Presentation on theme: "The importance of the president as leader and healer"— Presentation transcript:
1The importance of the president as leader and healer The failure of some presidents to ameliorate tragediesThe ‘Hoover’ effectThe framers did not envision a president as powerful as the present institutionFrom FDR’s ‘secret’ to Bill Clinton’s briefs, the demythifying of the president
2The importance of persuasion for a president to be able to do the job Presidents must win the cooperation of members of Congress, the support of the people, and the respect of foreign leadersHow has the presidency changed between the time of Washington and George W. Bush?
3The absence of an executive branch under the Articles of Confederation The presidency under the articles had no authorityThe delegates to the Constitutional Convention believed that one person needed to speak on behalf of the nationJohn Hanson Representative from Maryland under the Articles of ConfederationElected President 1/5/1781The office was largely ceremonial
4Qualifications, Terms, Removal, & Succession Presidents and VPs must be natural-born citizen, at least 35 yrs. old, and a resident of the U.S. for at least 14 yearsPresident serve a 4-year termThe ‘two-term’ traditionFDR’s four terms & the 22nd AmendmentNatural Born: Born in the U.S. or on U.S. territory.
5The 22nd Amendment FDR ran and won four consecutive elections Republicans won Congress and succeeded in ratifying the 22nd AmendmentNow Presidents may only serve 2 terms or ten total years in office
6Removal: The Impeachment Process (Again) Ben Franklin: “historically, the lack of power to impeach had necessitated recourse to assassination”Viewed as an important congressional check on the presidential abusesBenjamin Franklin ( ).Picture courtesy Encarta.
7Impeachment in a Nutshell The chief executive can only be removed for “Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors”House acts as a grand jury: fact finder votes to impeachSenate acts as a court of law (w/ chief justice presiding)2/3rds Vote necessary to removeOnly two presidents – Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton – have beenimpeached by the House. Neither were removed by the Senate
8Succession8 presidents have died in office through illness or assassinationThe Vice Presidency was initially the only provision for such an eventualityThe Presidential Succession Act of 1947 lists an order of successionSpeaker of the HouseSenate President pro temporeCabinet secretaries by order of creationThe first three secretaries are state, treasury, and defense.To date, the Succession Act has never been used.
9The 25th Amendment Added in 1967 to fill a vice presidential vacancy The 25th Amendment directs the president to appoint a new VP in the event of death or resignationAppointment is subject to a majority vote in both houses of Congress
10The Vice PresidencySubject to the same qualifications as the presidentOnly initial constitutional function was to assume the office of the president in case of presidential death or incapacitationAdded the role of presiding officer of the SenateVice presidents can only vote in the Senate in the event of a tie.
11The Vice Presidency cont. VP Perceptions of the Office FDR’s 1st VP Garner: ‘The job’s not worth a bucket of warm spit’Tensions between early presidents and vice presidentsJohn Nance Garner ( ).Picture courtesy
12The VP Selection Process Under the Constitution, the 2nd place finisher in the electoral college became VPWorked fine for the first two electionsWashington and his VP – John Adams – got along fineIn 1796, however, two rivals wound up as president and VPJohn Adams and Thomas Jefferson were political rivals whose earlierfriendship suffered as a result of the competition.
13Selection cont. The 12th Amendment (1804) Resolved a problem in the electoral collegeEnabled each elector to have two votes – one for president and one for vice presidentPresidents were empowered to select their running matesIn the event that a VP candidate did not receive a majority of the votes,the Senate was empowered to select the VP by majority vote.
14Choosing a Running Mate Seeking a Balance Presidents generally hope to select a candidate that will help them winIdeological balance: pres. candidate picks a VP candidate from the opposite wing of their party for unification in the general electionGeographical Balance: selecting a candidate from another region
15The ‘Moderate’ Balance Clinton, a southern moderate, selected another southern moderate, Al Gore, Jr., as his running mateGeorge W. Bush, a ‘compassionate conservative’ from the SW, selected Dick Cheney, another W conservative as his running mate in 2000What are the advantages of such a strategy?
16The President/VP Relationship Historically, presidents have not allowed VP’s much responsibilityHowever, recent presidents have been more willing to share the loadThe ‘Mondale Model’The Clinton-Gore relationshipThe Bush-Cheney relationshipThe Obama-Biden relationship?
17The VP as a Stepping Stone to the Presidency The VP is a better place than many, but is not an automatic lock5/12 VP aspirants have become presidentThree inherited the officeSeveral have been defeated: Nixon, Humphrey, and GoreDan Quayle sought the GOP nomination in 2000 but was defeated.
18The Constitutional Powers of the President The vagueness of the Constitution on the nature of executive powersThe framer’s mistrust of a powerful executiveNevertheless, the president’s enumerated powers have facilitated the creation of a powerful institution
19The Appointment PowerThe president appoints – with the advice and consent of the Senate:Ambassadors, judges & Cabinet officersPresident is authorized to make over 3,200 appointmentsAppointment power gives the president substantial influence over the behavior of the judiciary and the federal bureaucracy
20The Power of Senate Rejection In times of divided govt., the Senate can be a potent weapon in the hands of the opposition partyUntil Clinton, 97% of all previous presidential nominations were confirmedSenate rejections can have a major impact on the course of an administrationWho began using the Senate rejection of appointments as a weapon?Rebpulicans say it was Democrats in rejecting Supreme Court nomineeRobert Bork. Democrats say it was Republicans rejection of Johnson’snomination of Abe Fortas to become chief justice.
21The Power to Convene Congress The Constitution mandates that the president shall periodically inform Congress of the ‘State of the Union’President is also authorized to convene Congress in times of emergencyThis power was more consequential when Congress only met occasionallyToday, Congress meets almost continuously, with only a few weeksof adjournment per session, usually tied to campaign seasons.
22The Power to Make Treaties President can negotiate treaties, but the Senate must ratify by a 2/3rds voteThe Senate can also amend treaties, and force the president to go back to the foreign power to renegotiatePresidents often try to ‘end-run’ the Senate through the use of executive agreementsThe Senate’s refusal to ratify the Treaty of Versailles was a huge blowto Woodrow Wilson’s administration.
23The Veto PowerThe president has the authority to reject an act of Congress (except for proposed Constitutional amendments)Congress can override a veto by a 2/3rds vote in each houseRarely happens: only 100 out of approximately 2,500 vetoes have been overridenPart of the reason vetoes are rarely overriden is that Presidents rarelyveto legislation that has ‘veto-proof’ majorities.
24The Line-Item VetoAs early as 1873, Pres. Grant proposed a constitutional amendment to give presidents a line-item vetoPower to disapprove individual items of a spending bill without rejecting the bill in its entiretyCongress enacted legislation giving Clinton that power in 1996
25The Politics of the Line-Item Veto Clinton used the power to reject ‘partisan pork’ (GOP projects)Clinton v. City of New York (1998), the Supreme Court ruled that the line-item veto was and unconstitutional violation of the separation of powersConsequential alterations in the legislative/executive relationship must be achieved by constitutional amendment
26The President’s Military Powers Article II states that the president is ‘Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States’Congress has the power to declare warThe War Powers Act (1972) [see chapter 6]Presidents have continued to use military force without consulting Congress
27The Pardoning PowerAn executive grant releasing an individual from the punishment or legal consequences of a crime before or after convictionImpeachment cannot be pardonedThe pardon as a double-edged swordAn unwritten rule of the presidency is that first-term pardons area lot more risky than ‘lame-duck’ pardons.
28Ford’s pardon of NixonMotivated to spare the country the trauma of Nixon’s prosecutionCritics questioned whether the pardon was a quid pro quoMay have contributed his defeat in 1976 to the pardonFord announcing pardon of Pres.Nixon. Picture courtesy
29The Evolution of Presidential Power For the 18th and most of the 19th centuries, the presidency was relatively weakVarious early presidents used the prerogative powers of the presidency:Jefferson & the Louisiana PurchaseA. Jackson & the National Bank
30The Personalization of the Presidency FDR’s radio addresses created an intimate relationship between himself and citizens that had not previously existedReceived 4,000 letters daily, where Hoover had received only 40 per dayPicture courtesy
31The CabinetMembership is determined by tradition and presidential discretionThe Cabinet is usually comprised of the heads of major departments, the VP, and any other agency heads or officials that the president would like to include
32The U.S. Cabinet Department Created Responsibilities 1. State 1789 foreign affairs2. Treasuryeconomy3. Defense1789 (1947)consolidation of the depts. army, navy, & air force (national defense)4. Interior1849manages nation’s natural resources5. Agriculture1862assists farmers & manages food stamps6. Justice1870represents U.S. govt. in legal cases7. Commerce1903aids business & conducts Census8. Labor1913runs labor programs9. Health & Human Services1953runs health, welfare, & Social Security
34The Executive Office of the President (EOP) Established by FDR to administer New Deal programsThe EOP is a kind of ‘mini-bureaucracy’ that are often the primary policy makers in certain fields of expertiseThe Old Executive Office Building onPennsylvania Ave. Picture courtesy
35Important EOP Agencies National Security CouncilCouncil of Economic AdvisersOffice of Management & BudgetOffice of the Vice PresidentU.S. Trade Representative
36The National Security Council Created in 1947 to provide expert advise on foreign and military affairsComprised of the president, VP, secretaries of state, defense, and treasure, & the chairman of the joint chiefs of staff & director of the CIA
37The White House StaffThe chief of staff administers a fairly large personal staffStaff includes the press secretaries, senior aides, and clerical and administrative aidesPersonal advisers are not subject to Senate confirmationWest Wing staff derive their authority from their personal relationshipwith the president. Staffers are often drawn from campaign personneland/or longtime personal relationships with the president.
38The Role of the President in the Legislative Process FDR was the first president to send a package of legislative proposals to Congress“It is the duty of the President to propose and it is the privilege of the Congress to dispose”Marked a transition in the president’s role in the legislative process
39Institutional Conflict The public increasingly looks to the president to formulate legislative plansCongress has at various times attempted to resist presidential influence (e.g. GOP Contract With America)Presidents must construct voting majorities in Congress to play a constructive role in the legislative processPresidents can always play an obstructionist role through the use of theveto power.
40Presidents & Divided Government Presidents have a tough time getting anything done when the other party controls one or both houses of CongressPresidents are more likely get legislation passed that were central themes of their campaignThe Senate can be an especially potent weapon in the hands ofan opposition party.
41‘Honeymoons’ and ‘Lame Ducks’ Presidents are stronger earlier in their administrations, and their influence w/ Congress wanes later in their administrationsLBJ: “You can’t put anything through when half the Congress is thinking how to beat you”LBJ being sworn in on Air Force Iafter JFK’s assassination. Picturecourtesy Encarta.
42Presidential Involvement in the Budgetary Process Congress spends more time fighting over the budget than it does legislatingThe origins of the president’s role in the budgetary process: the Great DepressionFrom the Bureau of the Budget (1921) to the Office of Management and Budget (1970)
43The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Works exclusively for the presidentEmploys hundreds of economists and budget/policy expertsProvides economic forecasts & analyzes the costs of proposed legislation
44Ruling Through Regulation Presidents have other means of influencing public policyPresidents can issue executive orders, which have the effect of lawAll executive orders are published in the Federal Register
45Presidential Leadership Is there a psychological profile that will help identify great leadersJames David Barber’s typology of presidential personalities (see next slide)Is the saying ‘The times make the man (or woman)’ true?
46Barber’s Typology of Presidential Character Active:PassivePositiveFDR, Truman, JFKTaft, Harding, ReaganNegativeWilson, LBJ, NixonCoolidge, Eisenhower
47The Power to PersuadePolitical scientist Richard E. Neustadt argues that ‘presidential power is the power to persuade’Individual’s ability to bargain and compromise goes a long way toward determining whether a presidency will be successful or not
48Public Opinion & the President Presidents can gain support by ‘going public’Teddy Roosevelt and the ‘bully pulpit’Passed legislation unpopular with his own party by appealing to the public
49The Impact of Scandals on the Presidency People have become more skeptical of presidential actions as a result of several bad scandalsLBJ’s ‘credibility gap’ on VietnamNixon, Watergate, and the abuse of executive privilegeU.S. v. Nixon (1974): the Court unanimously held that executive privilege did not empower the president to refuse to comply with judicial orders
50Presidential Approval Ratings The importance of survey data in determining presidential successPopular presidents can get things done; unpopular presidents face greater obstaclesPresidents tend to be popular early in their termsRandom poll respondent’s answer to a single question -- ‘Do you approveor disapprove of the president’s performance in office’? – goes a long waytoward determining a president’s ability to achieve his/her goals.
51Americans Polled: Could You Vote for a Woman Candidate for President? Year Polled% saying yes193733%198782%199992%