There are more than 90 contaminants in the national primary drinking water regulations. There are 14 contaminants listed in the national secondary drinking water regulations. And then there is the Candidate Contaminant List where more contaminants are considered for regulation.
Water SystemRegulatory AgencyRegulations Municipal Water Systems United States Environmental Protection Agency Code of Federal Regulations Title 40 Part 141 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Code of Federal Regulations Title 40 Part 143 National Secondary Drinking Water Regulations Private Water Systemsstate regulatory agencies No Federal regulations; some state regulation Example in Wisconsin: Wisconsin Administrative Code NR 812 Well Construction and Pump Installation Example in Wisconsin: Wisconsin Administrative Code NR 146 Well Driller and Pump Installer Licensing Code Bottled Water United States Food and Drug Administration Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Part 165 Beverages Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Part 129 Processing and Bottling of Drinking Water Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Part 110 Current Good Manufacturing Practice Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Part 101 Food Labeling Drinking Water Regulations
Microorganisms Microorganisms Disinfectants Disinfectants Disinfection Byproducts Disinfection Byproducts Inorganic Chemicals Inorganic Chemicals Organic Chemicals Organic Chemicals Radionuclides Radionuclides Categories of Primary Drinking Water Contaminants Covered by US EPA Regulations
Microorganisms Cryptosporidium Giardia lamblia Legionella Total Coliforms Viruses, enteric
Total Coliforms “Indicator” of waterborne disease from human sewage
Problem with Focus on Total Coliforms Neglects presence of non-pathogenic microorganisms: They can reduce the availability of disinfection to fight pathogens, elevate metals concentrations in the water, and threaten the integrity of infrastructure.
Viruses A WI study has found a correlation between viruses in drinking water and common illnesses.
Disinfection Must disinfect water! Types of disinfectants: Chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite Chloramines Chlorine dioxide
Radionuclides Alpha particles Beta particles, etc. Radium 226+228 Uranium
Secondary Drinking Water Contaminants Aluminum Chloride Color Copper Fluoride Foaming agents Iron Manganese Odor pH Silver Sulfate Total Dissolved Solids Zinc
Many secondary contaminants have now been found to be more than just a nuisance. Problem with Secondary Drinking Water Contaminants Aluminum Iron Manganese …
How to inform yourself about drinking water contamination? There’s a lot of confusing information, dilemmas, emerging issues, knowledge gaps, and misinformation.
For the moment, ask me about water… Private wells Metals in residential water Modern plumbing issues Home water treatment Bottled water Local issues in water system … Contact: Abigail Cantor, P.E.; Process Research Solutions, LLC; email@example.com