Presentation on theme: "REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSONIAN VISION"— Presentation transcript:
1REPUBLICAN ASCENDANCY: THE JEFFERSONIAN VISION Chapter 8
2Republican Identities in a New Republic An age of rapid population growth7.2 million in 1810; two million more than 180020% black slaveschildren under 16 the largest single groupStrong regional identitiesEarly secession movements threaten national unityThe large population increase was due to natural reproductionChildren under 16 were born after Washington became president
4Westward the Course of Empire Intense migration to West after 1790New StatesKentucky--1792Tennessee--1796Ohio--1803Western regional culture rootless, optimisticThe Mississippi River was key commercial link to the entire WestThe emergence of riverboats – eventually steamboats – to haul goods via river was cheaper than hauling them overland.The development/emergence of “Regional” Views during the Early 19th century2
5Native American Resistance Western settlers compete for Indian landIndians resistTecumseh leads Shawnees, defeatedCreeks defeatedSettlers reject Indian-White coexistenceTecumseh & brother Tenskwatawa(the Prophet) try to resist whiter incursion and attempt to unite the tribes of the Ohio River ValleyUltimately defeated by W.H. Harrison during War of 1812; Creeks also defeated in the southwestern frontier of Georgia/Mississippi Territory by Andrew Jackson (Battle of Horseshoe Bend)White settlers had no intention of “Coexisting” with Indians as GW had suggested; this begins a slow process of Indian Removal and Relocation that will continue until the early 1890’s (accelerated through the West following Civil War)3
6Commercial Life in the Cities Economy based on agriculture and tradeAmerican shipping prospersCities associated with international trade, otherwise marginal role in national lifeIndustrialization and mechanization just beginning to frighten skilled craftsmenJeffersonian economy was not an industrial oneMajor innovation of this period was the agricultural fair (livestock could be bought/sold)Merchant Marine & International Trade key elements of the American economy; Shipping & commerce grow more than 300 percent between (imposition of Jeffersonian Trade Embargo)Cities function as depots for int’l trade/Only about 7% of population lived in urban centersDemand for housing outstripped supply so rents in the cities were quite high4
8Revolution of 1800Election of 1800 arguably the most significant in US History.Why?
9The Federalist Finale Adams was the last Federalist president. Federalist as halfway house between European past and American present.Why didn’t Federalists appeal to more voters?Stayed a party for another 20 years, but never won the presidency.Federalists, like the dinosaurs, couldn’t adapt and so became extinct
10Jefferson’s Political Principles Themes of inauguralJefferson’s political principlesRejected the idea of a political elite.Backbone of democracy was the free, independent farmer.Universal suffrage for white malesSmall government—governs best when it governs least.Strict construction of the Constitution.Landlessness among americans threatened popular democracy.Properttyless would be political pawns of the landowning superiors.How can the emergence of a landless class of voters be avoided? SLAVERYA system of black labor in the South ensured that the white yeoman farmer could remian independent landowners.Without slavery, poor whites would have to [rovide cheap labor so necessary for the cultivation of cash crops and their low wages would prevent them from ever owning property.
11Jeffersonian Restraint Jefferson’s first priority = undue abuses by the Federalists.Pardoned those convicted under the Alien and Sedition ActRepeal Naturalization Act.Repealed the excise tax—cost US 1 Mill. per year in lost revenue.Cuts military spending to the bone (2,500 men)Reduce the national debt (Sec. Gallatin)What does he do to the core of Hamilton’s financial program?
12Jefferson as President Jefferson personifies Republicanism’s contradictionsDespises ceremonies and formalityDedicated to intellectual pursuitsA politician to the coreSuccess depends on cooperation with Congress5
13New Tone to Govt Deliberately informal Fired Federalists who were incompetent or too partisan & replaced w/ RepublicansContinued Cabinet system but didn’t invite divergent opinions6
14John Jay first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Judiciary Act of 1789Created Supreme Court5 Associate Justices, 1 Chief13 judicial districtsCircuit and district courts“writ of mandamus”issued by a superior court to compel a lower court or a government officer to perform mandatory or purely ministerial duties correctlyJohn Jay first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
15Judiciary Act of 1801 Last ditch effort to hold power “midnight judges”.Chief Justice John MarshallShaped American legal tradition and meaning of the Constitution more profoundly than any other single figure.Served as Chief Justice for 34 years
16Attack on the Judges: Judiciary Act Judiciary Act of creates new circuit courts filled with loyal Federalists1802--Jeffersonians repeal Judiciary Act of 1801 to abolish courtsFederalists charge violation of judges’ Constitutional right of tenure12
17Marbury v Madison The single most important SC case in history Basic Facts“Writ of Mandamus”RulingJudicial ReviewConsequences
18Attack on the Judges: Impeachments 1803--Federalist John Pickering impeached, removed for alcoholism, insanityJefferson seeks to impeach Federalist Samuel ChaseRepublican Senate refuses to convict14
20Jefferson Turns Warrior Jefferson attitude and actions toward army and navy.North African Barbary Pirates“Shores of Tripoli”Mosquito fleet
21Conflict With the Barbary States US and other European countries paid a tribute to the North African states in the MediterraneanJefferson dispatches U.S. fleet to “negotiate through the mouth of a cannon” in 18011805: Treaty; $60,000 for each prisoner1815: extortion finally ended after a 2nd war10
22Jefferson and Louisiana The Westward Movement and the Jeffersonian RevolutionThe Jeffersonian Presidency1. Policies – Jefferson’s presidency began the “Virginia Dynasty” of Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe ( ); all three actively supported westward expansion; Jefferson reduced the size of the permanent army.2. Marbury v. Madison – 1808 Supreme Court decision. The Supreme Court did not have the constitutional power to enforce legislation, but did have the power to review legislation and interpret the Constitution.Jefferson and the West1. The Louisiana Purchase – Jefferson wanted it to be easier for farm families to acquire land in the west; 1801 Napoleon signed a secret treaty with Spain that regained Louisiana for France; coupled with revolt in Haiti against French rule, Jefferson began to fear relationship with France, made efforts to purchase New Orleans (ultimately all of Louisiana); Jefferson believed this would force Indian population further west.2. Secessionist Schemes – New England Federalists considered leaving the Union after Louisiana Purchase to form a confederacy of northeastern states, supported by the VP Aaron Burr; Hamilton accused Burr of planning to destroy the Union, a duel occurred between the men and Hamilton was killed; Burr was later acquitted of treason.3. Lewis and Clark Meet the Mandan and Sioux – 1804 Jefferson sent his secretary Meriwether Lewis and army officer William Clark to explore the Louisiana region; came into contact with Mandan and Sioux peoples; continued traveling further (1,300 miles) into unknown territories; gave to Jefferson the first maps of the western wilderness, its resources and inhabitants.
23Jefferson and Louisiana LA back in the hands of the FrenchSpain rescinds the right of depositBonaparte dreams of empireSanto Domingo in revolt; Bonaparte sends 20,000 menTJ offers $10 mil for New Orleans and West FLIf we don’t get New Orleans, then TJ needs alliance w/ BritainFrench defeated
24Jefferson and Louisiana Napoleon to resume war w/ Britain.Needs cashWould deny LA territory to BritishReduces chances of US/British allianceSold to US for $15,000,000
25The Louisiana Purchase Constitution doesn’t grant power to President to add new territoryHe suggests an amendmentBUT delay may make Napoleon change mindFederalists all of a sudden become strict constructionistsReal issue was the growth of Western states which could be expected to be RepublicanWhat is the precedent set here?7
27The Lewis and Clark Expedition Lewis and Clark Expedition commissioned prior to purchase of LouisianaExpedition left St. Louis May 1804 and reached the Pacific Ocean November 1805Report on Louisiana’s economic promise confirms Jefferson's desire to purchase8
28The Louisiana Purchase and the Route of Lewis and Clark
29II. The Westward Movement and the Jeffersonian Revolution The Expanding Republic and Native American Resistance1. Conflict over Land Rights2. Assimilation RejectedThe Westward Movement and the Jeffersonian RevolutionThe Expanding Republic and Native American Resistance1. Conflict over Land Rights – disagreements continued in the west; government asserted control over trans-Appalachia West arguing that the natives who lived there were “conquered”; Indians disagreed because they had not signed the Treaty of Paris; native peoples were forced to cede land in New York and Pennsylvania, were bribed to supply additional land; conflict between allying native groups, white settlers, and the U.S. Army; Greenville Treaty ceded most of Ohio to U.S. and started a wave of migration from the east; by 1805 Ohio was a state with more than 100,000 people.2. Assimilation Rejected – to prevent conflict, U.S. government encouraged assimilation to white culture; some converted to Christianity but kept their cultural practices.
32Jefferson’s Critics Dispute over federal court system Conflicts between RepublicansSectional dispute over the slave trade11
33Politics of Desperation: “Tertium Quids” "Tertium Quids" claim pure RepublicanismAttack Jefferson as sacrificing virtue for pragmatism15
34Politics of Desperation: The Yazoo Controversy fraudulent land case in GeorgiaJefferson attempts to settle by providing land to innocent partiesQuids complain settlement condones fraudFletcher v. Peck (1810)Marshall court upholds Jefferson’s settlementcourt may nullify unconstitutional state laws
35Murder and Conspiracy: The Curious Career of Aaron Burr Vice-President Aaron Burr dropped by TJ after 1st term1804--Burr, NY and secessionist New England FederalistsAlexander Hamilton blocks Burr’s effortsThe Duel16
37The Burr Conspiracy Burr flees West after Hamilton duel Schemes to detach West from US and invade Spanish Mexico and FLBurr arrested, tried for treasonJohn Marshall acquits on Constitutional grounds of insufficient evidencePrecedent makes it difficult for presidents to use charge of treason as a political tool17
38Embarrassments Overseas : increase in trade from 100,000 to 1,000,000 tons1803--England and France resume warAmerican ships subject to seizureby England through “Orders in Council"by Napoleon through Berlin, Milan DecreesViolation of major US foreign policy: “Freedom of the Seas”19
39America: A Neutral Power? England impresses over US sailors betweenEngland refused to stop.
41What to do? Large scale foreign war goes against our policy Navy weak Army almost non-existentDefeat would have devastating impact on USEurope depended heavily on US tradeCutting off exports would force England and France to bow to US pressure and allow us to trade
43Embargo Most people HATED it. Why?. New England Federalist particularly madWhat did they argue?Consequences:Three times more costly that war would have been.Ultimately did help New England factories.Fostered American industry.Ruined U.S. Shipping (merchant marine)Why the embargo failed?overestimated European dependence on American goodsUnderestimated the BritishBumper grain crop in british islesMost of europe under napoleons control so he could afford to tighten beltEmbargo not strictly enforced
44Non-Intercourse Act 3/1809: Embargo Act repealed Non-Intercourse Act No trade w/ England and FranceWould expire in 1810Non-Intercourse Act did hurt England, and they repealed Orders in Council, but too late to avoid War of 1812
45Embargo Divides the Nation 1807--Congress prohibits U.S. ships from leaving portPurpose: to win English, French respect for American rightsEmbargo unpopular at homedetailed government oversight of commercearmy suppresses smugglingNew England economy damaged20
47James Madison Became 4th President in 1809. 5-4, 100 lb., weak voice. Very distinguished career:Cont. Congress, Congressman, Const. Convention, Sec. of State.Not very successful as President. Party broken by factions; Madison- not a strong leader.Dolly Madison, first true First Lady who acted as social hostess.
48Madison: Dupe Of Napoleon 5/1810: Macon’s Bill No. 2If you recognize US neutral rights, then we won’t trade with your enemyShowed we couldn’t survive w/o commercial dependenceNapoleon tricks MadisonSets US on course antagonistic to England.We re-establish embargo against Britain
49A New Administration Goes to War 1808--James Madison elected President1809--Embargo repealed in favor of Non-Intercourse ActU.S. will resume trade with England and France on promise to cease seizure of U.S. vessels21
50A New Administration Goes to War (2) Madison reopens English trade on unconfirmed promise of British ministerEnglish reject agreement, seize U.S. ships that opened trade with England
51“War Hawks” John C. Calhoun [SC] Henry Clay [KY] Want war w/ britain Dested handling of american sdailorsAnd the british orders in council and how it hurt western farmersAlso wanted to wipe out renewed Indian thereatHenry Clay [KY]
52Battling Indians in the West War Hawks believed Brits stirring up Indians in the West.Kentucky ProblemTecumsehand the Prophet (Tenskawatawa).Shawnee BrothersBegan a tribal confederacy east of the Mississippi.Attacked Settlers on “their” land.
53Tecumseh and the Prophet Purpose of the confederation:Cultural regenerationStop loss if Indian landsKeep tribes apart from the white man’s culture23
54Battle of Tippecanoe (11/1811) Gov. of Indiana TerritoryPlanned to attack Tecumseh’s headquarters (not there)Prophet attacks w/ small force; defeatedForced an alliance w/ the BritishWilliam Henry Harrison
62III. The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics The Federalist Legacy1. Marshall’s Federalist Law2. Asserting National Supremacy3. Upholding Vested Property Rights4. The Diplomacy of J.Q. Adams5. Monroe DoctrineThe War of 1812 and the Transformation of PoliticsC. The Federalist Legacy (Postwar, Republicans split into two opposing camps: “National Republicans” and “Jeffersonian Republicans.”)1. Marshall’s Federalist Law – John Marshall, Supreme Court Chief Justice; three main principles influenced Marshall’s thinking: 1) judicial authority, 2) supremacy of natural law, 3) traditional property rights.2. Asserting National Supremacy – dominance of the nation over the state.3. Upholding Vested Property Right – fearing tyranny of the majority; Marshall advocated protecting the property rights of the individual.4. The Diplomacy of J.Q. Adams – citizens and political leaders embraced the Republican Party; J.Q. Adams was a member of the Republican Party before the war of 1812 and had negotiated the Treaty of Ghent; Secretary of State under President Monroe.5. Monroe Doctrine - J.Q. Adams was the architect of the doctrine, which stated the Americas were no longer open for colonization from European Powers and U.S. would not interfere in the internal issue of European nations.
63The War of 1812 and the Transformation of Politics Conflict in the Atlantic and the West1. The Embargo of 18072. Western War HawksThe War of 18121. Federalists Oppose the War2. The War’s EndThe War of 1812 and the Transformation of PoliticsConflict in the Atlantic and the West1. The Embargo of 1807 – Napoleonic War in Europe and the Atlantic eventually brought Americans into the conflict; the British navy impressed Americans into service from merchant ships; Embargo Act of 1807 kept American ships from leaving ports until the French and British restrictions had been lifted; American economy weakened; 1808 Madison elected and continued to restrict American trade.2. Western War Hawks – Republicans from the West blamed Britain; Tecumseh rebuilt the Western Confederacy (Indians) and mobilized his people (and others) for war; violence broke out between native peoples and white Americans, British aided Indians; war broke out between U.S. and Britain June 1812 with U.S. arguing that Britain had violated the nation’s commercial rights.The War of 18121. Federalists Oppose the War – failed U.S. invasion of British Canada; U.S. offensive in the West; in East, no invasion of Canada as New England Federalists opposed the war completely; in the North war went poorly; in the Southwest Andrew Jackson (slaveholding planter) was leading militiamen from Tennessee successfully against the British and Spanish-supported Indians; New Englanders continued to oppose the war.2. The War’s End – war cost the U.S. $88 million and grew increased national debt; 1815 Britain called for peace; Treaty of Ghent (1814) put borders back to pre-war.
64Indian BattlesNov 1811 General William Henry Harrison (9th president) attacked Tecumseh’s headquarters at Tippecanoe Indiana1814 Andrew Jackson (7th President) crushed Creek Indians at Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Alabama)Significance?
651. Describe the action taking place in this cartoon. (Answer: a man of Native American heritage is scalping a man on the ground, nearby a scalped man lies dead; a second native hands a fresh scalp to a British officer, on his back a gun with a sign: “Reward for sixteen scalps”; by the head of the British officer it reads: “Bring me the scalps and the King, our master, will reward you”; atop the image reads the heading: “A scene from the frontier as practiced by the human British and their worthy allies.”)2. What political perspective is depicted in this image?(Answer: anti-British, anti-Indian, supportive of colonial efforts to settle the frontier, despite potential for violence and bloodshed.)3. How does this image feed into stereotypes of both Native Americans and British soldiers in the eighteenth century?(Answer: the practice of scalping, the over-weight, perhaps over-indulged, British officer, the alliance of the two groups over-simplifies the complex relations that native nations had with the colonists and the British in North America.)
67The Strange War of 1812: Early Course Americans unprepared for warCongress refuses to raise wartime taxesNew England refuses to support war effortUnited States Army smallstate militias inadequate1813--U.S. wins control of Great Lakes in Battle of Put-In Bay24
68Strange War of 1812: The War’s Conclusion 1814--three-pronged English attackcampaign from Canada to Hudson River Valley stopped at Lake Champlaincampaign in the Chesapeake results in burning of Washington, siege of Baltimorecampaign for New Orleans thwarted by Andrew Jackson, January, 1815Treaty of Ghent signed December, 181425
70Hartford Convention: The Demise of the Federalists Federalists convene December, 1814Proposed Constitutional changes to lessen power of South and WestTreaty of Ghent, victory of New Orleans makes Convention appear disloyalFederalist party never recovers26
71Treaty of Ghent Ends the War Most problems left unaddressedSenate unanimously ratifies Treaty of GhentAmericans claim success in a "second war of independence"27
73Republican Legacy Founders begin to pass away in 1820s Thomas Jefferson and John Adams both die July 4, 1826James Madison dies in 1836despairs that Declaration’s principles not yet extended to African Americans28
74Post War of 1812 Nationalism 1816-1824 “The Era of Good(&Bad) Feelings?”
75Monroe’s Presidency : Era of Good Feelings Elections of 1816 and 1820One Party Politics
76Henry Clay’s American System National BankProtective TariffFederal Internal Improvements (Transportation)
78The Panic of 1819 Origins of the Panic of 1819 Drop in American foodstuff exportsEasy credit and speculative boom in the U.S.Second Bank of the United StatesLangdon ChevesNationwide collapse in the economyRise in unemploymentResentment against the Bank of the United States5