2Review Oxidation reduction reactions involve a transfer of electrons. OIL- RIGOxidation Involves GainReduction Involves LossLEO-GERLose Electrons OxidationGain Electrons Reduction
3Applications Moving electrons is electric current. 8H++MnO4-+ 5Fe+2 +5e ® Mn+2 + 5Fe+3 +4H2OHelps to break the reactions into half reactions.8H++MnO4-+5e- ® Mn+2 +4H2O5(Fe+2 ® Fe+3 + e- )In the same mixture it happens without doing useful work, but if separate
4Connected this way the reaction starts Stops immediately because charge builds up.H+MnO4-Fe+2
5Galvanic CellSalt Bridge allows current to flowH+MnO4-Fe+2
6Electricity travels in a complete circuit Instead of a salt bridgee-H+MnO4-Fe+2
9Cell Potential Oxidizing agent pushes the electron. Reducing agent pulls the electron.The push or pull (“driving force”) is called the cell potential EcellAlso called the electromotive force (emf)Unit is the volt(V)= 1 joule of work/coulomb of chargeMeasured with a voltmeter
100.76H2 inCathodeAnodeH+ Cl-Zn+2 SO4-21 M ZnSO41 M HCl
11Standard Hydrogen Electrode This is the reference all other oxidations are compared toEº = 0º indicates standard states of 25ºC, 1 atm, 1 M solutions.H2 inH+ Cl-1 M HCl
12Cell Potential Zn(s) + Cu+2 (aq) ® Zn+2(aq) + Cu(s) The total cell potential is the sum of the potential at each electrode.Eº cell = EºZn® Zn+2 + Eº Cu+2 ® CuWe can look up reduction potentials in a table.One of the reactions must be reversed, so change it sign.
13Cell PotentialDetermine the cell potential for a galvanic cell based on the redox reaction.Cu(s) + Fe+3(aq) ® Cu+2(aq) + Fe+2(aq)Fe+3(aq) + e-® Fe+2(aq) Eº = 0.77 VCu+2(aq)+2e- ® Cu(s) Eº = 0.34 VCu(s) ® Cu+2(aq)+2e Eº = V2Fe+3(aq) + 2e-® 2Fe+2(aq) Eº = 0.77 V
14Line Notation solid½Aqueous½½Aqueous½solid Anode on the left½½Cathode on the rightSingle line different phases.Double line porous disk or salt bridge.If all the substances on one side are aqueous, a platinum electrode is indicated.For the last reactionCu(s)½Cu+2(aq)½½Fe+2(aq),Fe+3(aq)½Pt(s)
15Galvanic CellThe reaction always runs spontaneously in the direction that produced a positive cell potential.Four things for a complete description.Cell PotentialDirection of flowDesignation of anode and cathodeNature of all the components- electrodes and ions
16PracticeCompletely describe the galvanic cell based on the following half-reactions under standard conditions.MnO H+ +5e- ® Mn+2 + 4H2O Eº=1.51Fe+3 +3e- ® Fe(s) Eº=0.036V
17Potential, Work and DG emf = potential (V) = work (J) / Charge(C) E = work done by system / chargeE = -w/qCharge is measured in coulombs.-w = qEFaraday = 96,485 C/mol e-q = nF = moles of e- x charge/mole e-w = -qE = -nFE = DG
18Potential, Work and DG DGº = -nFE º if E º < 0, then DGº > 0 spontaneousif E º > 0, then DGº < 0 nonspontaneousIn fact, reverse is spontaneous.Calculate DGº for the following reaction:Cu+2(aq)+ Fe(s) ® Cu(s)+ Fe+2(aq)Fe+2(aq) + e-® Fe(s) Eº = 0.44 VCu+2(aq)+2e- ® Cu(s) Eº = 0.34 V
19Cell Potential and Concentration Qualitatively - Can predict direction of change in E from LeChâtelier.2Al(s) + 3Mn+2(aq) ® 2Al+3(aq) + 3Mn(s)Predict if Ecell will be greater or less than Eºcell if [Al+3] = 1.5 M and [Mn+2] = 1.0 Mif [Al+3] = 1.0 M and [Mn+2] = 1.5Mif [Al+3] = 1.5 M and [Mn+2] = 1.5 M
20The Nernst Equation E = Eº - RTln(Q) nF DG = DGº +RTln(Q) -nFE = -nFEº + RTln(Q)E = Eº - RTln(Q) nF2Al(s) + 3Mn+2(aq) ® 2Al+3(aq) + 3Mn(s) Eº = 0.48 VAlways have to figure out n by balancing.If concentration can gives voltage, then from voltage we can tell concentration.
21The Nernst Equation 0 = Eº - RTln(K) nF Eº = RTln(K) nF As reactions proceed concentrations of products increase and reactants decrease.Reach equilibrium where Q = K and Ecell = 00 = Eº - RTln(K) nFEº = RTln(K) nFnFEº = ln(K) RT
22Batteries are Galvanic Cells Car batteries are lead storage batteries.Pb +PbO2 +H2SO4 ®PbSO4(s) +H2ODry Cell Zn + NH4+ +MnO2 ® Zn+2 + NH3 + H2OAlkaline Zn +MnO2 ® ZnO+ Mn2O3 (in base)NiCadNiO2 + Cd + 2H2O ® Cd(OH)2 +Ni(OH)2
23Corrosion Rusting - spontaneous oxidation. Most structural metals have reduction potentials that are less positive than O2 .Fe ® Fe+2 +2e- Eº= 0.44 VO2 + 2H2O + 4e- ® 4OH- Eº= 0.40 VFe+2 + O2 + H2O ® Fe2 O3 + H+Reaction happens in two places.
24Salt speeds up process by increasing conductivity WaterRuste-Iron Dissolves- Fe ® Fe+2
25Preventing Corrosion Coating to keep out air and water. Galvanizing - Putting on a zinc coatHas a lower reduction potential, so it is more. easily oxidized.Alloying with metals that form oxide coats.Cathodic Protection - Attaching large pieces of an active metal like magnesium that get oxidized instead.
26Electrolysis Running a galvanic cell backwards. Put a voltage bigger than the potential and reverse the direction of the redox reaction.Used for electroplating.
28A battery >1.10Ve-e-ZnCu1.0 M Zn+21.0 M Cu+2CathodeAnode
29Calculating plating Have to count charge. Measure current I (in amperes)1 amp = 1 coulomb of charge per secondq = I x tq/nF = moles of metalMass of plated metalHow long must 5.00 amp current be applied to produce 15.5 g of Ag from Ag+
30Other uses Electroysis of water. Seperating mixtures of ions. More positive reduction potential means the reaction proceeds forward.We want the reverse.Most negative reduction potential is easiest to plate out of solution.