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Studying for the AP Bio Midterm 2011

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1 Studying for the AP Bio Midterm 2011

2 Which of the following organelles is the site of cell respiration?
a. Golgi apparatus b. Chloroplast c. Mitochondria d. Endoplasmic reticulum e. Ribosomes 2. All of the following elements are found in a molecule of DNA EXCEPT a. carbon b. phosphorus c. nitrogen d. oxygen sulfur 3. A paleontologist comes across a preserved fossil of organic matter made up of cells that have ribosomes, a nucleus, an endoplasmic reticulum, a cell membrane and the remains of a cell wall, a Golgi apparatus and chloroplasts. This organic matter could have belonged to which of the following organisms? a. a fungus b. a virus c. a bacterium d. an animal a plant 4. The molecule that enters the Krebs cycle during the process of cell respiration is which of the following? a. oxaloacetate b. carbon dioxide c. acetyl-CoA d. citrate e. RuBP

3 5. Which of the following macromolecules are polymers of glucose and act as storage polysaccharides in plants and animals? a. Chitin and cellulose b. Starch and glycogen c. Cellulose and glycerol d. Chitin and glucose Cellulose and starch 6. When water moves from liquid form to gas form, which of the following types of bonds is broken? a. Covalent bonds b. Polar covalent bonds c. Ionic bonds d. Hydrogen bonds e. Van der Waals forces 7. In photosynthesis, which of the following processes is the most direct result of the input of light energy from the sun? a. The reduction of NADP b. The creation of a proton gradient across the cristae. c. The reduction of ADP d. The functioning of ATP synthase e. The excitation of electrons in photoystems I and II

4 8. The primary structure of proteins is made up of amino acids that are joined by which of the following types of bonds? a. Ionic b. Peptide c. Double d. Hydrogen Disulfide 9. In order to synthesize one molecule of glucose in photosynthesis, how many molecules of CO2 must enter the Calvin cycle? a. One B. Two c. Three d. Four e. Six 10. Which of the following is a catabolic (breakdown) process that occurs in the absence of oxygen and results in a partial degradation of sugar molecules? a. Aerobic respiration b. Oxidative phophorylation c. Fermentation d. The Calvin cycle e. Noncyclic photophosphorylation

5 11. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by doing which of the following?
a. Increasing the number of substrate molecules available for reacting b. Lowering the activation energy of the reaction c. Changing the direction of the reaction d. Decreasing the G of the reactants e. Decreasing the G of the products 12. In oxidative phosphorylation, the final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain is which of the following? a. NAD+ b. NADPH c. Water d. Oxygen e. Carbon Dioxide 13. Which of the following can be found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? I. Ribosomes II. Nuclear Envelope III. Plasma Membrane IV. Cell wall V. Endoplasmic reticulum a. All of the above b. I, III, V c. I, III, IV d. I, II, III, IV e. II, III, IV

6 14. In proteins, disulfide bridges contribute to which of the following levels of structure?
a. Primary b. Secondary c. Tertiary d. Quartenary Induced fit 15. In summer, the leaves of plants absorb which of the following colors least effectively? a. Red b. Blue c. Violet d. Green Yellow 16. Which of the following types of cells of the body would probably contain the most mitochondria? a. Liver cells b. Muscle cells c. Neurons d. Adipose (fat) tissue e. Epidermal cells

7 17. Under a microscope, a biologist sees a cell engulfing food particles from the surrounding medium. The cell extends pseudopodia around the food, completely enclosing it and packaging it into a large sac. Which type of endocytosis is this? a. Pinocytosis b. Receptor-mediated endocytosis c. Phagocytosis d. Exocytosis e. Cotransport 18. Which of the following is not a correctly paired functional group? a. Hydroxyl – OH- b. Amine -NH2 c. Phosphate – PO4- d. Carbonyl- COOH e. Sulfhydryl- SH

8 19. During which of the following phases of the cell cycle is the cell’s DNA replicated?
a. M phase b. S phase c. G1 phase d. G2 phase e. Cytokinesis 20. Glycolysis results in the net production of how many molecules of ATP? a. One b. Two c. Four d. Thirty two e.Thirty six 21. Carbon dioxide is produced during which stage of cell respiration? a. Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle b. Stage 2 (oxidation of pyruvic acid) and the Krebs Cycle c. The electron transport chain and chemiosmosis d. The Calvin cycle e. Oxidative phosphorylation

9 Questions 22-24: Use the following list of choices (once, more than once or not at all)
a. cholesterol b. glycoprotein (oligosaccharide) c. phospholipids bilayer d. extracellular matrix e. integral (intrinsic) protein 22. The membrane component that plays the most critical role in cell-to-cell signaling and recognition B 23. A steroid; it reduces the fluidity of membranes at moderate temperature A 24. Used for transport through the membrane during facilitated diffusion of ions or large macromolecules E

10 Questions 25-27, refer to the diagram below of a cross section of a plant leaf.
The most photosynthesis in the plant leaf occurs in these cells. B- palisades layer Represents the vascular tissue of the plant leaf. E- xylem and phloem 27. Represents the site of the most of the transpiration in a plant leaf. D- stomates A B C E D

11 28. The tendency of water molecules to stick together is known as
a. adhesion b. cohesion c. surface tension d. hydration e. vaporization 29. Which of the following structures in plants is analogous to the cleavage furrow that appears during mitosis in animal cells? a. mitotic spindle b. kinetochore c. cell plate d. chromatids e. centrosome 30. All of the following processes are common to both eukaryotic mitosis and binary fission in bacteria EXCEPT a. duplication of the genetic material b. movement of the chromosome(s) toward opposite poles of the cell c. lining up of the chromosome(s) along the metaphase plate d. the formation of a new cell wall e. division of the cell cytoplasm

12 31. Fermentation, unlike oxidative phosphorylation (aerobic respiration) can occur in the absence of which of the following? a. water b. carbon dioxide c. NADH d. ATP e. oxygen 32. The only cells of the body that are NOT produced by the process of mitosis are a. cells of the brain b. bone marrow cells c. cells of the retina of the eye d. the gametes e. cells forming the epithelial lining 33. All of the following contribute to the fluidity of the cell membrane at normal, moderate temperature EXCEPT a. phospholipids’ lateral movement b. the presence of unsaturated fatty acid chains in the membrane phospholipids c. the movement of certain membrane-embedded proteins d. the presence of cholesterol molecules e. the ability of phospholipids to occasionally flip-flop

13 34. All of the following are true of both the process of chemiosmosis in plant cells during photosynthesis and cell respiration in animal cells EXCEPT a. they both take place across a membrane b. both processes include electron transport chains c. in both processes, the source of energy that initiates the electron transport chain is NADH d. in both processes, an H+ gradient is set up across the membrane e. in both processes, an H+ gradient drives the synthesis of ATP 35. The bonding of two glucose molecules to form maltose requires a. the release of a water molecule b. the addition of a water molecule c. the release of a carbon dioxide molecule d. the release of diatomic oxygen e. an input of ADP 36. Which of the following organelles is especially large and predominant in cells whose main function is to secrete, modify and package certain cell products? a. Endoplasmic reticulum b. Golgi apparatus c. Nucleus d. Ribosomes e. Vacuole

14 37. How is the energy of ATP used in photosynthesis?
a. It is used to drive the electron transport chain in the light reactions. b. Its energy is used to split water in the thylakoids and release H+ to create the gradient used to drive oxidative phosphorylation. c. ATP drives the reactions that occur in the Calvin cycle. d. One of the phosphate groups is transferred to NADH to produce NADPH during the light reactions. e. The energy from it is used to create NADH from NAD+. 38. The first stable sugar, a three carbon molecule, produced by the Calvin cycle is a. acetyl-CoA b. glucose c. PGAL (G3P) d. rubisco e. RuBP 39. Plant cells, animal cells and bacteria all have which of the following in common? I. A large, central vacuole II. Ribosomes that can float free in the cytoplasm III. A membrane-bound nucleus a. I and II b. I only c. II only d. II and III only e. III only

15 40. Proteins are capable of carrying out all of the following functions in animals EXCEPT
a. coordinating the body’s activities through chemical messages b. aiding in the transport of substances through the circulation c. protecting the body from disease d. aiding in muscle movement e. storing energy for later use by the body Questions – Use the list below (once, more than once or not at all) a. Cotransport b. Active transport c. Facilitated diffusion d. Pinocytosis e. Receptor mediated endocytosis The sodium-potassium pump is an example of this type of transport. B A non-specific form of endocytosis involving cellular drinking. D 43. A form of passive transport that enables ionic molecules to cross the cell membrane. C 44. ATP drives a pump that concentrates a specific substance on one side of the membrane; this gradient drives the movement of another substance across the membrane. A

16 45. Which of the following is an example of simple diffusion across the phospholipid bilayer of a membrane? a. The movement of H+ into the thylakoid space during photosynthesis b. The uptake of neurotransmitters by the postsynaptic membrane during the transmission of a nerve impulse c. The movement of oxygen in the alveoli across the epithelia membrane and into the bloodstream d. The exchange of sodium and potassium across a cell membrane through the Na+/K+ pump The movement of glucose across the body cell membranes and the cells of the liver, which stores it as glycogen 46. The stomata-the openings on the underside surface of a plant leaf through which carbon dioxide is taken up and oxygen is expelled- are opened up as a result of a. movement of mesophylls away from the stomatal opening b increased turgidity in the guard cells c. decreased turgidity in the guard cells d. growth of the guard cells toward the mesophyll e. elongation of the guard cells toward the mesophyll 47. The region in the cell from which the mitotic spindles radiate out is called which of the following? a. Centromere b. Centrosome c. Cytoplasm d. Kinetochore e. Metaphase plate

17 48. The lysosome has a high content of
a. hydrolytic enzymes b. cytochromes c. DNA d. chlorophyll e. ribosomes

18 49. Which of the following would not increase the rate of transpiration in an angiosperm (flowering plant)? a. morning sunshine b. an increase in temperature from 20C to 30C c. an increase in relative humidity d. an increase in the water content of the soil e. an increase in air velocity

19 50. A fundamental difference between plants and animals concerns the ability to
a. break down carbohydrates b fix CO2 into sugar c. adapt to appropriate environments d. carry on respiration e. resist diseases 51. The nucleolus is believed to function mainly in the a. provision of energy to the cell b. synthesis of ribosomes using rRNA and proteins c. synthesis of DNA d. secretion of enzymes e.manufacture of lipids 52. Which of the following is true about an enzyme? a. An enzyme is stable at high temperatures. b. An enzyme is a vitamin. c. An enzyme increases the activation energy of substrate and hence accelerates reactions. d. An enzyme catalyzes a reaction that is theoretically impossible otherwise e. An enzyme combines chemically with a substrate to form a temporary enzyme-substrate complex

20 53. By using the isotope O18 as a tracer element in studying photosynthesis. It has been possible to show that the O2 released in the process comes from a. O16 b. Sugar c. Carbon dioxide only d. Water only e. Carbon dioxide and water 54. Aerobic respiration and alcoholic fermentation are alike in all of the following ways EXCEPT: a. both release energy from glucose b. Acetaldehyde is converted into ethyl alcohol. c. ADP is changed to ATP. d. CO2 is a product e. NAD+ is reduced

21 Questions 55-57 – Use the list below (once, more than once or not at all
a. Hydrolysis b. Phosphorylation c. Glycolysis d. Dehydration synthesis e. Decarboxylation 55. Reaction that converts ADP to ATP. B 56. Reaction that converts fats to fatty acids and glycerol. A 57. Reaction that converts glucose to pyruvic acid. C

22 58. Plant cells differ from animal cells in all of the following ways EXCEPT
a. presence of cell walls b. presence of chloroplasts c. lack of centrioles d. lack of mitochondria e. none of the above 59. Which is produced in glycolysis? a. NADH b. FADH2 c. carbon dioxide e. ethanol f. H2O 60. In changes from warm to cold environments, ectotherms will a. shiver to generate heat b. actively cool the body by internal mechanisms c. maintain a constant body temperature d. Use hair or fur for extra insulation e. decrease respiratory rate

23 61. Facilitated diffusion:
a. only transports solutes into the cell b. transports solutes passively down its concentration gradient c. requires ATP as its energy source d. is the cells’ only mechanism of movement e. is demonstrated by the sodium-potassium pump 62. CO2+H2O+light energy C6H12O6+O2+H2O summarizes which process in plants? a. oxidative phosphorylation b. fermentation c. photosynthesis d. citric acid (Krebs cycle) e. digestion 63. What is chitin? a. a contractile protein responsible for the movement of muscles, cilia, and flagella b. one of the ten essential amino acids c. a polysaccharide used by arthropods to form exoskeletons d. a precursor of steroid hormones e. the major component of plant cell walls that human cannot digest

24 64. Regarding mitosis and cytokinesis, one difference between higher plants and animals is that in plants a. the spindles contain cellulose microfibrils in addition to microtubules, whereas animal spindles do not contain microfibrils. b. sister chromatids are identical, whereas in animals they differ from one another. c. a cell plate begins to form at telophase, whereas in animals a cleavage furrow is initiated at that stage. chromosomes become attached to the spindle at prophase, whereas in animals chromosomes do not become attached until anaphase. e. spindle poles contain centrioles, whereas spindle poles in animals do not. 65. A common feature of starch and glycogen is that molecules of both a. form microfibrils that give support to connective tissue fibers b. contain repeated monomers of glucose and galactose c. are important structural components of plant cell walls d. are polymers of glucose e. are water-soluble disaccharides 66. Which of the following statements is true about the Krebs citric acid cycle and the Calvin (light independent) cycle? a. They both result in a net production of ATP and NADH b. They both require a net input of ATP c. They both result in a release of oxygen d. They both take place within the cytoplasmic matrix e. They both are carried out by enzymes located within an organelle’s matrix.

25 67. The function of water in photosynthesis is to
a. combine with carbon dioxide b. absorb light energy c. supply electrons in the light-dependent reactions d. transport H+ ions in the light-independent (dark) reactions e. provide oxygen for the light-independent (dark) reactions 68. When hydrogen ions are pumped out of the mitochondrial matrix, across the inner mitochondrial membrane, and into the space between the inner and outer membranes, the result is a. damage to the mitochondrion b. the reduction of NAD c. the restoration of Na-K balance across the membrane d. the creation of a proton gradient e. the lowering of pH in the mitochondrial matrix

26 Questions 69-71- Use choices from the list below, once, more than once or not at all.
a. Centriole b. Lysosome c. Nucleolus d. Peroxisome e. Ribosome 69. Contains catalase for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. D 70. Assembles ribosomal precursors. C 71. Contains hydrolytic enzymes associated with intracellular digestion of macromolecules. B

27 For questions 72-76, use the choices from the list below, once, more than once, or not at all.
a. Chemiosmosis b. Electron Transport Chain c. The Krebs Cycle d. Glycolysis e. Fermentation The process by which glucose is split into pyruvate. D The process by which a hydrogen gradient is used to create ATP. A A process that regenerates NAD+ and can produce lactic acid as a product. E A series of membrane embedded electron carriers that ultimately create the hydrogen ion gradient to drive the synthesis of ATP. B 76. The process by which the carbon compounds are recycled as CO2 is produced. C

28 77. Mitosis in vertebrate cells occurs just after which of the following phases of the cell cycle?
a. G1 b. S c. DNA synthesis d. G2 e. M phase 78. Which of the following statements best supports the idea that certain cell organelles are evolutionarily derived from symbiotic prokaryotes living in host cells? a. The process of cell respiration in certain prokaryotes is similar to that occurring in mitochondria and chloroplasts. b. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have linear DNA and tertiary proteins that are very similar to those in prokaryotes. c. Mitochondria and prokaryotes have similar cell wall structure. d. Like prokaryotes, mitochondria have a double membrane. e. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have similar DNA and ribosomes to prokaryotes.

29 79. All of the following are results of hydrogen bonding EXCEPT
a. the high specific heat of water b. the ability of some insects to walk on water c. the polarity of the water molecule d. the fact that solid water is less dense than liquid water the relatively high boiling point of water. 80. All of the following cell organelles are surrounded by phospholipid bilayer membranes EXCEPT a. chloroplasts b. nuclei c. ribosomes d. mitochondria e. lysosomes

30 For Questions 81-83, use the choices listed below, once, more than once, or not at all.
a. Allosteric protein b. Feedback inhibition c. Competitive inhibitor d. Noncompetitive inhibitor e. Cofactor 81. A molecule that looks similar to the normal substrate and competes for the active site of the enzyme to stop the reaction. A molecule that binds to the enzyme at a site other than the active site, causing the enzyme to change shape and be unable to bind to the substrate. 83. The process by which a metabolic pathway is shut off by the product it produces. C A B

31 All of the following are types of wastes secreted by animals EXCEPT a
All of the following are types of wastes secreted by animals EXCEPT a. Ammonia b. Urea c.. Uric acid d. Carbon dioxide e. Nitrate Consumption of CO2 can be used as a measure of photosynthetic rate because carbon dioxide is a. Consumed during the light reactions b. Consumed during the Calvin cycle of photosynthesis c. Used to trap photons, the form of energy in sunlight. d. Necessary for the production of ATP in oxidative phosphorylation e. Produced when fermentation takes place. 86. Which substances are components of the plasma membrane of a cell? Glycoproteins b. Nucleic acids c. Ribozymes d. Phytochromes e. Sodium ions

32 Which of the following can be viewed with a light microscope. a
Which of the following can be viewed with a light microscope? a. Ribosome's b. Golgi apparatus c. Nucleus d. Lipids e. Proteins In photosynthesis, most ATP is produced as a result of which of the following processes? a. The Krebs citric acid cycle b. Carbon fixation c. The dark reactions d. The Calvin cycle e. Photolysis and the chemiosmosis of H+ ions through the thylakoids. The movement of H+ ions down their concentrations gradient along the inner mitochondrial membrane through the ATP synthase during chemiosmosis of cellular respiration is an example of what type of movement across the membrane? a. Active transport b. Facilitated diffusion c. Cotransport d. Simple diffusion e. The work of an antiport

33 For questions 90-94, refer to the following diagram of the structure of a flower.
Develops into seeds after fertilization. G The site of pollen production B Receives pollen due to its sticky nature. A Encloses and protects the flower prior to its opening. D Structure that holds the anther up high and is part of the male stamen. H

34 Where DNA is replicated prior to cell division. E
For questions 95-98, refer to the following: A. Inner mitochondrial membrane (cristae) B. The cytosol C. Thylakoid membranes D. Ribosomes E. Nucleus Where DNA is replicated prior to cell division. E Where chlorophyll and carotenoids are located. C The location of glycolysis. B Where the enzyme catalase is first manufactured. D How are steroid hormones able to cross cell membranes and enter cells? a. Steroids and cell membranes both contain receptor proteins. b. Steroids are polar, and the cell membrane is polar on the inside of the lipid bilayer. c. Steroids are non-polar lipids, so they enter the cell via the phospholipid portion of the membrane by diffusion. d. Steroids can diffusion through open channel proteins in the membrane. e. Steroids move the cell membranes the same way water moves.

35 All of the following are functions of microtubules of the cell EXCEPT a. Components of cilia, used for locomotion b. Components of flagellum, used for locomotion c. Involvement in the movement of chromosomes during cell division. d. Components of the cytoskeleton to function in cell support. e. Part of the nuclear membrane. Which of the following is the site of macromolecule hydrolysis in the cell? a. Mitochondria b. Centrosome c. Lysosome d. Golgi apparatus e. Ribosome One way to best measure the metabolic rate of a cell would be to measure the rate at which a. Carbon dioxide is consumed by the cell b. Oxygen is consumed by the cell c. Water is consumed by the cell d. Oxygen is produced by the cell e. Glucose is produced by the cell In certain plant cells, the synthesis of ATP occurs in which of the following a. Ribosomes and mitochondria b. Ribosomes and chloroplasts. c. Mitochondria and chloroplasts d. Mitochondria and the cytoplasm e. Chloroplasts and the cytoplasm

36 Refer to the diagram of the human digestive system for questions 104-108.
104. This hormone release gastric juice to start the chemical digestion of proteins. I-stomach This organ is the major site of chemical digestion. K-small intestines Blood sugar levels are controlled by antagonistic hormones from this organ. J-pancreas Bile is produced here and glycogen is stored. E-liver Peristalsis begins here. D-esophagus

37 The plasma membranes of winter wheat are able to remain fluid when it is extremely cold by a. Decreasing the number of cholesterol molecules present b. Closing protein channels c. Decreasing the number of hydrophobic proteins present d. Replacing saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids. e. Using fatty acids with longer tails Phagocytosis, pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis all involve a. the intake of large food molecules b. invagination of the plasma membrane c. the export of macromolecules d. the presence of receptor proteins e. the intake of fluids of the cell. Which of the following is the driving force for facilitated diffusion? a. Concentration gradient b. ATP hydrolysis c. ADP hydrolysis d.. Phosphorylation e. GTPGDP exchange

38 The two sides of a membrane can be split apart from each other by an experimental technique known as freeze-fracturing. When one side of a free-fractured membrane is examined under the electron microscope, the exposed interior of the membrane bilayer appears to be covered with bumps. These bumps are most likely a. Integral membrane proteins b. Ice crystals c. Glycolipids d. Organelles e. vesicles The component of a signal transduction pathway after the signal itself, is a(n) a. Responder b. Receptor c. Transducer d. Effector e. Cyclic Amp

39 Building blocks of proteins
a. A and C b. B and H c. B, F and I d. C and D e. B, E, F and I One of the monomers of carbohydrates a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E A. B. C. The building blocks of nucleic acids known as nucleotides a. C and E b. A and G c. C and D d. F and I e. B and E D. E. F. G. H. I.

40 All of the following are true about the molecules seen below EXCEPT,
a. They are made of repeating units of amino acids b. They have achieved the level of protein structure represented by the quaternary level. c. They have different structures but similar functions. d. Peptide bonds were used to create their basic primary structure. e. Their structures are held together by hydrogen bonds, disulfide bridges, van der Waal forces and hydrophobic interactions.

41 Besides supplying the cell with ATP and NADH, the Krebs citric acid cycle a. breaks down glucose b. produces ATP from NAD+ c. uses oxygen in its cyclic reactions d. converts lactic acid to pyruvic acid e. makes carbon dioxide and FADH2 Cyanide blocks the respiratory electron transport chain. As a result. a. the Krebs cycle speeds up. b. electrons and hydrogens cannot flow from NADH to oxygen. c. three ATPs are produced for every pair of electrons. d. production of water increases. e. glycolysis is inhibited. Which one of the following is NOT associated with cold-blooded animals? a. Body temperature close to environmental temperature. b. Low metabolic rate at 10C. c. Insulating hair or feathers. d. Metabolic rate that varies with environmental temperature. e. Sluggish behavior in cold temperatures

42 During cyclic photophosphorylation a
During cyclic photophosphorylation a. Electron flow causes H+ ions to be transported into the thylakoid b. NADPH is produced. c. Water is split. d. Both photosystems I and II are involved. e. Oxygen is generated. The dark reactions of photosynthesis take place within a. Membranes surrounding the chloroplast b. Thylakoids of the chloroplasts c. Cytoplasm outside the chloroplast d. Stroma of the chloroplast. e. Vacuole 123. All of the following take place in BOTH photosynthesis and respiration EXCEPT a. Electron flow b. Splitting of water c. Synthesis of ATP d. Transfer of electrons to carrier molecules e. Establishment of an H+ ion gradient

43 The normal air pathway in the human respiratory system is a
The normal air pathway in the human respiratory system is a. Trachea  pharynx  alveoli bronchi b. Bronchi—> bronchiolepharynx trachea c. Alveoli  bronchi bronchiolepharynx d. Trachea bronchialveoli pharynx e. Pharynx  tranchea  bronchi alveoli

44 A plant cell placed in a hypotonic environment will a
A plant cell placed in a hypotonic environment will a. Lose water and become flaccid b. Actively transport salts out of the cell c. Take up water and burst d. Take up water and become turgid e. Become impermeable to prevent water loss.

45 All of the following are functions of the mammalian kidney EXCEPT a
All of the following are functions of the mammalian kidney EXCEPT a. Removal of excess sodium loss from the blood. b. Reabsorption of salts and sugar from blood filtrate. c. Filtration of the blood d. Concentration of urine e. Production of adrenaline

46 A response to changes in the length of the light is known as a
A response to changes in the length of the light is known as a. Photopheriodism b. Phototropism c. Photosynthesis d. Photoaxis e. Photolysis The oxygen in our atmosphere is a product of a. the splitting of carbon dioxide during photosynthesis b. cyclic photophosphorylation c. noncyclic photophosphorylation d. both cyclic and noncylic photophosphorylation e. the Calvin cycle According to the current model of the sodium-potassium pump a. Na+ ions are pumped out of the cell and K+ ions are pumped in. b. hydrolysis of ATP is required. c. phosphorylation of the protein molecule d. all of the above.

47 130. A beet core is placed in a beaker filled with distilled water
130. A beet core is placed in a beaker filled with distilled water. If the pressure potential of the beet core is = -0.2 and the solute potential = Using the formula you learned in your lab on diffusion and osmosis and your knowledge of biology to determine the water potential of both the distilled water and the beet core. a. Water potential in the beaker = 0; water potential in the beet core =0 b. Water potential in the beaker = 0; water potential in the beet core =-0.2 c. Water potential in the beaker = 0; water potential in the beet core = +0.2 d. Water potential in the beaker cannot be calculated; water potential in the beet core = 0.2 e. Water potential cannot be calculated; water potential in the beet core = -0.2 Given the same example of the beet core in the distilled water as stated above, what would happen to the beet core cells after 24 hours? a. The beet core will lose water to the surrounding environment. b. The cells in the beet core are likely to undergo plasmolysis c. The beet core will likely gain so much water that its cells will rupture. d. The beet core cells would become turgid. e. The beet core cells will crenate and lyse.                                                                

48 3 4 5 1 2 The bag in beaker 1 The bag in beaker 2 The bag in beaker 3
132.Why don’t red blood cells pop in your bloodstream a. The blood provides an isotonic environment to your cells. b. The blood provides a hypotonic environment to your cells. c. The blood provides a hypertonic environment to your cells. d. Red blood cells are impermeable to water. e. Red blood cells have a wall that prevents them from popping. 133. Which bag would you predict to show the least change in mass at the end of the experiment? 3 4 5 1 2 The bag in beaker 1 The bag in beaker 2 The bag in beaker 3 The bag in beaker 4 e. The bag in beaker 5

49 134. Which beaker(s) contain(s) a solution that is hypertonic to the bag?                                                             
2 3 4 5 Beaker 3 Beakers 2 and 4 Beakers 1, 2 and 5 Beaker 4 e. Beakers 3 and 4 135. Using the same diagram shown above, arrange the beakers in order of the mass of the bags inside them after the experiment has run for 30 minutes. List the bag that loses the most mass first. a. 1,2, 3, 4, and e. 2, 1, 5, 3 and 4 b. 1, 5, 2, 3, and 4 c. 4, 3, 2, 5 and 1 d. 3, 2, 1, 4 and 5

50 136. During what time interval is the enzyme working at its maximum velocity?                                          
0-30 seconds seconds seconds d. Over the entire time course 137. In order to keep the rate constant over the entire time course, which of the following should be done?                                           Add more enzyme Gradually increase the temperature after 60 seconds. Add more substrate d. Add sulfuric acid after 60 seconds.

51 a. It is the substrate on which catalase acts.
138. What is the role of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in the enzyme titration experiment? a. It is the substrate on which catalase acts. b. It binds with the remaining hydrogen peroxide during the titration. c. It accelerates the reactions between enzyme and substrate. d. It blocks the active site of the enzyme. e. It denatures the enzyme by altering the active site.                                           139. A student was performing a titration for this laboratory, and accidentally exceeded the endpoint. What would be the best step to obtain good data for this point? a. Estimate the amount of KMnO4 that was in excess and substrate this from the result. b. Repeat the experiment using the reserved remaining sample. c. Obtain data for this point from another group. d. Prepare a graph of the data without this point, and then read the estimated value from the graph.

52 140. Select the phase of the cell cycle depicted in the image below.                   
a. Prophase b. Metaphase c. Telophase d. Interphase e. Anaphase 141. Select the phase of the cell cycle depicted in the image below.                    a. Prophase b. Metaphase c. Telophase d. Interphase e. Anaphase

53 142. Select the phase of the cell cycle depicted in the image below.                   
a. Prophase b. Metaphase c. Telophase d. Interphase e. Anaphase 143. Based on your results from the chromatography lab, select the true statement a. The Rf for carotene can be determined by dividing the distance the yellow-orange pigment (carotene) migrated by the distance the solvent front migrated. b. The Rf value of chlorophyll b will be higher than the Rf value for chlorophyll a. c. The molecules of xanthophyll are not easily dissolved in this solvent, and thus are probably larger in mass than the chlorophyll b molecules. d. If this same chromatogram were set up and run for twice as long, the Rf values would be twice as great for each pigment.

54 144. If a different solvent were used for the chlorophyll chromatography as performed in lab, what results would you expect? a. The distances traveled by each pigment will be different, but the Rf values will stay the same. b. The relative position of the bands will be different. c. The results will be the same if the time is held constant. d. The Rf values of some pigments might exceed 1.0. 145. What is the Rf value for carotene calculated from the chromatogram below?                                1.09 0.17 0.96 0.33 e

55 d. The blank was not properly used to calibrate the spectrophotometer.
146. Which graph would be the most likely result of performing the photosynthesis experiment using fresh chloroplasts placed in light and DPIP?                                                                                         a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E 147. What is the best explanation for graph B?                                                                                         The DPIP was too pale at the beginning of the experiment. The chloroplast solution was too concentrated. c. The experimenter used chloroplasts that were damaged and could not respond to light. d. The blank was not properly used to calibrate the spectrophotometer.

56 148. What is the role of DPIP in the photosynthesis experiment
It mimics the action of chlorophyll b by absorbing light energy. It serves as an electron donor and blocks the formation of NADPH. It is an electron acceptor and is reduced by electrons from chlorophyll. It is bleached in the presence of light and can be used to measure light levels. e. It acts in the same way water does in non-cyclic photophosphorylation. 149. Some students were not able to get many data points in the photosynthesis experiment because the solution went from blue to colorless in only 5 minutes for the unboiled chloroplasts exposed to light. What modification to the experiment do you think would be most likely to provide better results? a. Increase the number of chloroplasts used from 3 to 5. b. Increase the volume of DPIP since the initial concentration may be too dilute. c. Modify the blank (cuvette used to calibrate the spectrophotometer) so that the initial transmittance is higher. d. Use fresher spinach to prepare the chloroplast suspension. e. Change the wavelength at which readings are taken.

57 150. Which of the following conclusions is supported by the data?
The rate of respiration is higher in nongerminating seeds than in germinating seeds b. Nongerminating peas are not alive, and show no difference in rate of respiration at different temperatures. c. The rate of respiration in the germinating seeds would have been higher if the experiment were conducted in sunlight. d. The rate of respiration increases as the temperature increases in both germinating and nongerminating seeds. e. The amount of oxygen consumed could be increased if pea seeds were substituted for corn seeds. The rate of respiration increases as the temperature increases in both germinating and nongerminating seeds.

58 151. What is the role of KOH in the respiration lab?
a. It serves as an electron donor to promote cellular respiration. b. As KOH breaks down, the oxygen needed for cellular respiration is released. c. It serves as a temporary energy source for the respiring organism. d. It binds with carbon dioxide to form a solid, preventing CO2 production from affecting gas volume. e. Its attraction for water will cause water to enter the respirometer.

59 a. 1 b. 2 c. 3 d. 4 e. 5 152. Which line indicates a guard cell?
153. What tissue is indicated by label line 1?                                   Phloem Epidermis Xylem Mesophyll e. Endodermis

60 154. All of the following enhance water transport in terrestrial plants EXCEPT:
a. Hydrogen bonds linking water molecules b. Capillary action due to adhesion of water molecules to the walls of xylem c. Evaporation of water from the leaves. d. K+ being transported out of the guard cells 155. Under conditions of bright light, in which part of a transpiring plant would water potential be lowest? a. Xylem vessels in the leaves. b. Xylem vessels in the roots. c. Root hairs d. Spongy mesophyll of the leaves e. Xylem vessels in the stems. What type of environment would result in the greatest rate of transpiration. a. Cloudy, humid conditions. b. Warm, humid conditions. c. Warm, light, breezy conditions. d. Cool, humid conditions

61 157. What is the function of tissue “D”?
a. Storage of food b. Protection c. Water transport d. Food transport What tissue is indicated by letter “C”? Xylem b. Phloem c. Epidermis d. Pith e. Endodermis This is a cross section of…? a. Monocot stem b. Dicot stem c. Leaf d. Root e. Flower

62 160. Which of the following organisms would show the greatest fluctuation in body temperature hour by hour? a. Dolphin b. Mouse c. Rattlesnake d. Bat e. Human What is the relationship between metabolic rate and body temperature in Daphnia? a. As the body temperature increases, the metabolic rate decreases. b. An increase of 10C results in a doubling of metabolic rate. c. Heart rate increases as body temperature decreases. d. Cellular enzymes are less active at 35C than at 20C, resulting in decreased metabolic rate.

63 162. A student wanted to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on plant growth, so she took two similar plants and set them on a window sill for a two-week observation period. She watered each plant the same amount, but she gave one a small dose of fertilizer with each watering. She collected data by counting the total number of new leaves on each plant and also measured the height of each plant in centimeters. Which of the following is a significant flaw in this experimental set-up? There is no independent variable. There is no control group. There is no repetition in replicating the experiment. Measurable results cannot be expected. It will take too many days for data collection. Which of the following hypotheses is best stated? If pillbugs are allowed free movement, then more will be found in a moist environment than in a dry environment. b. If pillbugs like a moist environment, then they will move to the wet side of a choice chamber. c. If an experiment with pillbugs is run for 10 minutes, then more pillbugs will be found in the most favorable environment. d. Pillbugs are found in moist habitats, so I predict that more will be found where it is wet.

64 Questions a. Insulin b. Acetylcholine c. Glucagon d. Epinephrine (adrenaline) e. Dopamine A signal that induces an increase in heart rate, dilation of the bronchioles and breakdown of glycogen into glucose for increased muscle activity. D A neurotransmitter in the brain that is associated with feelings of enjoyment; lacking in patients with Parkinson's disease. E 166. A hormone made in the pancreas that puts sugar from cells into the blood. C

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