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Presentation on theme: "% 91% 82% 80% 78% 75% 73% 71% 69% 62% 60%"— Presentation transcript:

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2 3 5 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 18 19 12.3 95% 91% 82% 80% 78% 75% 73% 71% 69% 62% 60%

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4 1. (p.  ) In arguing for their policies, the new American expansionists of the late 1800s offered all of the following economic and social reasons except    a. the United States would soon need to find new sources for the natural resources that it was rapidly using up b. the United States needed to acquire new overseas markets for its products C. the United States needed to find new sources of immigrants who would work in its factories for low wages d. the United States needed an aggressive foreign policy to take people's minds off internal problems and frustrations e. the United States needed to expand due to the "closing of the frontier."

5 3. (p.  ) In the 1890s, Spain and the United States gradually moved toward war over Cuba for all of the following reasons except    a. a change in U.S. tariff policy hurt the Cuban economy and made the Cuban people ready for revolt b. when the Cuban revolt broke out, the American press printed sensational, one-sided stories about it C. during the Cuban revolt, the Spanish committed numerous atrocities, whereas the Cubans usually behaved humanely d. Cubans living in the United States popularized their side of the revolt with the American people e. sensationalized press coverage stirred a fervor for war

6 6. (p. 558) The Platt Amendment, incorporated into the Cuban constitution, gave Cuba    a. full independence b. economic independence C. nominal political independence d. an American colonial government e. an equal partnership with American interests

7 9. (p. 566) Although the progressives often differed about what progressivism meant, most agreed that    a. the "natural law" of the marketplace could stabilize society b. it was a particular set of political reforms c. it was a group of moral and humanitarian goals D. government should play a role in correcting society's ills e. all of the answers above

8 11. (p.  ) The favorite targets of the muckrakers included all of the following except    A. the violence used against unions b. the excessive practices of the railroads c. the corruption of the business trusts d. the seamy side of boss rule e. the waste of natural resources

9 15. (p.  ) Progressives came to regard one state as the center of reform and its governor as the leading progressive. The most progressive state and governor were    a. New Jersey/Woodrow Wilson B. Wisconsin/Robert La Follette c. California/Hiram. Johnson d. New York/Charles Evans Hughes e. Ohio/William McKinley

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11 7. (p. 605) Teddy Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for helping to end the _____ War.    Russo-Japanese

12 10. (p. 602) The _____ Amendment allowed the federal government to create a graduated income tax.    Sixteenth

13 14. (p. 593) The _____ Amendment provided for the popular election of the United States Senate.    Seventeenth

14 19. (p.  ) _____ was so successful as a progressive governor that his state became known as a "laboratory of progressivism."    Robert La Follette

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17 world map

18 Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII
1st World War in history Great War or War to End all War Not called WWI until after WWII Total war Involved 60 nations and 6 continents

19 Cost of War $400 billion $10 million dollars an hour 40 million deaths
First war of the Industrial Revolution…… New Weapons vs old tactics of fighting

20 NEW TYPES OF WEAPONS

21 NEW TYPES OF WEAPONS

22 NEW TYPES OF WEAPONS

23 NEW TYPES OF WEAPONS

24 NEW TYPES OF WEAPONS

25 NEW TYPES OF WEAPONS

26 Trench Warfare

27 Trench Warfare “No Man’s Land”

28 TRENCH WARFARE

29 NEW TYPES OF WEAPONS

30 Trench Warfare

31 Trench Warfare

32 Trench Warfare

33 Trench Warfare

34 Trench Warfare

35 Trench Warfare

36 Trench Warfare

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38 “No Mans Land”

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41 Trench Foot

42 Barbed Wire

43 The Zeppelin

44 Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers

45 Poison Gas

46 Poison Gas

47 Poison Gas Machine Gun

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49 CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Alliances European nations began forming military alliances with one another to maintain a balance of power …….. Triple Alliance Triple Entente Central Powers Allied Powers Germany Great Britain Austria-Hungary Empire France Bulgaria Russia

50 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI Austrian-Hungarian Empire controlled several ethic groups. Serbian nationalists wanted to untie Serbs who lived in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire with Serbia. This led to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Saravejo alliances1

51 Countries proud of their heritage and culture
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Nationalism Countries proud of their heritage and culture Similar to patriotism Ethnic groups of similar heritage wanted to free their oppressed brethren and unite their people into one country Germany wanted to expand its culture and political influence throughout Europe.

52 CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Nationalism

53 Aggressive Nationalism

54 CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Imperialism

55 economic and political control over other countries……
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Imperialism economic and political control over other countries…… France, Great Britain, Germany and Russia were establishing colonies in Africa and Asia these countries were in competition for colonies

56 Cartoon-European grab bag
CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I European nations competing for colonies around the world…..Imperialism Cartoon-European grab bag

57 Cartoon-European grab bag
COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900 Cartoon-European grab bag

58 Cartoon-European grab bag
COLONIAL CLAIMS BY 1900 Cartoon-European grab bag

59 CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I Militarism European nations began an arms race as they competed for colonies around the world……

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61 Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, British and Russia] in millions of dollars. 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1914 $94 $130 $154 $268 $289 $398

62 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures
Militarism & Arms Race Increase in Defense Expenditures France 10% Britain 13% Russia 39% Germany 73% By 1906, President Roosevelt had built the US Navy into the 3rd largest naval fleet in the world…. The Great White Fleet

63 Mobilization Home by Christmas! No major war in 50 years! Nationalism!

64 ASSASSINATION OF FRANZ FERDINAND
Franz Ferdinand’s funeral procession Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his family. Archduke was heir to the throne in the Austrian Hungarian Empire. His assassination June 28, 1914 eventually led to WWI. Garvillo Princip, a Serbian nationalist assassinated the Archduke. He was trying to gain allowances for his fellow Serbs who lived under Austrian rule. franz

65 1. World War One– TimeLine

66 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI June 28 Assassination at Sarajevo
July 28 Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia July 30 Russia began mobilization August 1 Germany declared war on Russia alliances1

67 ALLIANCES LEAD TO WWI August 3 Germany declared war on France
August 3 Great Britain declared war on Germany August 6 Russia and Austria/Hungary at war. August 12 Great Britain declared war on Austria/Hungary alliances2

68 Austrian-Hungarian Empire
2. Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers Central Powers Great Britain Germany Austrian-Hungarian Empire France Russia Italy

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71 3. GERMAN INVASION OF BELGIUM
battle fronts German invasion in August of 1914, through Belgium to conquer France. Gave French and British militaries enough time to mobilize their army Belgium puts up a strong fight. 1st Battle of the Marne River, France and Great Britain stop Germany from capturing Paris. France, England and Germany involve itself in trench warfare from 1914 to 1918

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73 battle fronts

74 STALEMATE AND WARFARE 4. Stalemate
By September 1914, the war had reached a stalemate, neither side was able to gain an advantage. When a French and British force stopped a German advance near Paris, both sides holed up in trenches separated by an empty “no man’s land.” Small gains in land resulted in huge numbers of human casualties. Both sides continued to add new allies, hoping to gain an advantage.

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76 STALEMATE AND WARFARE Modern Warfare
Neither soldiers nor officers were prepared for the new, highly efficient killing machines used in WW I. Machine guns, hand grenades, artillery shells, and poison gas killed thousands of soldiers who left their trenches to attack the enemy. As morale fell, the lines between soldiers and civilians began to blur. The armies began to burn fields, kill livestock, and poison wells.

77 Launch List 1. Take 1 minute and rank in importance, the causes of World War 1 (Animalz)

78 Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. US was officially NEUTRAL
US IN 1914 Panama Canal was completed in August of 1914 just a week before WWI began in Europe. Woodrow Wilson became President in 1912. 5. Americans were shocked by the outbreak of war but…………..it was in Europe. US was officially NEUTRAL

79 CONFLICTING SYMPATHIES
WILSON'S NEUTRALITY The effect of the war upon the United States will depend upon what American citizens say and do. Every man who really loves America will act and speak in the true spirit of neutrality, which is the spirit of impartiality and fairness and friendliness to all concerned. The people of the United States are drawn from many nations, and chiefly from the nations now at war. It is natural and inevitable that there should be the utmost variety of sympathy. Some will wish one nation, others another, to succeed in the momentous struggle. I venture, therefore, my fellow countrymen, the United States must be neutral in fact, as well as in name, during these days that are to try men's souls. CONFLICTING SYMPATHIES wilson neutrality1

80 SANDWICH MAN sandwich man The US believed it had the right to trade with the warring nations and they would respect our neutrality…….Didn’t happen! The German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our freedom of the seas and neutrality.

81 US POLICY BEFORE WWI US believed
It had the right to trade with the warring nations Warring nations must respect our neutrality in the freedom of the seas German submarine warfare and British blockade violated our neutrality notes2

82 Effects of Allied blockade
1914, $70 million in trade with Central powers 1916, trade reduced to $1.3 million Allied trade Grew from $825 million to $3.2 billion in same time period WWI transformed the US from a debtor to a creditor nation

83 The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy.
7. SUBMARINE WARFARE The Germans could not match Great Britain's superior navy. Germans introduced unrestricted submarine warfare with U-Boats Germans warned the world they would sink any ship they believed was carrying contraband to Great Britain.

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85 German Submarine Force 1914–1918
1915 1916 1917 1918 On hand 24 29 54 133 142 Gains[clarification needed] 10 52 108 87 70 Battle losses 5 19 22 63 69 Other losses 8 7 15 9?? Years end 134 Total operational boats: 351

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87 U-Boats Two types small subs with a crew of 24
larger subs with a crew of 60 44 by 1918 By 1918, Germans had sunk 6,500 allied ships.

88 Lusitania ad

89 war zone

90 Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British.
8. SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA May 7, 1915, the Germans sunk the Lusitania which was British passenger liner. Germans believed it was carrying contraband (weapons) to the British. Killed 1,198 civilians including 128 Americans. U.S. and other countries outraged towards Germany because of “unrestricted submarine warfare”. US believed the Germans had violated international law of targeting civilians

91 Lusitania

92 BUT, President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” ….
SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA After the sinking of the Lusitania, public opinion of most Americans was to go to war with Germany. Germany promised they would not sink anymore ships unless warning them first and providing safety for civilians. BUT, President Wilson was able “keep us out of war” ….

93 X Sussex Sunk: led to Sussex Pledge in March Germany promised not to sink anymore ships. war zone

94 ZIMMERMAN NOTE Berlin, January 19, 1917
On the first of February we intend to begin unrestricted submarine warfare. In spite of this, it is our intention to endeavor to keep neutral the United States of America. If this attempt is not successful, we propose an alliance on the following basis with Mexico: That we shall make war together and together make peace. We shall give general financial support, and it is understood that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left to you for settlement.... You are instructed to inform the President of Mexico of the above in the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain that there will be an outbreak of war with zimmerman notes

95 Zimmerman (Secretary of State)
ZIMMERMAN NOTE with the United States and suggest that the President of Mexico, on his own initiative, should communicate with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this plan; at the same time, offer to mediate between Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention of the President of Mexico that the employment of ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel England to make peace in a few months. Zimmerman (Secretary of State) zimmerman notes

96 zimmerman code

97 zimmerman code

98 zimmerman cartoon


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