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Cells & Cell Organelles

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Presentation on theme: "Cells & Cell Organelles"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells & Cell Organelles
Doing Life’s Work

2 animal cells plant cells
bacteria cells Types of cells Prokaryote ______________ Eukaryotes ______________ animal cells plant cells

3 Cell size comparison most bacteria eukaryotic cells 1-10 microns
Bacterial cell Animal cell most bacteria 1-10 microns eukaryotic cells microns micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meter diameter of human hair = ~20 microns

4 Why study cells? Cells  Tissues  Organs  Bodies

5 The Work of Life What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live… “breathe” _______________________________ ____________________________ take in & digest food ATP proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids growth, repair, reproduction & development ATP

6 Our organelles do all these jobs!
The Jobs of Cells Cells have 3 main jobs ____________________ need energy for all activities need to clean up waste produced while making energy proteins do all the work in a cell, so we need lots of them for growth to replace damaged or diseased cells Our organelles do all these jobs!

7 They’re like mini-organs!
Organelles Organelles do the work of cells each structure has a job to do keeps the cell alive; keeps you alive They’re like mini-organs! Model Animal Cell

8 1. Cells need power! Making energy
to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must… take in food & digest it take in oxygen (O2) make ATP remove waste organelles that do this work… ______________________ ATP

9 Cell membrane Function Structure _______________________________
phosphate “head” Cell membrane Function _______________________________ O2,CO2, food, H2O, nutrients, waste allows communication between cells Structure double layer of fat ______________________ lipid “tail”

10 Vacuoles & vesicles Function Structure membrane sac
________________________________ ________________ Structure membrane sac small food particle vacuole filled w/ digestive enzymes vesicle vesicle filled w/ digested nutrients

11 Food & water storage plant cells animal cells food vacuole
central vacuole animal cells contractile vacuole

12 Lysosomes Function ________________ Structure
used to make energy digest broken organelles Structure membrane sac of digestive enzymes Lysosomes digesting broken organelles vacuole small food particle digesting food

13 A Job for Lysosomes 6 weeks 15 weeks

14 ATP Mitochondria Function Structure in both animal & plant cells
____________________________________ sugar + O2  ATP fuels the work of life Structure double membrane ATP in both animal & plant cells

15 Plants make energy two ways!
________________________ make energy from sugar ______________________ sugar  ATP make energy + sugar from sunlight sunlight  ATP & sugar ATP = active energy sugar = stored energy build leaves & roots & fruit out of sugars ATP sugar ATP ATP

16 Mitochondria are in both cells!!
animal cells plant cells mitochondria chloroplast

17 2. Cells need workers = proteins!
Making proteins to run daily life & growth, the cell must… read genes (DNA) build proteins structural proteins (muscle fibers) enzymes (speed up chemical reactions) signals (hormones) & receptors organelles that do this work… __________________________

18 Proteins do all the work!
one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because… proteins do all the work! structural enzymes signals receptors DNA proteins cells

19 Nucleus Function Structure control center of cell protects DNA
instructions for building proteins Structure __________________________ ribosome factory DNA

20 Ribosomes Function Structure __________________________
read instructions to build proteins from DNA Structure some free in cytoplasm some attached to ER Ribosomes on ER The genes for rRNA have the greatest commonality among all living things. There is very little difference in the DNA sequence of the rRNA genes in a humans vs. a bacteria. Means that this function (building of a ribosome) is so integral to life that every cell does it almost exactly the same way. Change a base and this changes the structure of the RNA whch causes it to not function.

21 Endoplasmic Reticulum
Function __________________ helps complete the proteins after ribosome builds them Structure ribosomes attached works on proteins makes membranes

22 Golgi Apparatus Function Structure
____________________________________ like UPS headquarters shipping & receiving department “UPS trucks” Structure membrane sacs vesicles carrying proteins transport vesicles

23 _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________
protein on its way! _______ TO: _______ _____________ TO: TO: vesicle _____________ TO: finished protein _____________ _____________ _____________ Making Proteins

24 Cells need to make more cells!
Making more cells to repair & reproduce, the cell must… copy their DNA make extra organelles divide the new DNA & new organelles between 2 new “daughter” cells organelles that do this work… ____________________

25 Centrioles Function Structure __________________________
one pair in each cell

26 Our organelles do all those jobs!
Cell Summary Cells have 3 main jobs ___________________ need food + O2 cellular respiration & photosynthesis need to remove wastes need instructions from DNA need to chain together amino acids & “finish” & “ship” the protein need to copy DNA & divide it up to daughter cells Our organelles do all those jobs!

27 That’s my cellular story…
Any Questions?

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