Presentation on theme: "A Cognitive Architecture Theory of Comprehension and Appraisal: Unifying Cognitive Functions and Appraisal Bob Marinier John Laird University of Michigan."— Presentation transcript:
A Cognitive Architecture Theory of Comprehension and Appraisal: Unifying Cognitive Functions and Appraisal Bob Marinier John Laird University of Michigan ACE: April 18, 2006
2 Overview Introduction Emotion Process Cognitive Functions Unification
3 Introduction Have independent theories of emotion and cognitive functions Emotion: Appraisal Theory Cognitive Functions: Allen Newell’s PEACTIDM Each of these is incomplete Emotion and cognition are tightly integrated in humans via appraisal How can we unify cognitive functions with appraisal?
5 What’s missing? When are appraisals generated? Why are the appraisals generated then? How are appraisals generated? How do appraisal and emotion impact behavior (in detail)?
6 Cognitive Functions: Allen Newell’s PEACTIDM PerceiveRaw perception EncodeCreate domain-independent representation AttendChose stimulus to process ComprehendGenerate structures that relate stimulus to goals and can be used to inform behavior TaskingPerform goal maintenance IntendChose an action DecodeDecompose action into motor commands MotorExecute motor commands Event Processing Response Processing An agent must be able to perform the following functions
7 What’s missing? What does Encode generate? How does Attend pick a stimulus? What does Comprehend generate? How does Tasking work (e.g. what information does it require?)
8 Unifying Cognitive Functions and Appraisal PerceiveRaw perception EncodeDomain-independent representation AttendChose stimulus to process ComprehendGenerate structures that relate stimulus to goals and can be used to inform behavior TaskingPerform goal maintenance IntendChose an action Appraisal Generators Appraisal Consumers Event Processing
9 Event Processing: Desirable Properties Domain independent Limited working memory Happens over time Incremental Supports immediate comprehension Supports hierarchical comprehension Supports prediction Influenced by external processes
10 Encode generates domain-independent structures from the raw Perceptual information Fast, parallel process Possible structure Simplification of Talmy (1975) Actor Action Also includes Novelty information (e.g. is this a common event, did it occurred suddenly, etc) Encode and Event Structure Bob Walking across street
11 Attend Multiple events may occur simultaneously, all of which are Encoded Attend uses Novelty information from Encoded structure to pick one to Comprehend next
12 Comprehension Process Goal: To create data structures that inform behavior Key: Process sequences of events Process Observe some sequence of events Match partial sequence to known complete sequence Use complete sequence to predict next event Only work on one event or sequence at a time (i.e. processing is local) Since the event structures are domain independent, this process is also domain independent
13 Abstract Events, Sequences and Subgoals An event sequence can be abstracted to represent a single event in a more abstract sequence Example: Step down from curb Take a few steps Step up onto curb …this is just the “Cross the Street” event, which may be just one event in the “Get from Car to Office” sequence, which may be one event in the “Go to Work” sequence…which may be just one event in the “Living My Life” sequence. Abstract events can be thought of as subgoals
14 Step Down Walk Cross the Street Walk up to Building Open Door Get From Car to Office Event Knowledge Hierarchy Enter Building Cross the Street Enter Building Get From Car to Office Events Sequences Events Sequences Events Step Up Go to Work … Sequences Events
15 Comprehension Process Details Comprehend Reinterpret Events Matches Prediction? Determine Probability Determine Causality Determine Goal Conduciveness Extract Information to Inform Behavior YES NO Appraisals Goal Encoded Event
16 Event Processing: Desirable Properties Revisited Domain independentEvents are domain-independent Limited working memoryOne interpretation at a time Happens over timeEvents occur over time IncrementalAttend to one event at a time; Local processing Supports immediate comprehension Can always guess at complete sequence based on event Supports hierarchical comprehension Sequences can be abstracted to events Supports predictionNext event can be read from guessed complete sequence Influenced by external processes Ambiguity resolution can be biased by current goal, emotion, memory activation, etc.
17 Unifying Cognitive Functions and Appraisal Revisited PerceiveRaw perception EncodeDomain-independent representation AttendChose stimulus to process ComprehendGenerate structures that relate stimulus to goals and can be used to inform behavior TaskingPerform goal maintenance IntendChose an action Appraisal Generators Appraisal Consumers Response Processing
18 Tasking Process Goal: Update current (sub)goals as necessary Key: Emotion automatically signals with status (goal threatened, situation alterable) and how to fix it (e.g. whose fault is it, etc) Process: Determine how to proceed based on implications of emotion
19 Tasking Process Details Tasking Set New Subgoal Remove (Sub)goal AngryAfraid Coping Strategies Feelings
20 Intend Process Goal: Determine next action to execute Key: In general, there may be many paths from the current situation to the goal, so Intend must pick one Also has to compete with action tendencies (e.g. automatic responses) Process: If urgency is high, “automatic” responses win Otherwise, walk event hierarchy to find path to goal
21 Scherer 2001Generated ByRequired By Novelty: SuddennessPerception Attend Novelty: Familiarity Encoding Novelty: Predictability Intrinsic pleasantness Tasking (via Feelings) Goal/need relevance Comprehension Cause: agent Cause: motive Outcome probability Urgency Discrepancy from expectationComprehension Conduciveness Tasking (via Feelings) Control Power Adjustment Internal standards compatibility External standards compatibility Unification
23 Predictions Agent will be interruptible Partial ordering constraint on appraisal generation Different emotions may require different amounts of processing Time constraints may lead to errors in Comprehension (and thus emotion)
24 Summary: Unification of Cognitive Functions and Appraisal Structural appraisal theories define only the critical data used to drive behavior PEACTIDM defines critical functions, but not how they are achieved In general, appraisals are: Generated by Perceive, Encode and Comprehend The information needed by Attend, Comprehend, Tasking and Intend
25 Go to Work 1 Go to Work 2 … AB 1 AB 2 … Step Down Walk Enter Street Step Up Walk up to Building Cross the Street CS & AB ES 1 ES 2 … Cross the Street 1 Cross the Street 2 … CS & AB 1 CS & AB 2 … Events Sequences Events Sequences Events Event Knowledge Hierarchy 2 Leave Street LS 1 LS 2 …EB1 1 EB1 2 … EB1 Approach Building EB2 1 EB2 2 … Open Door EB2 Enter Building 1 Enter Building 2 … Get from Car to Office 1 Get from Car to Office 2 … AB & EB 1 AB & EB 2 … Enter Building AB & EB Get from Car to Office Sequences Events Go to Work Sequences Events ……