: helping to remove barriers to learning To accommodate the preferred learning styles of pupils with SEN, teachers need support from the INCO to:• have a clear understanding of what these are;• provide learning opportunities on a regular basis that address the full range of learning styles within the class;• know how to create a match between the nature of the learning and the learning style of the pupil;• take account of pupils who have one main style, ensure that they can access the learning but encourage them to develop learning within other styles;• provide some degree of choice of activity.
30Acknowledging learning styles The Dunn and Dunn model contains 5 learning style domainsEnvironmental - sound, light, temperature, designEmotional – motivation, persistence, responsibility, structureSociological- learning by self, pairs, team, and with an adultPhysiological- perceptual preference, food and drink intake, time of day, mobilityPsychological – global or analytical preferences, impulsive and reflective
33Assessment for learning: a whole-school approach When assessment for learning is well established in a classroom, pupils are:• actively involved in their own learning; • able to judge the success of their work and understand targets for improvement;• able to take responsibility for their own progress.
34Making best use of additional support within the classroom Clearly the role of additional adults is more effective when they are involved in the planning about how individual pupils can be included and engaged in the lesson.At the very least the supporting adult will need to knowthe learning objectivesthe expected learning outcomethe tasks and activities planned for the pupils in the lesson.
35Particularly demanding with pupils with challenging behavoiur Is it another word for SEN and the Gifted and Talented still get overlooked?Something that may not actually be the best for those in the most need. Their own setting, peers and a tailored curriculum may benefit these pupils more.Does it give the best for the middle range ability children as we grapple with the extremes?A whole school issueA mindset – but is it enough to like the idea of it? An emotional response such as compassion and belief but do we all experience these in the same way?Impossible to totally effect particularly if not all agencies involved are of the same mindset and belief in its truthHumiliating for some – to be seen as different by peers – something educators do not always considerInclusionNo good if the teachers are not empowered to deliverReceiving due entitlementA fundamental belief in the attainability of equalityBeware the hidden exclusion – withdrawal sessions or internal segregation – the ‘Turtles’ tableIs only possible when looking at all your class not just the SEN childrenNot workable when the educational model that drives the school is curriculum delivery rather than child-centredRuns contrary to the prevalent medical model of SEN where the child is deficient and not the rest of his / her environmentA financial challenge – and therein lies the rub!Tolerance towards differenceA process and not a resultNot necessarily for those you want to include so much as the rest of the class recognising and accepting difference