41. (p. ) In arguing for their policies, the new American expansionists of the late 1800s offered all of the following economic and social reasons except a. the United States would soon need to find new sources for the natural resources that it was rapidly using up b. the United States needed to acquire new overseas markets for its products C. the United States needed to find new sources of immigrants who would work in its factories for low wages d. the United States needed an aggressive foreign policy to take people's minds off internal problems and frustrations e. the United States needed to expand due to the "closing of the frontier."
53. (p. ) In the 1890s, Spain and the United States gradually moved toward war over Cuba for all of the following reasons except a. a change in U.S. tariff policy hurt the Cuban economy and made the Cuban people ready for revolt b. when the Cuban revolt broke out, the American press printed sensational, one-sided stories about it C. during the Cuban revolt, the Spanish committed numerous atrocities, whereas the Cubans usually behaved humanely d. Cubans living in the United States popularized their side of the revolt with the American people e. sensationalized press coverage stirred a fervor for war
66. (p. 558) The Platt Amendment, incorporated into the Cuban constitution, gave Cuba a. full independence b. economic independence C. nominal political independence d. an American colonial government e. an equal partnership with American interests
79. (p. 566) Although the progressives often differed about what progressivism meant, most agreed that a. the "natural law" of the marketplace could stabilize society b. it was a particular set of political reforms c. it was a group of moral and humanitarian goals D. government should play a role in correcting society's ills e. all of the answers above
811. (p. ) The favorite targets of the muckrakers included all of the following except A. the violence used against unions b. the excessive practices of the railroads c. the corruption of the business trusts d. the seamy side of boss rule e. the waste of natural resources
915. (p. ) Progressives came to regard one state as the center of reform and its governor as the leading progressive. The most progressive state and governor were a. New Jersey/Woodrow Wilson B. Wisconsin/Robert La Follette c. California/Hiram. Johnson d. New York/Charles Evans Hughes e. Ohio/William McKinley
49CAUSES OF WORLD WAR IAlliancesEuropean nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power ……..Triple Alliance Triple Entente Central Powers Allied PowersGermany Great Britain Austria-Hungary Empire France Bulgaria Russia
50ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWIAustrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups.Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia.This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand.Saravejoalliances1
51Countries proud of their heritage and culture CAUSES OF WORLD WAR INationalismCountries proud of their heritage and cultureSimilar to patriotismEthnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one countryGermany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.
55economic and political control over other countries…… CAUSES OF WORLD WAR IImperialismeconomic and political control over other countries……France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia were establishing colonies in Africa and Asiathese countries were in competition for colonies
56Cartoon-European grab bag CAUSES OF WORLD WAR IEuropean nations competing for colonies around the world…..ImperialismCartoon-European grab bag
57Cartoon-European grab bag COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900Cartoon-European grab bag
58Cartoon-European grab bag COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900Cartoon-European grab bag
59CAUSES OF WORLD WAR IMilitarismEuropean nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world……
61Militarism & Arms RaceTotal Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, British and Russia] in millions of dollars.187018801890190019101914$94$130$154$268$289$398
621910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures Militarism & Arms RaceIncrease in Defense ExpendituresFrance10%Britain13%Russia39%Germany73%By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3rd largest naval fleet in the world…. The Great White Fleet
63MobilizationHome by Christmas!No major war in 50 years!Nationalism!
64ASSASSINATION OF FRANZ FERDINAND Franz Ferdinand’s funeral processionArchduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI.Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule.franz
66ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI June 28 Assassination at Sarajevo July 28 Austria-Hungary declared war on SerbiaJuly 30 Russia began mobilizationAugust 1 Germany declared war on Russiaalliances1
67ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI August 3 Germany declared war on France August 3 Great Britain declared war on GermanyAugust 6 Russia and Austria/Hungary at war.August 12 Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungaryalliances2
68Austrian-Hungarian Empire 2. Two Armed Camps!Allied PowersCentral PowersGreat BritainGermanyAustrian-Hungarian EmpireFranceRussiaItaly
713. GERMAN INVASION OF BELGIUM battle frontsGerman invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France.Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their armyBelgium puts up a strong fight.1st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris.France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918
74STALEMATE AND WARFARE 4. Stalemate By September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, neither side was able to gain an advantage.When a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris, both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.” Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties.Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage.
76STALEMATE AND WARFARE Modern Warfare Neither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WW I.Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy.As morale fell, the lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur. The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.
77Launch List1. Take 1 minute and rank in importance, the causes of World War 1 (Animalz)
78Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. US was officially NEUTRAL US IN 1914Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe.Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912.5. Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but…………..it was in Europe.US was officially NEUTRAL
79CONFLICTING SYMPATHIES WILSON'S NEUTRALITYThe effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned.The people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations now at war. It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy. Some will wish one nation, others another, to succeed in the momentous struggle.I venture, therefore, my fellow countrymen, the United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name, during these days that are to try men's souls.CONFLICTING SYMPATHIESwilson neutrality1
80SANDWICH MANsandwich manThe US believed it had the right to trade with the warring nations and they would respect our neutrality…….Didn’t happen! The German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our freedom of the seas and neutrality.
81US POLICY BEFORE WWI US believed It had the right to trade with the warring nationsWarring nations must respect our neutralityin the freedom of the seasGerman submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutralitynotes2
82Effects of Allied blockade 1914, $70 million in trade with Central powers1916, trade reduced to $1.3 millionAllied tradeGrew from $825 million to $3.2 billion in same time periodWWI transformed the US from a debtor to a creditor nation
83The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy. 7. SUBMARINE WARFAREThe Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy.Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-BoatsGermans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain.
90Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. 8. SINKING OF THE LUSITANIAMay 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner.Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British.Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans.U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”.US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians
92BUT, President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” …. SINKING OF THE LUSITANIAAfter the sinking of the Lusitania, public opinion of most Americans was to go to war with Germany.Germany promised they would not sink anymore ships unless warning them first and providing safety for civilians.BUT, President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” ….
93XSussex Sunk: led to Sussex Pledge in March Germany promised not to sink anymore ships.war zone
94ZIMMERMAN NOTE Berlin, January 19, 1917 On the first of February we intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement....You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war withzimmerman notes
95Zimmerman (Secretary of State) ZIMMERMAN NOTEwith the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan;at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months.Zimmerman (Secretary of State)zimmerman notes