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Presentation on theme: "AP LANGUAGE & COMPOSITION"— Presentation transcript:

Rhetorical Terms Review Set 8 Miscellaneous Strategies

2 RHETORIC Definition: the study and practice of effective communication; the ability to use language effectively, particularly in argument and persuasion Examples: Marc Antony’s speech over Caesar’s body in Julius Caesar, in which he incites the crowd to revolt and go to war against the assassins. Martin Luther King’s I Have a Dream speech (and other writings) in which he argues for equality and brotherhood

3 SATIRE Definition: the use of irony, sarcasm, or ridicule to emphasize the vice, foolishness or weaknesses in humans, organizations, or social conventions. Examples: Gulliver's Travels, a satire of eighteenth-century British society, and “A Modest Proposal,” both by Jonathan Swift. most political cartoons in newspapers and magazines The Daily Show, The Colbert Report, skits on Saturday Night Live

4 POINT OF VIEW Definition: the position from which a story is narrated; the narrator's viewpoint on events and characters. Examples: “In my younger and more vulnerable years my father gave me some advice that I’ve been turning over in my mind ever since. In consequence, I’m inclined to reserve all judgments, a habit that has opened up many curious natures to me and also made me the victim of not a few veteran bores.” from The Great Gatsby, told from Nick’s point of view. If the point of view were 3rd person omniscient, then the reader would know the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters in the story. If it’s 3rd person limited, the reader only knows the thoughts of one or two characters.

5 ALLEGORY Definition: an extended metaphor or “conceit” that is sustained through whole sentences or even through a whole discourse in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative, are equated with meanings that lie outside the narrative itself. The underlying meaning has moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters often represent abstract ideas such as charity, greed, or envy. Examples: The Pandora woods in Avatar is an allegory for the Amazon rainforest. Also, the attempt to get the Na'vi to 'cooperate' carries overtones of the U.S. involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan.” (Owen Gleiberman, review of Avatar. Entertainment Weekly, Dec. 30, 2009). Lord of the Flies is an allegory, with the island representing Eden or paradise, each of the boys representing a type of government, the conch representing authority, and so on.

6 TONE Definition: the writer's attitude toward the subject of the message. Elements that create tone include DIDLS. Examples: In his New York Times column (29 July 2011 ), Charles M.  Blow conveys a bittersweet tone toward the Buffalo Soldiers and his grandfather in particular. Orwell’s tone in “Shooting an Elephant” is conflicted and resentful toward both the British Empire and the Burmese.

7 TAUTOLOGY Definition: unnecessary repetition of an idea, in different words; to repeat the same thing in different words Examples: a good-looking beautiful woman a round circle a big giant a widow woman

8 CACOPHONY (ka-kä-fə-nē)
Definition: harsh or discordant sound, in writing created through use of sound devices like alliteration, assonance, consonance and onomatopoeia Examples: It created a cacophony of hacking coughs, bronchial rattles, asthmatic wheezes, consumptive croaks. (Angela’s Ashes) The cacophony of phlegmatic and tubercular lungs was punctuated here and there by a moan or a scream of someone terrified, thrashing in the throes of a nightmare. —Ronald Gearles, Undoing Time, 2001

9 EPITHET Definition: an adjective or adjectival phrase to characterize a person, thing, attribute, or quality; the use of a qualifying word or phrase to further describe something Examples: Ivan the Terrible The Artist formerly known as Prince Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson

10 EXPLETIVE Definition: a figure of emphasis in which a single word or short phrase, usually interrupting normal speech, is used to lend emphasis to the words on either side of the expletive but adds nothing to the meaning Examples: "The strength of America's response, please understand, flows from the principles upon which we stand.“ -- Rudy Giuliani, 9/11 Speech to the United Nations General Assembly "The minimum wage, I might add, today is far less than it was in 1960 and 1970 in terms of purchasing power.“ -- Ralph Nader, 2000 NAACP Address

11 ANESIS (an'-e-sis ) Definition: the addition of a concluding sentence that diminishes the effect of what has been said previously. Examples: She had set more track records than any woman in the country. She had more stamina, skill, and perseverance than many of the best, but she had broken her leg and would not be competing this year. "This year's space budget is three times what it was in January 1961, and it is greater than the space budget of the previous eight years combined. That budget now stands at 5 billion, 400 million dollars a year -- a staggering sum, though somewhat less than we pay for cigarettes and cigars every year.“ --John F. Kennedy, Rice University Address on Space Exploration


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