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AP Bio Body Systems II Jeopardy ExcretoryMuscularImmune SystemReproduction & Development Misc. Animals 10 20 30 40 50.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Bio Body Systems II Jeopardy ExcretoryMuscularImmune SystemReproduction & Development Misc. Animals 10 20 30 40 50."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Bio Body Systems II Jeopardy ExcretoryMuscularImmune SystemReproduction & Development Misc. Animals

2 What is the functional unit of the excretory system? 10 points

3 What three nitrogenous wastes do animals produce during excretion? 20 points

4 What are the 4 stages in excretion? 30 points

5 ID 2 functions of kidneys 40 points

6 ID items A, B, D, E and F 50 points

7 The nephron 10 points

8 Ammonia, urea, and uric acid 20 points

9 Filtration Secretion Reabsorption Excretion 30 points

10 Osmoregulation Removal of nitrogenous wastes Removal of some toxins Regulation of blood volume & pH 40 points

11 A: Glomerulus B: Proximal convoluted tubule D: Distal convoluted tubule E: Collecting duct F: Loop of Henle 50 points

12 What are the three types of muscle? 10 points

13 What is a functional unit of a striated muscle cell? 20 points

14 What are the major proteins in the 2 types of myofilaments? 30 points

15 Describe the structural differences between the two structures that make up a myofibril. 40 points

16 What causes the sarcomere to contract? 50 points

17 Skeletal Muscle Smooth 10 points

18 Sarcomere 20 points

19 Myosin (thick myofilaments) & Actin (thin myofilaments) 30 points

20 The actin proteins are thin filaments which consist of two chains of actin proteins wound around each other (they also contain the proteins troponin attached to tropomyosin). The myosin are thick filaments made up of two long chains of myosin molecules with a globular head at one end. 40 points

21 On the thin filaments, Ca 2+ ions bind to troponin, causing the tropomyosin molecules to shift, exposing myosin binding sites, allowing cross bridges to form between the myosin and actin. As the cross bridges break and reform and break again, the muscle contracts. Muscle contracts as thick and thin filaments slide over each other. 50 points

22 Name three nonspecific defense mechanisms your body uses to protect itself from pathogens. 10 points

23 Name three components that make up the second line of non-specific immune response. 20 points

24 What are antigens and antibodies? 30 points

25 Explain cell mediated immunity. 40 points

26 Explain humoral immunity. 50 points

27 Skin Mucous Membranes Cilia Stomach Acid Sweat, Oil 10 points

28 Inflammatory response Phagocytes (Neutrophils, Macrophages) Complement – a group of Proteins Interferons – a group of Proteins Natural Killer Cells 20 points

29 Antigens are the bad guys that infect you; your body recognizes them as foreign Antibodies are proteins made by Plasma cells, they attach to antigens and inactivate the antigens 30 points

30 A macrophage engulfs an antigen. Pieces of the antigen are placed on the surface of the macrophage. A helper T cell binds to the antigen. This binding activates the T cell which causes the cell to multiply and generate cytotoxic T cells. A cytotoxic T cell has receptors specific for the displayed antigen. They go and bind to infected cells with the antigen marker. Upon binding, molecules are released which kill the target cell that is infected. The cytotoxic T cells also generate Memory T cells and Suppressor T cells 40 points

31 A macrophage engulfs an antigen. Pieces of the antigen are placed on the surface of the macrophage. A helper T cell binds to the antigen. This binding activates the T cell which causes the cell to multiply. A B cell can then engulf an antigen; the activated Helper T cell binds to the B cell activating the B cell, which become memory B cells or Plasma cells that produce anitbodies. 50 points

32 Compare asexual and sexual reproduction. 10 points

33 Following fertilization, what are the 3 early embryonic stages in most animals (not including 8-cell stage)? 20 points

34 What 3 layers eventually form in the gastrula? 30 points

35 What happens in Cleavage? 40 points

36 What do each of the 3 layers of the gastrula eventually develop into (ID 2 systems for each layer) 50 points

37 Asexual reproduction produces genetically Identical offspring to the parents (clones). Sexual reproduction produces genetically different offspring and leads to variation (requires 2 different gametes). 10 points

38 Zygote, blastula and gastrula 20 points

39 From outside in: ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm 30 points

40 Cleavage is the rapid mitotic cell division of the zygote that occurs immediately after fertilization. 40 points

41 Ectoderm – becomes the skin and the nervous system Endoderm – will form the viscera including the lungs, livers, and digestive system. Mesoderm – will give rise to the muscle, blood, and bones. 50 points

42 What are body symmetry that radiates from the center of an animal and 2-sided symmetry? 10 points

43 What is cephalization? 20 points

44 What is the longitudinal, flexible rod that runs along the dorsal axis of vertebrate embryos, in the position that will become the vertebrate column? 30 points

45 Name 3 adaptations for evaporative heat loss by animals 40 points

46 ID a function of each of the 4 lobes of the cerebrum 50 points

47 Radial and Bilateral symmetry 10 points

48 A concentration of sensory equipment at the anterior end of an animal 20 points

49 A notochord 30 points

50 Sweating, panting, spraying water on the body 40 points

51 Frontal: language, speech, fine motor activities Parietal: taste, interprets symbols & abstract reasoning, thought integration Temporal: smell, hearing, translates words to thought Occipital: vision 50 points


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