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REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSONIAN VISION

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1 REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSONIAN VISION
Chapter 8

2 Republican Identities in a New Republic
An age of rapid population growth 7.2 million in 1810; two million more than 1800 20% black slaves children under 16 the largest single group Strong regional identities Early secession movements threaten national unity The large population increase was due to natural reproduction Children under 16 were born after Washington became president

3 North America in 1800

4 Westward the Course of Empire
Intense migration to West after 1790 New States Kentucky--1792 Tennessee--1796 Ohio--1803 Western regional culture rootless, optimistic The Mississippi River was key commercial link to the entire West The emergence of riverboats – eventually steamboats – to haul goods via river was cheaper than hauling them overland. The development/emergence of “Regional” Views during the Early 19th century 2

5 Native American Resistance
Western settlers compete for Indian land Indians resist Tecumseh leads Shawnees, defeated Creeks defeated Settlers reject Indian-White coexistence Tecumseh & brother Tenskwatawa(the Prophet) try to resist whiter incursion and attempt to unite the tribes of the Ohio River Valley Ultimately defeated by W.H. Harrison during War of 1812; Creeks also defeated in the southwestern frontier of Georgia/Mississippi Territory by Andrew Jackson (Battle of Horseshoe Bend) White settlers had no intention of “Coexisting” with Indians as GW had suggested; this begins a slow process of Indian Removal and Relocation that will continue until the early 1890’s (accelerated through the West following Civil War) 3

6 Commercial Life in the Cities
Economy based on agriculture and trade American shipping prospers Cities associated with international trade, otherwise marginal role in national life Industrialization and mechanization just beginning to frighten skilled craftsmen Jeffersonian economy was not an industrial one Major innovation of this period was the agricultural fair (livestock could be bought/sold) Merchant Marine & International Trade key elements of the American economy; Shipping & commerce grow more than 300 percent between (imposition of Jeffersonian Trade Embargo) Cities function as depots for int’l trade/Only about 7% of population lived in urban centers Demand for housing outstripped supply so rents in the cities were quite high 4

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8 Revolution of 1800 Election of 1800 arguably the most significant in US History. Why?

9 The Federalist Finale Adams was the last Federalist president.
Federalist as halfway house between European past and American present. Why didn’t Federalists appeal to more voters? Stayed a party for another 20 years, but never won the presidency. Federalists, like the dinosaurs, couldn’t adapt and so became extinct

10 Jefferson’s Political Principles
Themes of inaugural Jefferson’s political principles Rejected the idea of a political elite. Backbone of democracy was the free, independent farmer. Universal suffrage for white males Small government—governs best when it governs least. Strict construction of the Constitution. Landlessness among americans threatened popular democracy. Properttyless would be political pawns of the landowning superiors. How can the emergence of a landless class of voters be avoided? SLAVERY A system of black labor in the South ensured that the white yeoman farmer could remian independent landowners. Without slavery, poor whites would have to [rovide cheap labor so necessary for the cultivation of cash crops and their low wages would prevent them from ever owning property.

11 Jeffersonian Restraint
Jefferson’s first priority = undue abuses by the Federalists. Pardoned those convicted under the Alien and Sedition Act Repeal Naturalization Act. Repealed the excise tax—cost US 1 Mill. per year in lost revenue. Cuts military spending to the bone (2,500 men) Reduce the national debt (Sec. Gallatin) What does he do to the core of Hamilton’s financial program?

12 Jefferson as President
Jefferson personifies Republicanism’s contradictions Despises ceremonies and formality Dedicated to intellectual pursuits A politician to the core Success depends on cooperation with Congress 5

13 New Tone to Govt Deliberately informal
Fired Federalists who were incompetent or too partisan & replaced w/ Republicans Continued Cabinet system but didn’t invite divergent opinions 6

14 John Jay first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
Judiciary Act of 1789 Created Supreme Court 5 Associate Justices, 1 Chief 13 judicial districts Circuit and district courts “writ of mandamus” issued by a superior court to compel a lower court or a government officer to perform mandatory or purely ministerial duties correctly John Jay first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

15 Judiciary Act of 1801 Last ditch effort to hold power
“midnight judges”. Chief Justice John Marshall Shaped American legal tradition and meaning of the Constitution more profoundly than any other single figure. Served as Chief Justice for 34 years

16 Attack on the Judges: Judiciary Act
Judiciary Act of creates new circuit courts filled with loyal Federalists 1802--Jeffersonians repeal Judiciary Act of 1801 to abolish courts Federalists charge violation of judges’ Constitutional right of tenure 12

17 Marbury v Madison The single most important SC case in history
Basic Facts “Writ of Mandamus” Ruling Judicial Review Consequences

18 Attack on the Judges: Impeachments
1803--Federalist John Pickering impeached, removed for alcoholism, insanity Jefferson seeks to impeach Federalist Samuel Chase Republican Senate refuses to convict 14

19 The Barbary States

20 Jefferson Turns Warrior
Jefferson attitude and actions toward army and navy. North African Barbary Pirates “Shores of Tripoli” Mosquito fleet

21 Conflict With the Barbary States
US and other European countries paid a tribute to the North African states in the Mediterranean Jefferson dispatches U.S. fleet to “negotiate through the mouth of a cannon” in 1801 1805: Treaty; $60,000 for each prisoner 1815: extortion finally ended after a 2nd war 10

22 Jefferson and Louisiana
The Westward Movement and the Jeffersonian Revolution The Jeffersonian Presidency 1. Policies – Jefferson’s presidency began the “Virginia Dynasty” of Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe ( ); all three actively supported westward expansion; Jefferson reduced the size of the permanent army. 2. Marbury v. Madison – 1808 Supreme Court decision. The Supreme Court did not have the constitutional power to enforce legislation, but did have the power to review legislation and interpret the Constitution. Jefferson and the West 1. The Louisiana Purchase – Jefferson wanted it to be easier for farm families to acquire land in the west; 1801 Napoleon signed a secret treaty with Spain that regained Louisiana for France; coupled with revolt in Haiti against French rule, Jefferson began to fear relationship with France, made efforts to purchase New Orleans (ultimately all of Louisiana); Jefferson believed this would force Indian population further west. 2. Secessionist Schemes – New England Federalists considered leaving the Union after Louisiana Purchase to form a confederacy of northeastern states, supported by the VP Aaron Burr; Hamilton accused Burr of planning to destroy the Union, a duel occurred between the men and Hamilton was killed; Burr was later acquitted of treason. 3. Lewis and Clark Meet the Mandan and Sioux – 1804 Jefferson sent his secretary Meriwether Lewis and army officer William Clark to explore the Louisiana region; came into contact with Mandan and Sioux peoples; continued traveling further (1,300 miles) into unknown territories; gave to Jefferson the first maps of the western wilderness, its resources and inhabitants.

23 Jefferson and Louisiana
LA back in the hands of the French Spain rescinds the right of deposit Bonaparte dreams of empire Santo Domingo in revolt; Bonaparte sends 20,000 men TJ offers $10 mil for New Orleans and West FL If we don’t get New Orleans, then TJ needs alliance w/ Britain French defeated

24 Jefferson and Louisiana
Napoleon to resume war w/ Britain. Needs cash Would deny LA territory to British Reduces chances of US/British alliance Sold to US for $15,000,000

25 The Louisiana Purchase
Constitution doesn’t grant power to President to add new territory He suggests an amendment BUT delay may make Napoleon change mind Federalists all of a sudden become strict constructionists Real issue was the growth of Western states which could be expected to be Republican What is the precedent set here? 7

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27 The Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition commissioned prior to purchase of Louisiana Expedition left St. Louis May 1804 and reached the Pacific Ocean November 1805 Report on Louisiana’s economic promise confirms Jefferson's desire to purchase 8

28 The Louisiana Purchase and the Route of Lewis and Clark

29 II. The Westward Movement and the Jeffersonian Revolution
The Expanding Republic and Native American Resistance 1. Conflict over Land Rights 2. Assimilation Rejected The Westward Movement and the Jeffersonian Revolution The Expanding Republic and Native American Resistance 1. Conflict over Land Rights – disagreements continued in the west; government asserted control over trans-Appalachia West arguing that the natives who lived there were “conquered”; Indians disagreed because they had not signed the Treaty of Paris; native peoples were forced to cede land in New York and Pennsylvania, were bribed to supply additional land; conflict between allying native groups, white settlers, and the U.S. Army; Greenville Treaty ceded most of Ohio to U.S. and started a wave of migration from the east; by 1805 Ohio was a state with more than 100,000 people. 2. Assimilation Rejected – to prevent conflict, U.S. government encouraged assimilation to white culture; some converted to Christianity but kept their cultural practices.

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32 Jefferson’s Critics Dispute over federal court system
Conflicts between Republicans Sectional dispute over the slave trade 11

33 Politics of Desperation: “Tertium Quids”
"Tertium Quids" claim pure Republicanism Attack Jefferson as sacrificing virtue for pragmatism 15

34 Politics of Desperation: The Yazoo Controversy
fraudulent land case in Georgia Jefferson attempts to settle by providing land to innocent parties Quids complain settlement condones fraud Fletcher v. Peck (1810) Marshall court upholds Jefferson’s settlement court may nullify unconstitutional state laws

35 Murder and Conspiracy: The Curious Career of Aaron Burr
Vice-President Aaron Burr dropped by TJ after 1st term 1804--Burr, NY and secessionist New England Federalists Alexander Hamilton blocks Burr’s efforts The Duel 16

36 Hamilton-Burr Duel

37 The Burr Conspiracy Burr flees West after Hamilton duel
Schemes to detach West from US and invade Spanish Mexico and FL Burr arrested, tried for treason John Marshall acquits on Constitutional grounds of insufficient evidence Precedent makes it difficult for presidents to use charge of treason as a political tool 17

38 Embarrassments Overseas
: increase in trade from 100,000 to 1,000,000 tons 1803--England and France resume war American ships subject to seizure by England through “Orders in Council" by Napoleon through Berlin, Milan Decrees Violation of major US foreign policy: “Freedom of the Seas” 19

39 America: A Neutral Power?
England impresses over US sailors between England refused to stop.

40 HMS Leopard v. US Chesapeake 1807

41 What to do? Large scale foreign war goes against our policy Navy weak
Army almost non-existent Defeat would have devastating impact on US Europe depended heavily on US trade Cutting off exports would force England and France to bow to US pressure and allow us to trade

42 Embargo Act of 1807

43 Embargo Most people HATED it. Why?.
New England Federalist particularly mad What did they argue? Consequences: Three times more costly that war would have been. Ultimately did help New England factories. Fostered American industry. Ruined U.S. Shipping (merchant marine) Why the embargo failed? overestimated European dependence on American goods Underestimated the British Bumper grain crop in british isles Most of europe under napoleons control so he could afford to tighten belt Embargo not strictly enforced

44 Non-Intercourse Act 3/1809: Embargo Act repealed Non-Intercourse Act
No trade w/ England and France Would expire in 1810 Non-Intercourse Act did hurt England, and they repealed Orders in Council, but too late to avoid War of 1812

45 Embargo Divides the Nation
1807--Congress prohibits U.S. ships from leaving port Purpose: to win English, French respect for American rights Embargo unpopular at home detailed government oversight of commerce army suppresses smuggling New England economy damaged 20

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47 James Madison Became 4th President in 1809. 5-4, 100 lb., weak voice.
Very distinguished career: Cont. Congress, Congressman, Const. Convention, Sec. of State. Not very successful as President. Party broken by factions; Madison- not a strong leader. Dolly Madison, first true First Lady who acted as social hostess.

48 Madison: Dupe Of Napoleon
5/1810: Macon’s Bill No. 2 If you recognize US neutral rights, then we won’t trade with your enemy Showed we couldn’t survive w/o commercial dependence Napoleon tricks Madison Sets US on course antagonistic to England. We re-establish embargo against Britain

49 A New Administration Goes to War
1808--James Madison elected President 1809--Embargo repealed in favor of Non-Intercourse Act U.S. will resume trade with England and France on promise to cease seizure of U.S. vessels 21

50 A New Administration Goes to War (2)
Madison reopens English trade on unconfirmed promise of British minister English reject agreement, seize U.S. ships that opened trade with England

51 “War Hawks” John C. Calhoun [SC] Henry Clay [KY] Want war w/ britain
Dested handling of american sdailors And the british orders in council and how it hurt western farmers Also wanted to wipe out renewed Indian thereat Henry Clay [KY]

52 Battling Indians in the West
War Hawks believed Brits stirring up Indians in the West. Kentucky Problem Tecumseh and the Prophet (Tenskawatawa). Shawnee Brothers Began a tribal confederacy east of the Mississippi. Attacked Settlers on “their” land.

53 Tecumseh and the Prophet
Purpose of the confederation: Cultural regeneration Stop loss if Indian lands Keep tribes apart from the white man’s culture 23

54 Battle of Tippecanoe (11/1811)
Gov. of Indiana Territory Planned to attack Tecumseh’s headquarters (not there) Prophet attacks w/ small force; defeated Forced an alliance w/ the British William Henry Harrison

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56 Oh! The Lack of Communication
Winter of severest in England’s history British govt under pressure from merchants, businessmen, workers to withdraw Orders in Council Withdrawn on June 16, 1812

57 War of 1812 June 18, militant War Hawks get a declaration of war from Congress, very narrow vote, signaling a dangerous division in the country Federalists strongly opposed Dubbed it “Mr. Madison’s War”

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59 Federalists Democratic-Republicans Yes No 40 98 22

60 Madison’s Reasons Impressment
Repeated violations of US territorial waters by Royal Navy The Orders in Council violate neutral trade

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62 III. The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics
The Federalist Legacy 1. Marshall’s Federalist Law 2. Asserting National Supremacy 3. Upholding Vested Property Rights 4. The Diplomacy of J.Q. Adams 5. Monroe Doctrine The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics C. The Federalist Legacy (Postwar, Republicans split into two opposing camps: “National Republicans” and “Jeffersonian Republicans.”) 1. Marshall’s Federalist Law – John Marshall, Supreme Court Chief Justice; three main principles influenced Marshall’s thinking: 1) judicial authority, 2) supremacy of natural law, 3) traditional property rights. 2. Asserting National Supremacy – dominance of the nation over the state. 3. Upholding Vested Property Right – fearing tyranny of the majority; Marshall advocated protecting the property rights of the individual. 4. The Diplomacy of J.Q. Adams – citizens and political leaders embraced the Republican Party; J.Q. Adams was a member of the Republican Party before the war of 1812 and had negotiated the Treaty of Ghent; Secretary of State under President Monroe. 5. Monroe Doctrine - J.Q. Adams was the architect of the doctrine, which stated the Americas were no longer open for colonization from European Powers and U.S. would not interfere in the internal issue of European nations.

63 The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics
Conflict in the Atlantic and the West 1. The Embargo of 1807 2. Western War Hawks The War of 1812 1. Federalists Oppose the War 2. The War’s End The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics Conflict in the Atlantic and the West 1. The Embargo of 1807 – Napoleonic War in Europe and the Atlantic eventually brought Americans into the conflict; the British navy impressed Americans into service from merchant ships; Embargo Act of 1807 kept American ships from leaving ports until the French and British restrictions had been lifted; American economy weakened; 1808 Madison elected and continued to restrict American trade. 2. Western War Hawks – Republicans from the West blamed Britain; Tecumseh rebuilt the Western Confederacy (Indians) and mobilized his people (and others) for war; violence broke out between native peoples and white Americans, British aided Indians; war broke out between U.S. and Britain June 1812 with U.S. arguing that Britain had violated the nation’s commercial rights. The War of 1812 1. Federalists Oppose the War – failed U.S. invasion of British Canada; U.S. offensive in the West; in East, no invasion of Canada as New England Federalists opposed the war completely; in the North war went poorly; in the Southwest Andrew Jackson (slaveholding planter) was leading militiamen from Tennessee successfully against the British and Spanish-supported Indians; New Englanders continued to oppose the war. 2. The War’s End – war cost the U.S. $88 million and grew increased national debt; 1815 Britain called for peace; Treaty of Ghent (1814) put borders back to pre-war.

64 Indian Battles Nov 1811 General William Henry Harrison (9th president) attacked Tecumseh’s headquarters at Tippecanoe Indiana 1814 Andrew Jackson (7th President) crushed Creek Indians at Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Alabama) Significance?

65 1. Describe the action taking place in this cartoon.
(Answer: a man of Native American heritage is scalping a man on the ground, nearby a scalped man lies dead; a second native hands a fresh scalp to a British officer, on his back a gun with a sign: “Reward for sixteen scalps”; by the head of the British officer it reads: “Bring me the scalps and the King, our master, will reward you”; atop the image reads the heading: “A scene from the frontier as practiced by the human British and their worthy allies.”) 2. What political perspective is depicted in this image? (Answer: anti-British, anti-Indian, supportive of colonial efforts to settle the frontier, despite potential for violence and bloodshed.) 3. How does this image feed into stereotypes of both Native Americans and British soldiers in the eighteenth century? (Answer: the practice of scalping, the over-weight, perhaps over-indulged, British officer, the alliance of the two groups over-simplifies the complex relations that native nations had with the colonists and the British in North America.)

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67 The Strange War of 1812: Early Course
Americans unprepared for war Congress refuses to raise wartime taxes New England refuses to support war effort United States Army small state militias inadequate 1813--U.S. wins control of Great Lakes in Battle of Put-In Bay 24

68 Strange War of 1812: The War’s Conclusion
1814--three-pronged English attack campaign from Canada to Hudson River Valley stopped at Lake Champlain campaign in the Chesapeake results in burning of Washington, siege of Baltimore campaign for New Orleans thwarted by Andrew Jackson, January, 1815 Treaty of Ghent signed December, 1814 25

69 The War of 1812

70 Hartford Convention: The Demise of the Federalists
Federalists convene December, 1814 Proposed Constitutional changes to lessen power of South and West Treaty of Ghent, victory of New Orleans makes Convention appear disloyal Federalist party never recovers 26

71 Treaty of Ghent Ends the War
Most problems left unaddressed Senate unanimously ratifies Treaty of Ghent Americans claim success in a "second war of independence" 27

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73 Republican Legacy Founders begin to pass away in 1820s
Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die July 4, 1826 James Madison dies in 1836 despairs that Declaration’s principles not yet extended to African Americans 28

74 Post War of 1812 Nationalism 1816-1824
“The Era of Good (&Bad) Feelings?”

75 Monroe’s Presidency : Era of Good Feelings
Elections of 1816 and 1820 One Party Politics

76 Henry Clay’s American System
National Bank Protective Tariff Federal Internal Improvements (Transportation)

77 Second Bank of the United States (2nd BUS)

78 The Panic of 1819 Origins of the Panic of 1819
Drop in American foodstuff exports Easy credit and speculative boom in the U.S. Second Bank of the United States Langdon Cheves Nationwide collapse in the economy Rise in unemployment Resentment against the Bank of the United States 5


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