4AP World ThemesPatterns and impacts or interaction among major societies: trade, war, diplomacy, and international organizationsThe relationship of change and continuity across the world history periods covered in this course.Impact of technology and demography on people and the environment (population growth and decline, disease, manufacturing, migrations, agriculture, weaponry).
5Themes continuedSystems of social structure and gender structure (comparing major features within and among societies and assessing change).Cultural and intellectual developments and interactions among and within societies.Changes in functions and structures of states and in attitudes toward stat4es and political identities (political culture), including the emergence of the nation-state (types of political organization).
6Habits of Mind First Category Constructing and evaluating arguments Using docs & other primary data: developing the skills necessary to analyze p.o.v., context, bias, and to understand and interpret informationDeveloping the ability to assess issues of change and continuity over timeEnhancing the capacity to handle diversity of interpretations through analysis of context, bias, and frame of reference
7Habits of Mind Second Category Seeing global patterns over time and space while also acquiring the ability to connect local developments to global ones and to move through levels of generalizations from the global to the particularDeveloping the ability to compare within and among societies, including comparing societies reactions to global processesDeveloping the ability to assess claims of universal standards yet remaining aware of human commonalities and differences; putting culturally diverse ideas and values in historical context, not suspending judgment but developing understanding.
8CHRONOLOGY OF THE COURSE Foundations: 8,000 BCE CE600 CE – 14501450 – 17501750 – 19141914 – the presentTHESE ARE YOUR TIME “BREAKS”
9FOUNDATIONS: 8,000 BCE – 600 CE Overview What is civilization?Time: periodization in early human historySources of change: connection/diffusion vs. independent invention?Development of agricultureEarly Civilizations- culture, state, social structures of: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley (all in ch. 1), China (ch. 2), Mesoamerica / Andean South America (ch. 2)Classical Civilizations- China (ch. 5), India (ch.6), Greece (ch.4), Rome (ch.5)Major Belief Systems: Polytheism, Hinduism, Judaism, Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, ChristianityCollapse of empires- Han, RomeThe Big Picture
10WHAT IS CIVILIZATION?Forms of complex social and cultural development characterized by innovative agric tech, demographic density, settled patterns of habitation in towns or cities, trade networks, hierarchical polit/soc systems and the spread of it all….Spread of influence through trade and conquest
11PERIODIZATION IN HUMAN HISTORY Pre-8,000 BCE: Nomads8,000 BCE—3,000 BCE: Neolithic or Agricultural Revolution--move to settled agriculture b/c of cultivation of plants, domestication of animalsEarly Civilizations: 3,000 BCE--Classical Civilizations: differed by region, roughly 2,000 BCE (Mediterranean); 300—500 BCE (India and China)Late Classical: 200 CE—600 CE, marked by collapse of great civilizations
12DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE Nomads: follow food & look for shelterForagers (Hu & Gath):Small grps; tied to natureFew possessionsPastoral: domesticate animals; follow water/food for herdsSHIFT TO Agricultural Revolution (Neolithic)Domesticate plantsSettled communitiesProperty ownershipFood surplusSpecializationComplex, organized societies
13MESOPOTAMIA “land b/t the rivers” Tigris & Euphrates Sumer: 1st major Mes. CivCuneiform writing- laws, soc/relig customsTrade: spread cuneiform via wheelPolytheistic, zigguratsBabylon: Code of Hammurabi, justice, application of laws to everyone*Diffusion of cultural heritage, relig, laws, customs, technology through time. Adoption and adaptation by conquering civilizations
15ANCIENT EGYPT Social pyramid: Nile FloodingPharaohs, hieroglyphicsDependency on trade for timber & stone from building projectsPolytheistic- pyramids for the afterlife1st Female ruler in history, Queen Hatshepsut: more rights than Mesopotamia, though subservient to menSocial pyramid:Pharaoh-> priests-> nobles-> merchants/artisans-> peasants-> slavesExpansion of empire: became vulnerable to invasion
17INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS 2500 BCE—1500 BCE contact limited b/c of geography: Northwest IndiaPolytheisticAryan dominance: relig belief in reincarnation- foundation of HinduismCaste system combined w/ HinduismRigid system, no social mobility
18SHANG CHINA 1600—1100 BCE (remember the dynasty song?) Yellow River valleyTrade-centered, though limited contact w/ outside worldShaped ethnocentric worldview, center of the worldSpoked wheel, pottery and silkDecimal system, calendarZhou Dynasty BCEMandate of HeavenFeudal system: king, nobles to run the ctryBureaucracies
19MESOAMERICA & ANDEAN SOUTH AMERICA Olmec- Mexico; urban. Corn, beans, squash from irrigation techniques; polytheisticChavin- Andes Mtns; urban, sea access; metal tools and weaponsKey points:developed independently of other civ during same time periodNot in river valleys
20CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS: China, India, Greece, Rome 300 BCE—500 CEFour empires of India and China:Mauryan in India BCEGupta in India CEQin China 221—209 BCEHan China 200 BCE-200 CE
21India: The Mauryan Empire 321-180 BCE Aryan culture and belief systems spread throughout IndiaSmall Aryan kingdoms united by Chandragupta MauryaHis grandson, Ashoka greatest leaderTrade in silk, cotton, elephants; strong militaryAshoka converted to Buddhism– preached nonviolenceConversion helped spread B’ism in India and SE Asia
22The Gupta Dynasty in India 320-467 CE Decentralized & smaller than MauryanGolden Age: relative peace & advances in art and sciencesUse of iron for tools and weaponryHinduism reasserts dominance, B’ism absorbed into itCaste system and women:Strict social structuresLoss of rights– couldn’t own prop, study relig, participate in sacred ritualsChild marriage at 6 or 7 yrs old
23The Qin Dynasty in China 221—209 BCE Strong agricultural economyPowerful army w/ iron weaponsConquered territories & unified regionBuilt Great Wall of China = organization, centralized, standardization of weights, writing. No dissentPatriarchalLegalism: tough, rigid laws; rewards & punishments; strong gov’t, unquestioned authority
24HAN CHINA 200 BCE—200 CEWu Ti “warrior emperor”, enlarged empire to central AsiaTrade along Silk Road to Med. Sea; transmission of Buddhism and cultureCivil service system: highly educated gov’t w/ skilled workersExam: only wealthy could prepare, gov’t bureaucracy w/ stabilityInvention of paper, calendars, use of metals
25Greece 2000 BCE—336 BCEGeography: ¾ mtns; peninsula in Aegean Sea; trade via sea, contact w/ Mediterranean peoples; cultural diffusionSociety: city-states (polis) independentReligion: Greek Mythology, “humanized”Athens: political, commercial, cultural center of G civSparta: military, disciplined,
26The Polis Three groups in polis: Citizens: adult males Free people w/ no political rightsNoncitizens (slaves, 1/3 of people in Athens, no rights)Civic decisions made through debateNot a true democracy– only adult malesExistence of slavery allowed for Greeks to develop democracy
27Golden Age of Athens and Alexander the Great Persian Wars united all city-states, era of peace and prosperity under PericlesCultural center, democracy for all adult malesDelian League: alliance led by AthensPhilosophers: S->P->A rational thought, observationArts & science gains inspired later Euro Renaissance, EnlightenmentAthens defeated by Sparta in Peloponnesian WarMacedonians invade– Alex the Great expanded empire to India (Antigonid, Ptolemaic, Seleucid regions)Hellenism: culture, ideals, and pattern of life of Classical Greece spread throughout Alex’s empire and remained
28Rome 509 BCE--476 CE Geography: peninsula, crossroads of Med Sea Social (Roman Republic): patricians- land-owning nobles; plebians- all other free menRepresentative Republic: Senate (patrician families) & Assembly (patricians, then plebians); governed w/ two consuls12 Tables: civil laws, “innocent until guilty”Family: pater familias; women could own prop, though inferiorSlavery, 1/3 of pop at one time; came from conquered territory
29Rome continued…Military: able to conquer Carthage, control W. Med regionRepublic to Empire:Displacement of small farmers to citiesInflation, plebians poor1st Triumvirate: Pompey, Crassus, CaesarCaesar: emperor for lifeAugustus: Pax RomanaGrowth of area and arts and sciencesReligon: Republic, paganism, (polytheist)Christianity challenged Roman authority. Both Jews & Christians persecuted by RomansConstantine converts 312 CE, official religion of RomeCollapse: empire divided W & E by Diocletian; Constantine moved capital to Byzantium;
30COLLAPSE OF EMPIRES: Han China & Rome Internal: economic depression, social unrest, natural disastersExternal: invading armiesChina: internal collapse; military expenses; rich/poor tensions; famineRome: both! Empire divided, inflation, civil war; invasions by Visigoths, Huns
31MAJOR BELIEF SYSTEMS Polytheism Confucianism Daoism Legalism Hinduism BuddhismJudaismChristianityWhat are the basic, overall principles of each?What impact did each have on soc, polit, cultural, military developments?Did it spread? Where and how? Conflict w/ other religions?
32INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS OF TRADE AND RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION CESilk Road: China to Rome; interactions along the way w/ settled, pastoral communitiesMed. Sea tradeCulture, language, religion, goods, diseaseIndian Ocean Trade Network
34THE BIG PICTURE: Civilizations AgricultureWritten languageUse of metalsFood surpluses, specializationPeriod of peace and prosperity: no rivals, devotion to arts/sciences “golden age”Collapse: internal/external pressures
35SOURCES OF CHANGE: Connection/Diffusion vs. Independent invention Cultural Diffusion: change in society b/c of interaction w/ another culture/societyMost common- trade & conquestUse of wheel and ironIndependent invention: new invention or use of something in new way;Innovation & adaptation: inventions spread, borrowed stuff adapted to own needs
36HUMANS VS. NATURE Irrigation, canals, plowing Development of civ: dealt w/ nature better, threats from other civilizationsReligion: from appeasing gods to internal peace, salvation
37MAJOR COMPARISONS: knowledge of these will improve essays!!! Compare major religious and philosophical systems in terms of social hierarchy (Hinduism contrasted w/ ConfucianismRole of women in diff’t belief systemsHow and why the collapse of empire more severe in western Europe than in eastern Mediterranean and China
38MAJOR COMPARSIONS con’t… Compare caste system to other systems of social inequality in early and classical civilizationsCompare the development of traditions and institutions in major civilizations, e.g., Indian, Chinese, GreekDescribe interregional trading system, e.g., Indian Ocean trade