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1 About People Francis Bacon. 2 Enduring Understanding Students will understand that artworks do encapsulate the themes of identity and relationships.

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Presentation on theme: "1 About People Francis Bacon. 2 Enduring Understanding Students will understand that artworks do encapsulate the themes of identity and relationships."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 About People Francis Bacon

2 2 Enduring Understanding Students will understand that artworks do encapsulate the themes of identity and relationships in a variety of ways

3 3 5W1H Francis Bacon When What Death Distortion ? Where UK How Painting Distortion of Figures Why Photography Picasso Which Figurative expressionism

4 4 Essential Questions Overarching Questions What is a portrait? How can relationships within a family or community be shaped? How do artists form identity and relationships with their art? Topical Questions What is existence? What is emptiness? What is space? How does photography Engage us with our world?

5 5 Who 1909:Born in 28 October in Dublin, Ireland :He started work as an interior designer. 1935:He visited Paris and saw for the first of many times the movie Battleship Potemkin. 1992:He died at the age of 82 in Spain.

6 6 When :World War I. 1916:Sinn Féin Movement 1925:The release of Sergei Eisensteins Battleship Potemkin. 1927:Picassos exhibition in at the Gallerie Paul Rosenberg, Paris. 1927:The release of Fritz Langs Metropolis :World War II.

7 7 Which Figurative Expressionism First influenced by the works of Picasso. Later by Surrealism. His style is expressionistic. He developed a distinctive style as a figure painter. His signature- distorting his human form.

8 8 What Subject Matter Human forms His figures are usually distorted beyond recognition. Animal forms Crucifixion This functions like an armature for him to suspend all types of emotions and feelings (Guggenheim). It has come to symbolize universal suffering and individual pain over the years. Meat Bacon saw connection between the brutality of the slaughterhouses and crucifixion (Guggenheim).

9 9 What Theme The inescapable fact of death. To quote him, I have a feeling of mortality all the time, because if life excites you, its opposite, like a shadow, death, must excite you. (Schmied, 2006, p. 7) Existential anxiety of modern man. Human condition and suffering.

10 10 Crucifixion, 1933 Oil on canvas, 62 x 48.5 cm Private Collection His first original work.

11 11 Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion, 1944 Oil and pastel on cardboard, 94 x 74 cm each Tate Gallery, London

12 12 Second Version of Triptych Oil and acrylic on canvas, 198 x cm each Tate Gallery, London

13 13 What Three Studies for a Crucifixion, 1962 Oil and acrylic on canvas, 198 x cm each Tate Gallery, London

14 14 What- Three Studies for Figures… The crucified figure on the right panel is slithering downwards resembling the Christ form from Cimabues Crucifixion. His intention with the painting is to evoke emotionally and perceptually. The figure is butchered open, like the carcass of an animal. This is similarly the fate of all humans that we know but do not confront. The slabs of meat on the left panel reinforces this. Crucifixion, c.1270s By Giovanni Cimabue Tempera on wood panel

15 15 Painting, 1946 Oil and pastel on linen, x cm MoMA, New York

16 16 Head I, 1948 Oil and tempera on wood, x 75 cm collection Richard S. Zeisler, New York

17 17 Head VI, 1949 Oil on canvas, 93 x 76.5 cm Arts Council Collection, Hayward Gallery, London

18 18 Portrait of Pope Innocent X Portrait of Pope Innocent X, 1650 by Diego Velázquez Oil on canvas Galleria Doria-Pamphili, Rome Francis Bacons obsession with Velázquezs painting generated a total of forty-five works on the Pope. Two recurring trademarks of his Popes- gaping mouth and elevation of the figure as if on a stage.

19 19 Why Influence- Diego Velázquez (16xx - ) A Spanish painter in the court of King Phillip IV. He belonged to the Baroque period. He painted many portraits of the Spanish royal family. He also painted other notable European figures and commoners. He also painted historical and cultural scenes. His most famous work- Les Meninas, (see next slide).

20 20 Les Meninas Les Meninas, by Diego Velázquez Oil on canvas, 318 x 276 cm Museo del Prado, Madrid

21 21 The Scream Study after Velázquez, 1950 Oil on canvas, 198 x cm Private Collection Study for the Head of a Screaming Pope, 1952 Oil on canvas, 50 x 40.5 cm Yale University, New Haven Battleship Potemkin has influence many artists and film-makers.

22 22 Why His Influence- Edvard Munch (1863 – 1944) A Norwegian Symbolist painter and printmaker. A forerunner in Expressionistic art. His exploration revolves around the theme of life, love, fear and death, as well as melancholy. Symbolism- late 19 th century art movement. Attempts to depict the symbols of ideas and emotions- often ambiguous and mysterious rather then precise and forthcoming.

23 23 The Scream The Scream, 1893 Oil tempera and pastel on cardboard, 48 x 44 cm by Edvard Munch National Gallery, Oslo, Norway

24 24 Inspired by van Gogh… Study for Portrait of Van Gogh VI, 1957 oil on canvas, x cm London, Arts Council collection and Hayward Gallery Study for a Portrait of Van Gogh V, 1957 oil and sand on canvas, 198 x 142 cm Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. Untitled (Landscape after Van Gogh), 1957 oil on canvas, 127 x cm

25 25 Vincent van Gogh (1853 – 1890 ) The Painter on His Way to Work, 1888 by Vincent van Gogh Oil on canvas, 48 x 44 cm Destroyed by fire in WWII.

26 26 Study for Self Portrait When Im dead, put me in a plastic bag and throw me in the gutter. (Schmied, 2006, p.8) Study for Self Portrait, 1976 Oil and pastel on canvas,198 x cm Art Gallery of New South Wales

27 27 In Memory of Peter Lacy Landscape near Malabata, 1963 oil on canvas, x cm Private Collection Peter Lacy was one of his lovers who committed suicide. He died the night before the opening day of his major exhibition at Tate Gallery. Malabata, Tangier is the final resting place of Lacy.

28 28 In Memory of George Dryer In Memory of Geroge Dryer, 1971

29 29 The March? Untitled (Marching Figures), c Oil on canvas, 198 x 137cm The Estate of Francis Bacon Still from Fritz Langs Metropolis

30 30 Metropolis A German Science-fiction silent movie by Fritz Lang. It is set in an urban dystopia (the opposite of utopia). It explores the social issues of capitalism. The theme and cinematic style relates to German Expressionism.

31 31 On Animals Study of a Baboon, 195. Oil on canvas, 198 x 137cm MoMA, New York Study for Chimpanzee, 1957 Oil and pastel on canvas, x 117cm Peggy Guggenheim Collection

32 32 Man in Blue IV Man in Blue IV, 1954 Oil on canvas, 198 x 137 cm MUMOK, Museum Moderner Kunst Stiftung Ludwig Wien This is one of the seven paintings in a series, titled Man in Blue I – VII. A treatment that is the most reductive.

33 33 Lying Figure in the Mirror* Lying Figure in Mirror, 1971 oil on canvas, 198 x cm Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao,

34 34 Mirrors or Windows? Study for a Nude with Figure in a Mirror, 1969 oil on canvas, 198 x cm private collection Two Studies for a Portrait of George Dyer, 1968 oil on canvas, x cm Art Museum Ateneum, collection Sara Hildén, Helsinki

35 35 Landscape Landscape, 1978 oil and pastel on canvas, 198 x cm Private Collection

36 36 A Piece of Waste Land A Piece of Waste Land, 1982 oil on canvas, 198 x cm Ivor Braka Ltd (London)

37 37 Why Inside Influence- His Background His family shifted between England and Ireland in his early life- affected him with a sense of displacement throughout his life. His grandmothers house near Abbeyleix- bow-ended rooms (see slides ). He was a shy child whose effeminacy enraged his father- their relationship was thus estranged. His father was also known to be argumentative and quarrelsome. He suffered from chronic asthma since young. His sexual orientation- homosexual.

38 38 Why Inside Influence- His Background He worked as an interior designer. He volunteered in Civil Defence during World War II. His duties- fire-fighting, civilian rescue and recovery of the dead. His trip to Africa where his mother and sisters emigrated to. Bacon led a bohemian life- of alcohol, gambling and a string of intimate and anguished relationships, some were even self-destructive.

39 39 Three Studies for a Portrait of John Edwards Three Studies for a Portrait of John Edwards, 1984 oil on canvas, 198 x cm (each) private collection

40 40 Spot the pattern … Study for Portrait of Lucian Freud (Sideways), 1971 Oil on canvas, 198 x cm Private Collection Figure in Movement, 1976 oil on canvas, 198 x cm private collection Self-Portrait, 1973 oil on canvas, 198 x cm private collection

41 41 Interior Design Studies of the Human Body –Triptych, 1970 The Centre Piece Study for Portrait, 1970

42 42 Why Outside Influences Nicolas Poussins Massacre of the Innocents- great impact on him (see slides 45 & 48). He visited Picassos exhibition in 1927 at the Gallerie Paul Rosenberg, Paris. The poems of T.S. Elliot and his play The Family Reunion. The Oresteia- Greek trilogy written by Aeschylus, especially W.B. Stanfords translation. It is about the bloody chain of murder and revenge within a royal family. The underworld mythical agents known as Furies inspired Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion. Photography is a salient influence Eadweard Muybridge (see slides 50 & 51).

43 43 Why Outside Influence- Nicolas Poussin (1594 – 1665) A classical artist of 17 th century France. At 18, he left Normandy for Paris where he developed a love for the works of classical antiquity. He arrived in Rome, Italy in 1624 and lived the rest of his life there. His subject matter- mythologies, landscapes and biblical scenes. His works eventually formed the basis of Academic painting in France for the next two centuries.

44 44 Massacre of the Innocents Massacre of the Innocents, c by Nicolas Poussin Oil on canvas, 147 x 171 cm Château de Chantilly (Musée Condé) The screaming mother trying to protect her infant- probably the best human cry ever painted.

45 45 More works on the incident… The Holy Innocents, by Giotto di Bondone (c ) Fresco, South Wall Scrovegni (also Arena) Chapel, Padua Italy

46 46 What An incident that appears in the Gospel of Matthew (one of the scriptures of the New Testament). It refers to the infanticide by Herod the Great (a Roman client king of Judaea). Herod ordered the execution of all young male children in Bethlehem, to counter-defend his throne from the prophesized new king of the Jews.

47 47 Photography Photography as a phenomenon. His studio was strewn with photographs- pinned on the walls, on the floor, piled along with empty tubes of paint. Photography as a means to study the real world, closely and then capture reality with greater intensity. As a result, it became an instrument for him to distort reality rather than reproducing photo in detail with precise accuracy like the Pop artists, or embarking on a journey that focus on the essence of things like the abstract artists. One captivating quality of photography for Bacon is its ability to capture and depict movement. John Deakins portraits of other close friends like Lucian Freud and others.

48 48 Influenced by Eadweard Muybridge Dog,1952 Oil on canvas, 198 x 137 cm Tate Gallery, London Man with Dog,1953 Oil on canvas, x cm The Albright-Knox Gallery, New York Muybridges Animals in Motion

49 49 His Nudes Untitled (Two Figures in the Grass, c Oil on canvas, x cm The Estate of Francis Bacon Two Figures, 1953 Oil on canvas, x cm Private Collection The human figure in motion by Muybridge.

50 50 20 th Century- An Age of Violence Technological progress. The horrors of human nature. Modern-day problems- television sets, hypodermic syringes

51 51 How He painted on unprimed side of the canvas. He discovered that this held the paint with more bite, texture ended up enhanced and allowed the thinner to soak into the canvas. He liked to present his works in diptychs or triptychs which are traditional forms of religious paintings for the purpose of disjoining the narrative. He worked with easels despite the changing time.

52 52 How He distorted his figures, influenced by the biomorphs of Picassos works. The human flesh is depicted as nothing but meat. His background depicts some interior setting. He provided viewers in his works a tremendous experience of space- the use of mirrors/windows, indeterminate space, shadows and ambiguity.

53 53 Resources Schmied, W. (2006) Francis Bacon, Commitment and Conflict. Prestel Verlaq: Munich. ery.html

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