Presentation on theme: "Trainees should be able to: Describe the different types of soft tissue injuries Describe the principles of sterile dressing Explain field care for various."— Presentation transcript:
Trainees should be able to: Describe the different types of soft tissue injuries Describe the principles of sterile dressing Explain field care for various types of injuries Apply proper First Aid for soft tissue injuries
INTRODUCTION TO WOUNDS TYPES OF SOFT TISSUE INJURIES CLOSED WOUNDS OPEN WOUNDS PRINCIPLES OF STERILE DRESSING FIELD CARE MANAGEMENT (PRACTICAL) CONCLUSION
Types of wounds : Open Wound Open Wound Closed Wound Closed Wound A break in the continuity of soft tissue (flesh)
The following slides contain (OR may contain) pictures of shocking nature WARNING!
Break in the skin Break in the skin Risk of infection Risk of infection Open wounds can be classified according to the object that caused the wound, and the severity of the wound. Some examples of open wounds are: Small cuts / Grazes Small cuts / Grazes Incisions / Incised Wound Incisions / Incised Wound Lacerations Lacerations Abrasions Abrasions Penetration Wounds (Impaled Objects) Penetration Wounds (Impaled Objects)
Small Cuts and Grazes
Procedure for Treatment of Small Cuts and Grazes Wash your hands thoroughly, and put on disposable gloves if available. Apply pressure with a clean piece of cloth to stop the bleeding If the wound is dirty, clean the wound by rinsing lightly under running tap water The best way to remove superficial pieces of glass or grit is with tweezers if you have them. Wipe away the water with a piece of clean cloth/ tissue paper. Do not cough or sneeze over the wound and avoid touching the wound directly. If there is a special risk of infection, advise the casualty to see a doctor.
1) Peel open the finger-sized plaster as shown: Peel open here (top & bottom) Or tear from the side
2) Peel open the plaster from the top and remove it from its packaging : Peel open here (top & bottom) Or tear from the side (might be easier
3) Remove adhesive strip from package 4) Remove the two shield protectors from the center of the plaster. Do not touch the sterile pad. Sterile Pad. Shield Protectors
5) Place the sterile pad on the wound and fix the adhesive plaster firmly on both sides of the wound. Secure adhesive bandage firmly
6) Inform your parent/guardian
Pointers to take note of Use each plaster only once. Use each plaster only once. Store the plaster in a cool dry place. Store the plaster in a cool dry place. Do not use if package is damaged. Do not use if package is damaged. Do not use after expiry date. Do not use after expiry date.
Pointers to take note of A cut might become infected if it is not washed and cleaned. A cut might become infected if it is not washed and cleaned. If the bleeding is severe and cannot be stopped, send the victim to a doctor immediately. If the bleeding is severe and cannot be stopped, send the victim to a doctor immediately.
STERILE PADDING Shorter End Longer End
PRIMARY DRESSING HEAD The other side before the ear. Follow through (slightly below chin), covering the rest of the sterile pad. (Do not choke victim by tying too tight) Criss-cross the bandages when pad is fully covered. Wrap the remaining bandage round his head (above eyebrow). Tie a reef knot. Twirl the ends together and tuck it underneath the wrap. Tidy up the dressing. Tuck shorter side of the bandage behind ear.
HEAD SECONDARY DRESSING Wrap round head, cross ends of bandage (at the back) and tie a reef knot once they’re brought to the front. Tuck the excess sheet beneath the wrap. Tuck the dressing in neatly.
PRIMARY DRESSINGSECONDARY DRESSING EYE Cross method Shorter side goes above ear. Longer side below. Do not cover the other eye. Cover both eyes to ‘blind’ both sides so as not to aggravate the pain in the injured eye
PRIMARY DRESSING SHOULDER Shorter end of bandage remains behind. Longer end will be doing the wrapping. Wrap around sterile pad (front to back, under the armpit) When sterile pad is firmly in place, wrap the bandage across chest. And round to the back. Tie a reef knot directly onto the wounded area. Tuck ends of remaining bandage in neatly. Avoid wrapping the shorter end of the dressing.
SECONDARY DRESSING 1. Apex of triangular bandage facing casualty’s neck. Wrap bandage round upper arm. Secure bandage in place with tying a reef knot. Tuck apex underneath tee shirt (below the primary dressing) SHOULDER 1.2. Immobilize injured limb to prevent aggravation.
PRIMARY DRESSING LEG Place FAD 15 on the wound. Wrap round the sterile padding with the longer end of the bandage. Once sterile padding is covered, tie a reef directly over the wounded area.
SECONDARY DRESSING LEG Using a broad bandage, wrap it over the FAD and tie a reef knot on the wounded area (similar to FAD shown earlier)
VICTIM Put on disposable gloves if possible. As with other open wounds, the first aider should attempt haemorrhage control for amputation with direct pressure and elevation. You should avoid use of tourniquet if possible because the resultant damage can interfere with the reimplantation attempts. Reassure the victim. Raise the severed limp up. Apply sterile dressing,or an non-fluffy clean pad AMPUTATION
Amputated part: Put on glove and wrap the severed part with plastic bag Wrap the package in gauze or soft fabric and place in a container full of crushed ice Mark the container with time of injury and casualty name. Pass the container to the emergency personnel yourself. DO NOT allow the amputated part to come into contact with moisture. AMPUTATION
PRIMARY DRESSING AMPUTATION Raise amputated limb to reduce blood loss. Place FAD 14 or 15 directly on the amputated limb. Wrap around the limb as shown in the diagrams with the longer end of the bandage. Tie both the shorter and the longer ends of the bandage.
SECONDARY DRESSING AMPUTATION If the bleeding cannot be stopped by the first layer of FAD, add another layer of FAD on top of the first layer. Using a broad triangular bandage wrap amputated limb. Twirl excess bandage and tuck it into the wrap.
IMPALED OBJECT Unwrap 2 FAD 13 and place them upright- locking the impaled object in position. 2 narrow-fold bandages to be looped in opposite directions. Tie the ends of one bandage together with the ends of the other bandage. Be wary of the impaled object- make sure it is not being shifted when you’re attending to it.
Protruding Intestines (Evisceration) Using a triangular (narrow) bandage make a ring pad (donut shape) and place it round the protruding intestines. Place FAD 15 on the wound. Wrap round the moistened sterile padding with the longer end of the bandage. In supine position, knees have to be bent to prevent the stretching/tensing of the intestines. PRIMARY DRESSING
Protruding Intestines (Evisceration) Fold the triangular bandage into half, and wrap it round the FAD. SECONDARY DRESSING
Conclusion It is important for trainees to be able to differentiate the types of soft tissue injuries and to be able to provide proper first aid dressing.