Presentation on theme: "Chapter 9 Evolution Barrons Book. Microevolution House sparrows have adapted to the climate of North America, ] mosquitoes have evolved in response to."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 9 Evolution Barrons Book
Microevolution House sparrows have adapted to the climate of North America, ] mosquitoes have evolved in response to global warming, and insects have evolved resistance to our pesticides. These are all examples of microevolution evolution on a small scale.
Anagenesis vs. Cladogenesis
Evidence for Evolution We will discuss FIVE
Fossil Record Transitional fossils
Comparative Anatomy Homologous
Molecular Biology Cytochrome C – polypeptide (amino acid sequence)
Most of the 140 species of marsupials in Australia are found nowhere else in the world.140 species of marsupials in Australia
Worldwide Distribution of the Order Marsupiala Common Names Scientific Name No. Gen era No. Speci es Distribution OppossumsDidelphidae1270Americas Marsupial Mice, Marsupial Cats, Tasmanian Devil Dasyuridae1450Australasia Tasmanian WolfThylacinidae11Tasmania Numbats/Banded Anteaters Myrmecobiida e 11Australia BandicootsPeramelidae818Australasia Shrew Oppossums Caenolestida e 37South America Possums, Cuscuses, Gledero, Ringtails Phalangerida e 1340Australasia Noolkanger or Honey PossumTarsipedidae11Australia Koalas Phoscolaratid ae 11Australia WombatsVombatidae24Australia Kangaroo/Wallabies, Potoroos, Rat Kangaroos Macrophodid ae 1547Australasia
Bi-nomial nomenclature Homo sapiens Lizardus Dominicanus
Hutton and Lyell
Lamarck acquired characteristics
Alfred Wallace Published an essay discussing natural selection, prompting Darwin to publish his book
Charles Darwin Early 1840s theory is worked out Publishes On the origin of Species in 1859
4 tenets of natural selection Over population
Types of Selection Stabilizing
MRSA - The deadliest form of Staph MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus Staph bacteria that are resistant to the action of methicillin and related antibiotics are referred to as MRSA MRSA are not only resistant to all penicillin-like antibiotics, but they are often resistant to many other types of antibiotics as well. Infections with MRSA can be costly and difficult to treat because of limited antibiotic options. The proportion of staph infections that are methicillin-resistant has been steadily increasing, especially in the last years. By 2003, the percentage of MRSA among all staph isolates had risen three-fold to 38.6%. Almost 40% of staph found is MRSA now! MRSA is spread by physical contact, person to person, or person to contaminated object MRSA symptoms for the most part, not different from any other staph infection Diagnosis is confirmed by identifying the bacteria grown in a laboratory culture from a sample. The sample may be from a sterile site, such as blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or from a non-sterile site such as a draining lesion or a swab of the back of the nose.
Sexual Selection sexual dimorphism bestows upon the females a large, pink, pillowy buttocks
Sources of Variation in Population 100s of breeds of dogs…1 species, demonstrates the tremendous potential for variation …extent of variability, is a major determinant of capacity for evolution
Balanced Polymorphism Two phenotypes in one species, each better for its own environment
Mutations Provide new alleles in gene pool Adaptations
Sexual Reproduction Provides variation
Independent assortment of chromosomes
Random Fertilization A zygote is formed by the random union of independently- produced gametes. For humans, the number of different gametes is 223 * 223, or 8,388,6082, giving 70,368,744,177,664 (70 trillion) possible combinations.
Outbreeding Mating organisms that are not closely related…. Is that bad or good?
Promotion of Outbreeding Flowering plants..male and female parts mature at different times Lions---dominant male chases away young maturing males…
Diploidy 2n condition, whole other set of genes that could be an advantage when conditions change
Heterozygote superiority Hybrids have an advantage ** Population retains greater variation Ex sickle cell anemia Ss- no sickle cell, and resistance to malaria SS no sickle cell, die from malaria ss has sickle cell, and may die from that
Frequency Dependent Selection Minority advantage Decrease frequency of more common phenotypes Ex.) Search image….predators are used to chasing prey that looks a certain way, if you look different you and your young will survive…