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The Ethics behind a Countrys Response and Responsibility to Dealing with Emerging Diseases Wolf, Steven AP Biology Period 3 June 11.

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Presentation on theme: "The Ethics behind a Countrys Response and Responsibility to Dealing with Emerging Diseases Wolf, Steven AP Biology Period 3 June 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Ethics behind a Countrys Response and Responsibility to Dealing with Emerging Diseases Wolf, Steven AP Biology Period 3 June 11

2 Emerging Diseases Def: a disease that has appeared in a population for the first time, or that may have existed previously but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range (Emerging Diseases, World Health Organization). Def: a disease that has appeared in a population for the first time, or that may have existed previously but is rapidly increasing in incidence or geographic range (Emerging Diseases, World Health Organization). Examples: AIDS/HIV, Ebola, Avian Flu Examples: AIDS/HIV, Ebola, Avian Flu

3 AIDS/HIV HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) Targets and destroys Helper T cells and CD4 cells (immunodeficiency) Targets and destroys Helper T cells and CD4 cells (immunodeficiency) AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) - final stage of HIV AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) - final stage of HIV All over the world All over the world sexually transmitted infection (STI) sexually transmitted infection (STI) Hard to treat because rapidly mutating Hard to treat because rapidly mutating Prevent transmission Prevent transmission –Abstinence –Condoms –HIV Tests –Medication to stop transmission across the placenta

4 Ebola Common name for severe hemorrhagic fever Common name for severe hemorrhagic fever Caused by a filovirus- loop Caused by a filovirus- loop Extremely fatal (up to 90%) fatality Extremely fatal (up to 90%) fatality Causes sever hemorrhagic bleeding Causes sever hemorrhagic bleeding Transmission: by blood in humans Transmission: by blood in humans Disease spreads quickly in poor African countries where they reuse needles Disease spreads quickly in poor African countries where they reuse needles Treatment Treatment –Isolation (barrier nursing techniques) –proper hydration & nutrition –watch blood pressure –no known vaccine/cure Several types, could still be mutating (ex: Zaire, Reston) Several types, could still be mutating (ex: Zaire, Reston)

5 Avian Flu formally known as avian influenza, may hear bird flu formally known as avian influenza, may hear bird flu in domestic birds, ex: chickens, turkey, duck, may cause sickness and death in domestic birds, ex: chickens, turkey, duck, may cause sickness and death Transmission in birds, contact with: Transmission in birds, contact with: –feces –Shedding –Saliva –Other excretions sometimes low fatality, but could reach percent in 48 hours sometimes low fatality, but could reach percent in 48 hours H5N1 most deadly of avian influenza viruses in birds H5N1 most deadly of avian influenza viruses in birds There have been cases of transmission to humans through close contact with contaminated specimens or birds There have been cases of transmission to humans through close contact with contaminated specimens or birds Inefficient spread from human to human Inefficient spread from human to human More than half of people infected with disease have died, because little immune response More than half of people infected with disease have died, because little immune response currently there is a vaccine approved by FDA for one type of H5N1 virus currently there is a vaccine approved by FDA for one type of H5N1 virus –added to US stockpile, not to public –will be distributed in case of pandemic

6 Question 1: What responsibility does a country have to find a cure for an emerging disease? Medical testing on animals Medical testing on animals –Pro: Humans dont get harmed Humans dont get harmed Testing on living being over time advantage over computer simulations Testing on living being over time advantage over computer simulations –Con: Do not show similarities between humans and animals because differences are to great (ex: Phen Fen) Do not show similarities between humans and animals because differences are to great (ex: Phen Fen) Computer programs are good alternatives Computer programs are good alternatives –Pro: Because best to save human lives (comps. are not a replacement for living specimens; living specimens code comps.)

7 Question 1: What responsibility does a country have to find a cure for an emerging disease? Medical Testing on Humans Medical Testing on Humans –Pro: Rigid testing procedure Rigid testing procedure Humans show side effects after long term use Humans show side effects after long term use Informed consent Informed consent –Con The size of reward to finding cure often makes researchers ignore human subjects (ex: Tuskegee Syphilis Study, ) The size of reward to finding cure often makes researchers ignore human subjects (ex: Tuskegee Syphilis Study, )

8 Question 2: Once a cure is found, should it be given to other countries? Pro: Pro: –Gain information on spread of disease and effectiveness of cure –Strengthen diplomatic ties –Supporters: Me Me Con Con –May run out of treatment for own country –carrying capacity acting on population growth, dont interfere w/ nature –Its up to them to make there own stockpile of drugs –Supporters: Mr. Fazio Mr. Fazio

9 Question 3: What responsibility does a country has to help its own country ? South African inmates hunger strike South African inmates hunger strike –do they need to provide HIV testing and treatment –Criminals vs. citizens Myanmar refuses help from other countries Myanmar refuses help from other countries –May 2 cyclone devastates Irrawaddy Delta –Until May 26, 2008, military Junta refused help –Would they accept help in an epidemic?


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