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Consolidation of Sovereign States Influences of the Enlightenment.

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Presentation on theme: "Consolidation of Sovereign States Influences of the Enlightenment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Consolidation of Sovereign States Influences of the Enlightenment

2 Essential Questions What was the impact of the Reformation on the development of capitalism? What role did the government play in the development of capitalism? What impact did the development of capitalism have on political philosophies? What was the impact of the enlightenment on economics, politics, society, & religion?

3 Constitutional States England & Netherlands Parliament – Representative Assemblies Prominent merchant class Commercial empires Overseas Extraordinary prosperity Fair distribution of wealth

4 Absolute Monarchies France – Spain – Prussia – Austria - Russia Theoretical foundation Divine right of kings Cardinal Richelieu Architect of Absolutism Loius XIV [Sun King] Large standing army Luxury & circus

5 Parliamentary Absolutism Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIV

6 Nations with bicameral legislatures. Nations with unicameral legislatures. No legislature. Which 2 have none?


8 Peace of Westphalia 1648 States regarded as sovereign & equal Peace did not end war Balance of power alliances were created Arms race among states European arms out perform all others globally


10 English Revolution King vs. Parliament Charles vs. Cromwell Oliver Cromwell Military rule Dissolves Parliament Politicization of Calvinism [Puritanism ]

11 Influence of Absolutism Russia Czar [Caesar] Ivan IV [Terrible] Peter the Great Westernized Russian Monarchy Boyars Russian aristocracy

12 Limited Monarchy = England Glorious Revolution Wm. Of Orange & Mary Invited to take the throne Protestants

13 Economic Impact of Reformation Capitalism Private enterprise Market forces Supply & demand Networks: Transportation & communication

14 Government Impact: Economics Government role: Protect private property Settle disputes Charter joint- stock companies Authorized exploration – colonization - conquer Service institutions Banks Insurance Stock exchanges

15 Proto-Industrialization Entrepreneurs Side-step guilds Out-source labor Rural districts Cheap labor British Enclosure Act: Forced peasants off the land in order to raise sheep for textile industry.

16 Which of these reasons do you buy? Why?



19 Profits & Ethics Medieval theologians believed Profit-making > morally dangerous Proponents of Capitalism Adam Smith > prosperity & self-interest Downside of Capitalism Deep strain on social system Bandits – Muggers - Witch-hunts Upside of Capitalism Nuclear families: independent economically – socially & emotionally.

20 Scientific Revolution Galileo Galilei [Who invented?] Sun spots Moons of Jupiter Law of Inertia Copernicus On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres Sun not Earth centered universe Heliocentricity

21 Galileo

22 Ptolemaic Universe

23 Copernicus

24 Scientific Revolution Isaac Newton Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy [1686] Gravitational law & physics Direct observation & mathematical reasoning

25 Impact of Science on Society ENLIGHTENMENT Popularized by French philosophes Wrote histories – novels – dramas – satires pamphlets on religion, morality, politics Voltaire Attacked Church & French Monarchy Deism God exists but universe operates on rational and natural laws

26 Deists Franklin Washington Jefferson Thomas Paine Ethan Allen Monroe

27 Philosophes John Locke Jean-Jacques Rousseau

28 Impact on Political Theory Enlightenment Natural laws govern society [mirror Newton] Montesquieu Political science & political liberty

29 Impact on Political Theory JOHN LOCKE Natural Rights: Life – Liberty - Property Social Contract: b/w people & government People obligated to obey government only if government protects natural rights

30 Significance: Enlightenment Weakened influence of organized religion Promoted secular values [source] reason rather than revelation Promoted rational analysis Promoted progress & prosperity

31 Enduring Question How can we measure the impact of the Enlightenment on the West? How has the Enlightenment influenced the development of democracy and capitalism in America?

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