1. (p ) In arguing for their policies, the new American expansionists of the late 1800s offered all of the following economic and social reasons except a. the United States would soon need to find new sources for the natural resources that it was rapidly using up b. the United States needed to acquire new overseas markets for its products C. the United States needed to find new sources of immigrants who would work in its factories for low wages d. the United States needed an aggressive foreign policy to take people's minds off internal problems and frustrations e. the United States needed to expand due to the "closing of the frontier."
3. (p ) In the 1890s, Spain and the United States gradually moved toward war over Cuba for all of the following reasons except a. a change in U.S. tariff policy hurt the Cuban economy and made the Cuban people ready for revolt b. when the Cuban revolt broke out, the American press printed sensational, one-sided stories about it C. during the Cuban revolt, the Spanish committed numerous atrocities, whereas the Cubans usually behaved humanely d. Cubans living in the United States popularized their side of the revolt with the American people e. sensationalized press coverage stirred a fervor for war
6. (p. 558) The Platt Amendment, incorporated into the Cuban constitution, gave Cuba a. full independence b. economic independence C. nominal political independence d. an American colonial government e. an equal partnership with American interests
9. (p. 566) Although the progressives often differed about what progressivism meant, most agreed that a. the "natural law" of the marketplace could stabilize society b. it was a particular set of political reforms c. it was a group of moral and humanitarian goals D. government should play a role in correcting society's ills e. all of the answers above
11. (p ) The favorite targets of the muckrakers included all of the following except A. the violence used against unions b. the excessive practices of the railroads c. the corruption of the business trusts d. the seamy side of boss rule e. the waste of natural resources
15. (p ) Progressives came to regard one state as the center of reform and its governor as the leading progressive. The most progressive state and governor were a. New Jersey/Woodrow Wilson B. Wisconsin/Robert La Follette c. California/Hiram. Johnson d. New York/Charles Evans Hughes e. Ohio/William McKinley
7. (p. 605) Teddy Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for helping to end the _____ War. Russo-Japanese
10. (p. 602) The _____ Amendment allowed the federal government to create a graduated income tax. Sixteenth
14. (p. 593) The _____ Amendment provided for the popular election of the United States Senate. Seventeenth
19. (p ) _____ was so successful as a progressive governor that his state became known as a "laboratory of progressivism." Robert La Follette
1st World War in history Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII Total war Involved 60 nations and 6 continents
Cost of War $400 billion $10 million dollars an hour 40 million deaths First war of the Industrial Revolution…… New Weapons vs old tactics of fighting
No Mans Land
No Mans Land
Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
Alliances balance of powerEuropean nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power …….. Triple AllianceTriple Entente Central PowersAllied Powers GermanyGreat Britain Austria-Hungary EmpireFrance BulgariaRussia
alliances1 Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia. This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Saravejo
Nationalism Countries proud of their heritage and culture Similar to patriotismSimilar to patriotism Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country Germany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.Germany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.
Imperialism economic and political control over other countries……economic and political control over other countries…… France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia were establishing colonies in Africa and Asia these countries were in competition for colonies
Cartoon- European grab bag European nations competing for colonies around the world…..Imperialism
Cartoon- European grab bag
Militarism European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world……
Militarism & Arms Race $94$130$154$268$289$398 Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, British and Russia] in millions of dollars.
Militarism & Arms Race Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73% By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3 rd largest naval fleet in the world…. By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3 rd largest naval fleet in the world…. The Great White Fleet
Mobilization wHwHome by Christmas! wNwNo major war in 50 years! wNwNationalism!
Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule. Franz Ferdinands funeral procession franz
1. World War One– TimeLine
alliances1 1.June 28 Assassination at Sarajevo 2.July 28 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia 3.July 30 Russia began mobilization 4. August 1 Germany declared war on Russia
alliances2 5.August 3 Germany declared war on France 6. August 3 Great Britain declared war on Germany 7.August 6 Russia and Austria/Hungary at war. 8.August 12 Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungary
2. Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers Central Powers Great Britain France Russia Italy Germany Austrian- Hungarian Empire
battle fronts German invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France. FrenchBritish Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their army Belgium puts up a strong fight. 1 st Battle of the Marne River 1 st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris. trench warfare France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918 German invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France. FrenchBritish Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their army Belgium puts up a strong fight. 1 st Battle of the Marne River 1 st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris. trench warfare France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918
4. Stalemate stalemate wBy September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, neither side was able to gain an advantage. no mans land. wWhen a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris, both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty no mans land. Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. wBoth sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage.
Modern Warfare wNeither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WW I. wMachine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy. wAs morale fell, the lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur. The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.
Launch List w1. Take 1 minute and rank in importance, the causes of World War 1 (Animalz)
Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. Woodrow Wilson became President in Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but…………..it was in Europe. NEUTRALUS was officially NEUTRAL
The effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned. The people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations now at war. It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy. Some will wish one nation, others another, to succeed in the momentous struggle. I venture, therefore, my fellow countrymen, the United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name, during these days that are to try men's souls. wilson neutrality1
The US believed it had the right to trade with the warring nations and they would respect our neutrality…….Didnt happen! The German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our freedom of the seas and neutrality. sandwich man
notes2 US believed warring nations It had the right to trade with the warring nations neutrality Warring nations must respect our neutrality freedom of the seas in the freedom of the seas neutrality German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutrality
Effects of Allied blockade Central powers 1914, $70 million in trade with Central powers 1916, trade reduced to $1.3 million Allied trade Grew from $825 million to $3.2 billion in same time period debtor creditor WWI transformed the US from a debtor to a creditor nation
The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy. Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-Boats Germans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain.
German Submarine Force 1914– On hand Gains [cla rification needed]cla rification needed Battle losses Other losses 87159?? Years end Total operational boats: 351
U-Boats By 1918, Germans had sunk 6,500 allied ships. Two types small subs with a crew of 24 larger subs with a crew of by 1918
May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. contraband (weapons) Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. unrestricted submarine warfare. U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of unrestricted submarine warfare. international law US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians
After the sinking of the Lusitania, public opinion of most Americans was to go to war with Germany. Germany promised they would not sink anymore ships unless warning them first and providing safety for civilians. BUT, President Wilson was able keep us out of war ….
Sussex Sunk: led to Sussex Pledge in March Germany promised not to sink anymore ships. war zone X
alliance Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with zimmerman notes Berlin, January 19, 1917 February unrestricted submarine warfare neutral On the first of February we intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America.
at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman (Secretary of State) zimmerman notes with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan;