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Emergence of World Patterns AGE OF EXPLORATION [European Hegemony]

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Presentation on theme: "Emergence of World Patterns AGE OF EXPLORATION [European Hegemony]"— Presentation transcript:

1 Emergence of World Patterns AGE OF EXPLORATION [European Hegemony]

2 Global Hegemony Portuguese16 th Century Portuguese16 th Century Spain17 th Century Spain17 th Century Dutch18 th Century Dutch18 th Century English19 th Century English19 th Century American20 th Century American20 th Century ??????21 st Century ??????21 st Century

3 Concepts Capitalism Capitalism Caravel Caravel Columbian Exchange Columbian Exchange Factor Factor Northwest Passage Northwest Passage

4 Essential Questions How and why was European hegemony the outcome of exploration? How and why was European hegemony the outcome of exploration? Why did the Europeans invest so much in exploration? Why did the Europeans invest so much in exploration? What was the global impact of the biological diffusion of the era? What was the global impact of the biological diffusion of the era? What was the political and economic impact of the Age of Exploration? What was the political and economic impact of the Age of Exploration? How are present day global relations impacted by the Age of Exploration? How are present day global relations impacted by the Age of Exploration?

5 Motivations for Exploration Lure of trade [Gold] Lure of trade [Gold] – Riches of the East w/o Muslim & Venetian intermediaries Religious diffusion [God] Religious diffusion [God] – New Testament urged – Replace Crusades Glory Glory – Seekers of wealth and renown

6

7 Exploration Exploration

8 Exploration Time Line

9 Advances in Technology Muslims Muslims – Lateen sails – Astrolabe China China – Magnetic compass – Multiple masts – Stem-post & reticulated rudder

10 Technology

11 Chinese Treasure Ships

12 Portuguese Exploration Prince Henry the Navigator Prince Henry the Navigator – School of geography and navigation Bartolomeu Dias Bartolomeu Dias – Cape of Good Hope [1488] Vasco de Gamma Vasco de Gamma – Calcut, India [1497] Admiral Albuquerque Admiral Albuquerque – Hormuz [1508] – Goa [1510] – Melaka [1511]

13 Portuguese

14 Bartolomeo Dias

15 Vasco de Gamma

16 Admiral Albuquerque

17 Spanish Exploration Christoforo Colombo Christoforo Colombo – Paved way for conquest, settlement, exploration Hernan Cortez Hernan Cortez – Conquered Aztecs Francisco Pizarro Francisco Pizarro – Conquered Inca Ferdinand Magellan Ferdinand Magellan – Circumnavigated the earth

18 Columbus

19 Hernan Cortez

20 Pizarro

21 Magellan

22 Spanish Conquest Conquistadores Conquistadores – Spanish soldiers of fortune Encomienda Encomienda – Forced labor > Native Americans [slavery] De las Casas De las Casas – Expose` of Spanish cruelty

23 Spain

24 Rivalries Spanish & Portuguese Spanish & Portuguese – Rivals over South America – Settled by Pope TREATY OF TORDESILLAS TREATY OF TORDESILLAS – Portugal gets Brazil – Spain gets the rest

25 Treaty of Tordesillas

26 The Competition England England – English East India Company Dutch Dutch – United East India Company Successful Successful – Faster, cheaper, more powerful ships – Private enterprise with government support

27 United East India Company [Dutch]

28 Dutch Colonial Influences

29 East India Company [English]

30 Conquest of S.E. Asia Spain Spain – Legazpi > Philippines Philippines Dutch Dutch – Jan Pierterzoon Coen Batavia Batavia English English – Captain James Cook Australia & Pacific Islands Australia & Pacific Islands

31 Conquest S.E. Asia

32 Commercial Rivalries Competition in S.E. Asia Competition in S.E. Asia –Dutch expel Portuguese Seven Years War [Global conflict] Seven Years War [Global conflict] –England & Prussia vs. France, Austria, Russia –British & French over North America Caribbean control Caribbean control –France & Spain limit British expansion

33 Treaty of Paris 1763

34 Columbian Exchange Biological exchange – – Global diffusion of plants, animals, human populations, and disease pathogens Impact on populations encountered – – Epidemics: smallpox, measles, diphtheria, whooping cough, and influenza – – B/w – 100M people died of imported diseases

35 Columbian Exchange Impact on European populations Impact on European populations – Huge population increase – World population increase 425 M [1500] to 900M [1800] 425 M [1500] to 900M [1800] Migrations Migrations – African [slaves] largest migration Origins of global trade Origins of global trade – European merchants genuine global trade

36 Columbian Exchange Columbian Exchange

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38 African Diaspora

39 Demographics of Diaspora

40 Patterns of Global Trade European trade privileges European trade privileges Proto-spheres of interest Proto-spheres of interest Russia Russia – European shipping companies established agencies for trade in Moscow & St. Petersburg – Enjoyed commercial privileges

41 Enduring Questions How can we measure the impact of the Age of Exploration on the process of globalization and the dominance of the West? Identify the West in terms of modern times.


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