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University, Edinburgh Professor Paul W Jowitt Heriot Watt University and The Scottish Institute of Sustainable Technology Sustainabilityand.

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Presentation on theme: "University, Edinburgh Professor Paul W Jowitt Heriot Watt University and The Scottish Institute of Sustainable Technology Sustainabilityand."— Presentation transcript:

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2 University, Edinburgh Professor Paul W Jowitt Heriot Watt University and The Scottish Institute of Sustainable Technology Sustainabilityand Engineering DeSIGN Engineering DeSIGN

3 “ Sustainable Development is now absolutely central to Civil Engineering and we must organise ourselves accordingly” ICE Council 17 December 2002 New Civil Engineer Jan 2003

4 Engineering Education, Sustainable Development and the Teaching and Learning Process? Content?not shoving more material into it… ?? Process?but pulling relevant material into it!! Related Issues for HE/Professional Review Process Assessment? Staff Development/Guidance?

5 Engineering Education, Sustainable Development and the Teaching and Learning Process? Content: Awareness/Attitudes Skills Knowledge

6  Awareness/Attitudes An overarching approach to engineering problems in the context of environmental, economic and social issues.  Skills Ability to work with complex/-ill defined problems Team work and communication skills Ability to evaluate the merits and demerits of options  Knowledge Broad and Deep Technical Environmental Social processes Legal Disciplined Body of General Knowledge

7 Engineering Education, Sustainable Development and the Teaching and Learning Process?  Process: Use of Case Studies Studio Based Issue Driven Process Based Team Based Design/Delivery Focussed Pulling relevant material into the curriculum, not shoving more material into it…

8 It was never like this at University…… Let me take you back to the future…..

9 1st Year Lecture Course: Water Engineering/Structures 1970’s Lecture No 1 Dam Design? h? H? W? ?? 

10 1st Year Lecture Course: Water Engineering Lecture No 1 Dams “West is West and East is East and ne’er the twain shall meet…” - Rudyard Kipling PROJECT BRIEFING

11 China's Three Gorges Dam The Yangzi River is home to some of China's most spectacular natural scenery, a series of canyons known as the Three Gorges China's biggest construction project since the Great Wall generates controversy at home and abroad By Bruce Kennedy CNN Interactive

12 Sun Yatsen first proposed building a dam on the Yangtze River in 1919 for power generation The idea resurfaced in 1963 as part of the new policies to build a "third front" of industry in SW China. But the Cultural Revolution erupted in 1966, and in 1969 the fear that the dam would be sabotaged by the Soviet Union, now an enemy, resulted in a construction delay. Ecologist Hou Xueyu was among the few who refused to sign the environmental report because it falsely hyped the environmental benefits provided by the dam, and failed to convey the real extent of environmental impact After the Tiananmen Square massacre in June 1989, the government forbade public debate of the dam, accused foreign critics of ignorance or intent to undermine the regime, and imprisoned Dai Qing and other famous critics. Former Premier Li Peng crusaded for the dam and pushed it through the National People’s Congress in April 1992 ….

13 Here are some of the Issues - Real or Spin? 26 hydropower turbines: 18.2 GW, 11% of China's output.

14 1st Year Lecture Course: Water Engineering Questions and Issues to be resolved by next week How would you design the dam? (Structurally and in terms of Reservoir Yield/Power?) How would you assess the pre-existing Flood Risk? How would you estimate the impact of Water Quality/Effluent Discharges? Can you assess the effects of Sedimentation? How would you take into account the Social Consequences of Relocation? What are the Environmental Consequences and how would you balance these against Economic Benefits?

15 1st Year Lecture Course: Water Engineering QUESTIONS? And finally…. How would you have done it differently? The crit sessions will be held next Friday and final reports to be filed electronically by the end of term….. Some Project data and references are available on the HW-Intranet Assessment? Group mark based on final reports ….plus open book exam in Autumn diet…

16 But Why Sustainability? We could spend hours debating this….. But do we really need to? Sustainable Development – will it last?

17 Thomas Tredgold’s 19 th c definition of Civil Engineering Civil Engineering is the art of directing the great sources of Power in Nature for the use and convenience of man;

18 a 21 st c definition of Civil Engineering Civil Engineering is the art of working with the great sources of Power in Nature for the use and benefit of society

19 Origins of our Present Condition: Waves of Economic Growth/Innovation (Austrian Economist Schumpeter)

20 To what extent has Civil Engineering contributed to ….. Public Health – clean water, safe wastewater disposal? Housing and Shelter? Improved transportation? GDP? Sustainable Development? but also … CO2 emissions/Asthma? Depleted Water Courses? Inefficient Buildings? High Rise Buildings and Social Unrest? Unsustainable Development?

21 Social/Intellectual View (David Elms) Sophistication Time IMMEDIATE URBAN RATIONAL SYSTEMS/ HOLISTIC The world is no longer a homeostat

22 Phases of Development: Immediate Simple connection between needs and their attainment –Supply chains short and immediate –Technology simple and available to all Urban –Related to early urbanisation –Need to centralise administrative power (extensive irrigation, political groupings and trade) –Immediate supply chains broken –Specialists and trade mechanisms develop –Rules of thumb rather that rational analysis

23 Phases of Development Rational –Industrial revolution & increase in energy use –Scientific rationalism and application to engineering analytic tools –Mass production and (inter-) national standards –New (fossil) fuels plus increased role and capabilities of technology –People highly dependent - longer supply chains –Individual structural elements at increasing level of sophistication –But….Techniques for anticipating long-term effects on society and natural environment primitive and not well understood Systems/Holistic –Need to deal with more complex, less well-defined problems –Environmental limits encountered –Complexity recognised (even if not fully understood/defined) –Interactions realised –Emergence of Sustainable Development

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25 New Civil Engineer Jan 2003 ICE Education and Training Task Group Established by ICE Council in late 2002 to examine the implementation of sustainability principles into education, training and professional development…

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27 ICE Education and Training Task Group including: Input into current revision of JBM Environmental Guidelines. Input into scheduled revision of Core Objectives. Liaison with key stakeholders to promote importance of sustainability principles. Assistance with implementation (both within HE & CPD) Established by ICE Council to examine implementation of sustainability principles into education, training and professional development…..

28 Mainstreaming Sustainable Development into Engineering Education? 1.Civil Engineering is changing and needs to change more – and Sustainable Development is at the heart of it. 2.Civil Engineering is increasingly about managing complexity (rich in structure) as opposed to things which are just complicated (rich in detail) …..….urban regeneration and development is complex; finite element analysis is complicated! The Starting Points:

29 3.Civil Engineering - as practised - is increasingly ISSUES/PROCESS driven, not TECHNIQUE driven. …Issues such as Quality of Life; EU Legislation Transport/Travel; Climate Change etc 4.Civil Engineering – as taught - has been largely driven by Techniques and not by Processes or Issues. Mainstreaming Sustainable Development into Engineering Education?

30 5.If Sustainable Development is to be embedded into Engineering Education and CPD then it needs: –To be generic –To encourage a questioning of perceived wisdom –To be open ended and encourage out of the box thinking –Team focussed and not individual focused –Embrace new approaches to learning and teaching Mainstreaming Sustainable Development into Engineering Education?

31 6.Barriers to embedding Sustainable Development in Engineering Education/Professional Formation (UG/PG/CPD) include the traditional approach of the profession at large – most of whom are products of technique driven education and training ….. and the barriers are higher in HE – different commercial/economic drivers – Research Deliverables vs Teaching Requirements Mainstreaming Sustainable Development into Engineering Education?

32 Sustainable Development and the Teaching and Learning Process Core technical skills should be placed in the context of a broad range of inter-related social, economic and environmental issues that will inform and influence the students’ actions as professional engineers..….. “The JBM believes that sustainable development needs to be embedded into engineering education at the outset and that this will be best achieved by a teaching and learning process that: Provides an interdisciplinary perspective on the problems that engineers will tackle in practice; Develops an understanding of the interaction between Engineering and the Environment and Society; Develops an ability to use technical engineering knowledge to help solve complex problems.” “The JBM will look for evidence in terms of outcomes that these guidelines are being implemented…”

33 Sustainable Development and the Teaching and Learning Process Core technical skills should be placed in the context of a broad range of inter-related social, economic and environmental issues that will inform and influence the students’ actions as professional engineers..….. “The JBM believes that sustainable development needs to be embedded into engineering education at the outset and that this will be best achieved by a teaching and learning process that: Provides an interdisciplinary perspective on the problems that engineers will tackle in practice; Develops an understanding of the interaction between Engineering and the Environment and Society; Develops an ability to use technical engineering knowledge to help solve complex problems.” “The JBM will look for evidence in terms of outcomes that these guidelines are being implemented…”

34 Sustainable Development and the Teaching and Learning Process Core technical skills should be placed in the context of a broad range of inter-related social, economic and environmental issues that will inform and influence the students’ actions as professional engineers..….. “The JBM believes that sustainable development needs to be embedded into engineering education at the outset and that this will be best achieved by a teaching and learning process that: Provides an interdisciplinary perspective on the problems that engineers will tackle in practice; Develops an understanding of the interaction between Engineering and the Environment and Society; Develops an ability to use technical engineering knowledge to help solve complex problems.” “The JBM will look for evidence in terms of outcomes that these guidelines are being implemented…”

35 Conclusions and Drivers A knowledge of Sustainability and its implementation is essential for our members We should include it in our education and training Guidance for all will be needed As engineers, we are already delivering sustainability... we just do not always call it that… Key role for JBM to take the time to drive these changes through to ensure that graduates have the necessary tools to respond to future legislation and societal change which will affect the profession.

36 Meanwhile, “Time’s Winged Chariots…” Water demand doubling every 21 years. 70% used for irrigation Limits on irrigation leads to limits on food production Limits on food production in poor countries leads to imports, higher prices and political instability Water tables are falling (caused by excessive pumping and leading to permanent damage to aquifers) Some rivers no longer reach the sea David Thom

37 2nd Year Lecture Course: Water Resources Engineering Welcome to Lecture No 1 “Water is for fighting over” – Mark Twain PROJECT BRIEFING: The Middle East

38 A Performance-Based Roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict Case Study: The Middle East Sharon has vacant settler outposts dismantled

39 The Sea of Galilee Until 1967, Lake Kinneret and a small strip on the eastern shore of the lake served as the border between Israel and Syria. After the Six-Day War which resulted in Israel's occupation of the Golan Heights (east of Lake Kinneret), Lake Kinneret was no longer the border between Israel and Syria, and it is presently an inland lake of Israel. Water Is the Root of Israeli- Palestinian Evil JERUSALEM, April 2, 2002 (ENS) Each side sees itself as the victim. The convoluted conflict which has its origin in Biblical times is created in part by the arid nature of the disputed lands. Dwindling water resources increasingly affected by pollution, agricultural and industrial use and population growth, have elevated the strategic importance of water in the region. The water Dwindling water resources increasingly affected by pollution, agricultural and industrial use and population growth, have elevated the strategic importance of water in the region. The water issue is at the root of the struggle over territory.

40 Technical Issues: Kinneret is the only “sweet” water lake in the region – excessive use of the lake and associated aquifers leads to irreversible salinisation … Operating Policies??

41 My lecture notes from a bygone age.. - well circa 1980 –.. for an MSc lecture course on Water Resources Management, Imperial College…. Strong on “hard” systems analysis and optimisation But what is missing? The Non Technical Context – the “soft” systems stuff!

42 Optimal Allocation of Water Resources in Lake Kinneret – ….the Sea of Galilee…..

43 Equitable Allocation of Water Resources in Lake Kinneret – ….the Sea of Galilee…..

44 Brief 1: July 2002 The crisis drivers: facts and figures Currently about 30 countries, including Israel, Jordan and South Africa, are considered water-stressed and 20 face absolute water scarcity. Already some countries such as Israel and Jordan fall well below the absolute scarcity threshold but are able to adjust, for example by importing food rather than growing it: a strategy described as providing ‘virtual water’ (see Allan, 2001). increase inter-annual extremes,

45 Engineering Issues? Ethical Issues? Political Issues? Environmental Issues? Economic Issues? Water Management Issues? Social Issues? Plus Mechanisms for Conflict Resolution? 7 Work Groups, 7 Reports/Presentations by next Monday…..

46 So who will engineer a sustainable future?

47 Engineers! The blind application of technology might have led to the unsustainable predicament of the present world. But one thing is for certain….. Engineers will play a key role – in partnership with others – in developing a sustainable future…..

48 The implications for the Institution and Universities ……

49 OK What do we do next?

50 Decision Making/Conflict Resolution? Elements of a Decision? Choice (ie in the design or decision options) and the exercise of Preferences over those choices, and Uncertainty/Risk over the actual outcomes Plus many Stakeholders… Final Year Lecture Course:

51 Decisions are complicated by the presence of Uncertainty - the exercise of a particular choice does not guarantee the actual decision Outcome. Sources of Uncertainty can be Random, Competitive, Semantic, and lead to an element of Risk. Thus all decisions have Three elements: the Choice of action, the influence of Uncertainty on the eventual outcome and a Preference over those outcomes. Further complicated by involvement of multiple stakeholders/decision makers

52 What makes real life decisions more difficult? Discriminating between the complexity of the choices available and defining the decision-maker’s preferences over them. Further exacerbated where there is no single decision- maker (or where a the decision maker(s) are acting in some form of proxy for others). Multi-Stakeholder (Multi-Decision Maker) Decision Problems.

53 Bridge Building?

54 The Skye Bridge - the only bridge to divide two communities…???

55 Ford et al Proc ICE 1997 Role of PFI? Design Quality? Impacts: Social Environmental Economic

56 Tasks: Come up with a better solution…. - Structural - Economic - Financial - Social - Environmental - Aesthetic - Process

57 "EDUCATING THE REFLECTIVE PRACTITIONER" by Donald A. Schon Preparing Professionals for the Demands of Practice – The Crisis of Confidence in Professional Knowledge “In the varied topography of professional practice, there is a high, hard ground overlooking a swamp. On the high ground, manageable problems lend themselves to solution through the application of research-based theory and technique. In the swampy lowland, messy, confusing problems defy technical solution.”

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59 "EDUCATING THE REFLECTIVE PRACTITIONER" by Donald A. Schon “The irony of this situation is that the problems of the high ground tend to be relatively unimportant to individuals or society at large, however great their technical interest may be, while in the swamp lie the problems of greatest human concern. The practitioner must choose. Shall s/he remain on the high ground where s/he can solve relatively unimportant problems according to prevailing standards or rigor, or shall s/he descend to the swamp of important problems and non-rigorous inquiry?”

60 "EDUCATING THE REFLECTIVE PRACTITIONER" by Donald A. Schon “This dilemma has two sources: first, the prevailing idea of rigorous professional knowledge, based (purely) on technical rationality, and second, (lack of) awareness of indeterminate, swampy zones of practice that lie beyond its canons” (and that involve judgement). Technical and non-Technical paradigms need to be applied with no loss of rigour.

61 the end of the era of technological of rationalism Despite the fact that the term “sustainable development” has a tendency to be used internationally as a stock phrase and piece of verbal padding in almost every policy of every government and organisation, it has become firmly embedded in the thinking and philosophy of most thoughtful people concerned with achieving the right balance between the fruits of environmental, economic and social capital. We are at the end of the era of technological rationalism - an era in which economic and technical progress was embedded solely in a narrow scientific paradigm, and in which solutions to technical problems such as water supply, hydropower, irrigation and agricultural production, structures, road construction etc and took place without proper account for their effect and interactions on the wider physical and non-physical landscape, and without recourse to judgement.

62 Implications…?

63 So what are the implications of Sustainable Development for YOU? FOUR QUESTIONS FOR ME 1.What does it mean for me as an educator and civil engineer? 2.What does it mean for my profession(s)? 3.What does it mean for the organisation(s) for which I work? 4.What practical actions can I take?

64 “As for the Future, your task is not to foresee, but to enable it.” Antoine de Saint-Exupery, aviator/novelist

65 A student's mind is not a vessel to be filled …. …. but a fire to be kindled


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