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Presentation on theme: "AP REVIEW SESSION FOUNDATIONS UNIT: 8,000 BCE – 600 CE."— Presentation transcript:


2 AP WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL REGIONS Be able to recognize and name the various regions of the world In using the AP Time Periods, have a general understanding of what countries existed in the various regions


4 AP World Themes 1.Patterns and impacts or interaction among major societies: trade, war, diplomacy, and international organizations 2.The relationship of change and continuity across the world history periods covered in this course. 3.Impact of technology and demography on people and the environment (population growth and decline, disease, manufacturing, migrations, agriculture, weaponry).

5 Themes continued 4.Systems of social structure and gender structure (comparing major features within and among societies and assessing change). 5.Cultural and intellectual developments and interactions among and within societies. 6.Changes in functions and structures of states and in attitudes toward stat4es and political identities (political culture), including the emergence of the nation-state (types of political organization).

6 Habits of Mind First Category Constructing and evaluating arguments Using docs & other primary data: developing the skills necessary to analyze p.o.v., context, bias, and to understand and interpret information Developing the ability to assess issues of change and continuity over time Enhancing the capacity to handle diversity of interpretations through analysis of context, bias, and frame of reference

7 Habits of Mind Second Category Seeing global patterns over time and space while also acquiring the ability to connect local developments to global ones and to move through levels of generalizations from the global to the particular Developing the ability to compare within and among societies, including comparing societies reactions to global processes Developing the ability to assess claims of universal standards yet remaining aware of human commonalities and differences; putting culturally diverse ideas and values in historical context, not suspending judgment but developing understanding.

8 CHRONOLOGY OF THE COURSE Foundations: 8,000 BCE CE 600 CE – – – – the present THESE ARE YOUR TIME BREAKS

9 FOUNDATIONS: 8,000 BCE – 600 CE Overview What is civilization? Time: periodization in early human history Sources of change: connection/diffusion vs. independent invention? Development of agriculture Early Civilizations- culture, state, social structures of: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley (all in ch. 1), China (ch. 2), Mesoamerica / Andean South America (ch. 2) Classical Civilizations- China (ch. 5), India (ch.6), Greece (ch.4), Rome (ch.5) Major Belief Systems: Polytheism, Hinduism, Judaism, Confucianism, Daoism, Buddhism, Christianity Collapse of empires- Han, Rome The Big Picture

10 WHAT IS CIVILIZATION? Forms of complex social and cultural development characterized by innovative agric tech, demographic density, settled patterns of habitation in towns or cities, trade networks, hierarchical polit/soc systems and the spread of it all…. Spread of influence through trade and conquest

11 PERIODIZATION IN HUMAN HISTORY Pre-8,000 BCE: Nomads 8,000 BCE3,000 BCE: Neolithic or Agricultural Revolution --move to settled agriculture b/c of cultivation of plants, domestication of animals Early Civilizations: 3,000 BCE-- Classical Civilizations: differed by region, roughly 2,000 BCE (Mediterranean); BCE (India and China) Late Classical: 200 CE600 CE, marked by collapse of great civilizations

12 DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE Nomads: follow food & look for shelter Foragers (Hu & Gath): Small grps; tied to nature Few possessions Pastoral: domesticate animals; follow water/food for herds SHIFT TO Agricultural Revolution (Neolithic) Domesticate plants Settled communities Property ownership Food surplus Specialization Complex, organized societies

13 MESOPOTAMIA land b/t the rivers Tigris & Euphrates Sumer: 1 st major Mes. Civ Cuneiform writing- laws, soc/relig customs Trade: spread cuneiform via wheel Polytheistic, ziggurats Babylon: Code of Hammurabi, justice, application of laws to everyone *Diffusion of cultural heritage, relig, laws, customs, technology through time. Adoption and adaptation by conquering civilizations


15 ANCIENT EGYPT Nile Flooding Pharaohs, hieroglyphics Dependency on trade for timber & stone from building projects Polytheistic- pyramids for the afterlife 1 st Female ruler in history, Queen Hatshepsut: more rights than Mesopotamia, though subservient to men Social pyramid: Pharaoh-> priests-> nobles-> merchants/artisans-> peasants-> slaves Expansion of empire: became vulnerable to invasion


17 INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS 2500 BCE1500 BCE contact limited b/c of geography: Northwest India Polytheistic Aryan dominance: relig belief in reincarnation- foundation of Hinduism Caste system combined w/ Hinduism Rigid system, no social mobility

18 SHANG CHINA BCE (remember the dynasty song?) Yellow River valley Trade-centered, though limited contact w/ outside world Shaped ethnocentric worldview, center of the world Spoked wheel, pottery and silk Decimal system, calendar Zhou Dynasty BCE Mandate of Heaven Feudal system: king, nobles to run the ctry Bureaucracies

19 MESOAMERICA & ANDEAN SOUTH AMERICA Olmec- Mexico; urban. Corn, beans, squash from irrigation techniques; polytheistic Chavin- Andes Mtns; urban, sea access; metal tools and weapons Key points: developed independently of other civ during same time period Not in river valleys

20 CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS: China, India, Greece, Rome 300 BCE500 CE Four empires of India and China: 1.Mauryan in India BCE 2.Gupta in India CE 3.Qin China BCE 4.Han China 200 BCE-200 CE

21 India: The Mauryan Empire BCE Aryan culture and belief systems spread throughout India Small Aryan kingdoms united by Chandragupta Maurya His grandson, Ashoka greatest leader Trade in silk, cotton, elephants; strong military Ashoka converted to Buddhism– preached nonviolence Conversion helped spread Bism in India and SE Asia

22 The Gupta Dynasty in India CE Decentralized & smaller than Mauryan Golden Age: relative peace & advances in art and sciences Use of iron for tools and weaponry Hinduism reasserts dominance, Bism absorbed into it Caste system and women: Strict social structures Loss of rights– couldnt own prop, study relig, participate in sacred rituals Child marriage at 6 or 7 yrs old

23 The Qin Dynasty in China BCE Strong agricultural economy Powerful army w/ iron weapons Conquered territories & unified region Built Great Wall of China = organization, centralized, standardization of weights, writing. No dissent Patriarchal Legalism: tough, rigid laws; rewards & punishments; strong govt, unquestioned authority

24 HAN CHINA 200 BCE200 CE Wu Ti warrior emperor, enlarged empire to central Asia Trade along Silk Road to Med. Sea; transmission of Buddhism and culture Civil service system: highly educated govt w/ skilled workers Exam: only wealthy could prepare, govt bureaucracy w/ stability Invention of paper, calendars, use of metals

25 Greece 2000 BCE336 BCE Geography: ¾ mtns; peninsula in Aegean Sea; trade via sea, contact w/ Mediterranean peoples; cultural diffusion Society: city-states (polis) independent Religion: Greek Mythology, humanized Athens: political, commercial, cultural center of G civ Sparta: military, disciplined,

26 The Polis Three groups in polis: Citizens: adult males Free people w/ no political rights Noncitizens (slaves, 1/3 of people in Athens, no rights) Civic decisions made through debate Not a true democracy– only adult males Existence of slavery allowed for Greeks to develop democracy

27 Golden Age of Athens and Alexander the Great Persian Wars united all city-states, era of peace and prosperity under Pericles Cultural center, democracy for all adult males Delian League: alliance led by Athens Philosophers: S->P->A rational thought, observation Arts & science gains inspired later Euro Renaissance, Enlightenment Athens defeated by Sparta in Peloponnesian War Macedonians invade– Alex the Great expanded empire to India (Antigonid, Ptolemaic, Seleucid regions) Hellenism: culture, ideals, and pattern of life of Classical Greece spread throughout Alexs empire and remained

28 Rome 509 BCE--476 CE Geography: peninsula, crossroads of Med Sea Social (Roman Republic): patricians- land-owning nobles; plebians- all other free men Representative Republic: Senate (patrician families) & Assembly (patricians, then plebians); governed w/ two consuls 12 Tables: civil laws, innocent until guilty Family: pater familias; women could own prop, though inferior Slavery, 1/3 of pop at one time; came from conquered territory

29 Rome continued… Military: able to conquer Carthage, control W. Med region Republic to Empire: Displacement of small farmers to cities Inflation, plebians poor 1 st Triumvirate: Pompey, Crassus, Caesar Caesar: emperor for life Augustus: Pax Romana Growth of area and arts and sciences Religon: Republic, paganism, (polytheist) Christianity challenged Roman authority. Both Jews & Christians persecuted by Romans Constantine converts 312 CE, official religion of Rome Collapse: empire divided W & E by Diocletian; Constantine moved capital to Byzantium;

30 COLLAPSE OF EMPIRES: Han China & Rome Internal: economic depression, social unrest, natural disasters External: invading armies China: internal collapse; military expenses; rich/poor tensions; famine Rome: both! Empire divided, inflation, civil war; invasions by Visigoths, Huns

31 MAJOR BELIEF SYSTEMS Polytheism Confucianism Daoism Legalism Hinduism Buddhism Judaism Christianity What are the basic, overall principles of each? What impact did each have on soc, polit, cultural, military developments? Did it spread? Where and how? Conflict w/ other religions?

32 INTERREGIONAL NETWORKS OF TRADE AND RELIGIOUS DIFFUSION CE Silk Road: China to Rome; interactions along the way w/ settled, pastoral communities Med. Sea trade Culture, language, religion, goods, disease Indian Ocean Trade Network


34 THE BIG PICTURE: Civilizations Agriculture Written language Use of metals Food surpluses, specialization Period of peace and prosperity: no rivals, devotion to arts/sciences golden age Collapse: internal/external pressures

35 SOURCES OF CHANGE: Connection/Diffusion vs. Independent invention Cultural Diffusion: change in society b/c of interaction w/ another culture/society Most common- trade & conquest Use of wheel and iron Independent invention: new invention or use of something in new way; Innovation & adaptation: inventions spread, borrowed stuff adapted to own needs

36 HUMANS VS. NATURE Irrigation, canals, plowing Development of civ: dealt w/ nature better, threats from other civilizations Religion: from appeasing gods to internal peace, salvation

37 MAJOR COMPARISONS: knowledge of these will improve essays!!! Compare major religious and philosophical systems in terms of social hierarchy (Hinduism contrasted w/ Confucianism Role of women in difft belief systems How and why the collapse of empire more severe in western Europe than in eastern Mediterranean and China

38 MAJOR COMPARSIONS cont… Compare caste system to other systems of social inequality in early and classical civilizations Compare the development of traditions and institutions in major civilizations, e.g., Indian, Chinese, Greek Describe interregional trading system, e.g., Indian Ocean trade


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