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Emergence of World Patterns

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Presentation on theme: "Emergence of World Patterns"— Presentation transcript:

1 Emergence of World Patterns
AGE OF EXPLORATION [European Hegemony]

2 Global Hegemony Portuguese 16th Century Spain 17th Century
Dutch 18th Century English 19th Century American 20th Century ?????? 21st Century All of these eras were dominated by their specific group based upon control of long-distance trade.

3 Concepts Capitalism Caravel Columbian Exchange Factor
Northwest Passage One continuing aim for explorers once they realized that two massive continents existed in the western hemisphere was to search for a route around them to the north. Ice has always been the consistent barrier. With global warming, however, in recent years a northwest passage has open to shipping without resorting to the use of icebreakers.

4 Essential Questions How and why was European hegemony the outcome of exploration? Why did the Europeans invest so much in exploration? What was the global impact of the biological diffusion of the era? What was the political and economic impact of the Age of Exploration? How are present day global relations impacted by the Age of Exploration?

5 Motivations for Exploration
Lure of trade [Gold] Riches of the East w/o Muslim & Venetian intermediaries Religious diffusion [God] New Testament urged Replace Crusades Glory Seekers of wealth and renown


7 Exploration

8 Exploration Time Line

9 Advances in Technology
Muslims Lateen sails Astrolabe China Magnetic compass Multiple masts Stem-post & reticulated rudder

10 Technology

11 Chinese Treasure Ships

12 Portuguese Exploration
Prince Henry the Navigator School of geography and navigation Bartolomeu Dias Cape of Good Hope [1488] Vasco de Gamma Calcut, India [1497] Admiral Albuquerque Hormuz [1508] – Goa [1510] Melaka [1511]

13 Portuguese

14 Bartolomeo Dias

15 Vasco de Gamma

16 Admiral Albuquerque

17 Spanish Exploration Christoforo Colombo Hernan Cortez
Paved way for conquest, settlement, exploration Hernan Cortez Conquered Aztecs Francisco Pizarro Conquered Inca Ferdinand Magellan Circumnavigated the earth

18 Columbus                                                                                                                                                                  

19 Hernan Cortez

20 Pizarro

21 Magellan

22 Spanish Conquest Conquistadores Encomienda De las Casas
Spanish soldiers of fortune Encomienda Forced labor > Native Americans [slavery] De las Casas Expose` of Spanish cruelty

23 Spain De Las Casas exposed cruelty and cause encomienda to be revoked.

24 Rivalries Spanish & Portuguese TREATY OF TORDESILLAS
Rivals over South America Settled by Pope TREATY OF TORDESILLAS Portugal gets Brazil Spain gets the rest

25 Treaty of Tordesillas

26 The Competition England Dutch Successful English East India Company
United East India Company Successful Faster, cheaper, more powerful ships Private enterprise with government support

27 United East India Company [Dutch]

28 Dutch Colonial Influences
New Amsterdam Cape Colony [S. Africa] Dutch

29 East India Company [English]

30 Conquest of S.E. Asia Spain Dutch English Legazpi >
Philippines Dutch Jan Pierterzoon Coen Batavia English Captain James Cook Australia & Pacific Islands

31 Conquest S.E. Asia Jan Pierterzoon Coen

32 Commercial Rivalries Competition in S.E. Asia
Dutch expel Portuguese Seven Years War [Global conflict] England & Prussia vs. France, Austria, Russia British & French over North America Caribbean control France & Spain limit British expansion

33 Treaty of Paris 1763

34 Columbian Exchange Biological exchange
Global diffusion of plants, animals, human populations, and disease pathogens Impact on populations encountered Epidemics: smallpox, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, and influenza B/w – 100M people died of imported diseases

35 Columbian Exchange Impact on European populations
Huge population increase World population increase 425 M [1500] to 900M [1800] Migrations African [slaves] largest migration Origins of global trade European merchants genuine global trade

36 Columbian Exchange


38 African Diaspora

39 Demographics of Diaspora

40 Patterns of Global Trade
European trade privileges Proto-spheres of interest Russia European shipping companies established agencies for trade in Moscow & St. Petersburg Enjoyed commercial privileges

41 Enduring Questions How can we measure the impact of the Age of Exploration on the process of globalization and the dominance of the West? Identify the West in terms of modern times.

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