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PUBLIC SPEAKING Tips and tools for creating and presenting Speeches.

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Presentation on theme: "PUBLIC SPEAKING Tips and tools for creating and presenting Speeches."— Presentation transcript:

1 PUBLIC SPEAKING Tips and tools for creating and presenting Speeches

2 Public Speaking- Similarities to Conversation Similarities to Conversation:  Focus  Verbalize thoughts/ideas  Respond to confusion, boredom, questions  Adapt to listeners Differences to Conversation Differences to Conversation:  Planned  Formal  Roles defined & stable

3 The Seven Components of the Public Speaking Process  Source: The person who originates the message.  Receiver: The listener or audience that hears and listens to, the message sent by the source.  Verbal messages are the words chosen for the speech.  Nonverbal messages are movements, gestures, facial expressions, and vocal variations that can reinforce or contradict words.  Channel: The means of distributing your words, whether by coaxial cable, microwave, radio, video or air.  Situation: The time, place and occasion in which the message sending and receiving occurs.  Noise: The interference with, or obstacles to, communication.

4 General Purpose To Inform To Persuade To Entertain  Artifact  Demo

5 Specific Purpose. Audience- Centered Audience- Centered  Further audience knowledge  What is in it for the audience?  What do you want the audience to do with the information?  What is overarching idea about your topic?

6 Space junk Buying a car Foodborne illnesses Examples

7 Specific Purpose/Clarification The 9,000+ pieces of debris that orbit the earth threaten commercial and scientific satellites.  Space junk-To inform my audience about the dangers of space junk- dead satellites & bits of expended rocket stages- that orbits the earth.

8 Specific Purpose/Clarification  Buying a car-to teach the audience how to avoid high-pressure sales tactics to successfully buy a car. By following these steps, you will not be taken for a ride by salespeople.  Foodborne illnesses

9 Introduction Required Tools for Outline-Introduction  Attention Getter-Engage the audience  Clarification Step-Offer specific purpose & idea + credibility  Preview-Provide a road map

10 Required Tools for Outline  Attention Getter  Attention Getter-Engage the audience  Tell a story  Ask a question  Use a quotation  Use humor  Arouse curiosity/suspense

11 Required Tools for Outline  Clarification-  Clarification-Offer specific purpose & idea + credibility  Spell out what audience gains from this- relevance/significance  Credibility-yours/outside source  Necessary background information

12 Required Tools for Outline  Preview-  Preview-Provide a road map  Briefly state the 2 or 3 Major points you will cover

13 Body Required Tools for Outline-Body Body, Body!  Rules:  All Major points (I., II., III.) must be written as declarative sentences  All Main points (A., B., C.) must be written as declarative sentences  Any substructure (1., 2., a., b.) only need key words/phrases  Outlines need to follow traditional format  Transitions need to be written b/t major points

14 More outline guidelines Body, Body  2 or 3 main points-I, II, &/or III  Building blocks of thesis  Should emerge from research  Written as simple, declarative sentence  Each has an A & B &/or a C  Support Main point  Written as simple declarative sentence

15 Outline guidelines cont. Body, Body  Thesis: A college education is valuable.  It helps you get a good job  It increases your earning potential  It gives you greater job mobility  It helps you secure more creative work  It helps you to appreciate the arts more fully  It helps you to understand an extremely complex world  It helps you understand different cultures  It helps you avoid taking a regular job for a few years  It helps you increase your personal effectiveness

16 Guidelines for creating points Main points  Eliminate those points that seem least important to your thesis  Combine those points that have a common focus  A college education helps you get a good job.  A college education increases your personal effectiveness

17 Create building blocks *Main points Sub points Evidence  I. A college education helps you get a job. A. College graduates earn higher salaries. B. College graduates enter more creative jobs. C. College graduates have greater job mobility.

18 More Main points *Main points Sub points Evidence  II. A college education increases your personal effectiveness. A. A college education helps you improve your ability to communicate. B. A college education helps you acquire the skills for learning how to think. C. A college education helps you acquire coping skills.

19 Guidelines Main points *Sub points Evidence  A. A college education helps improve your ability to communicate. 1. Writing skills a. Evidence needed b. Evidence needed 2. Speech skills a. Evidence needed b. Evidence needed

20 Topic Idea from research for Informative Researching Elephants  While researching elephants for info speech, discover how they do not hang out randomly within herd. Grouped in social circles based on elephant’s lineage on mother’s side. Potential interest b/c we are social animals, too. Learn about elephant society & maybe how status operates in human society.

21 Organizational Patterns Topical Chronological Causal Comparison/ Contrast Spatial  Classification or division  Divides the topic into subclasses or topics  Terms used: kinds, classes, reasons, varieties, brands, breeds, features, categories, methods, techniques, schemes, strategies, groupings, policies, tactics, shapes, levels, sizes, theories, actions…

22 Draft Using Topical Topical  I want to inform my audience about the categories of elephant social circles  The central structure (composed of the matriarch & her calf)  The main family unit (the matriarch’s other offspring & her sisters)  The bond group (other relatives with their own families

23 Patterns Cont. Chronological  Time arrangement  Terms used: steps, stages, periods, phases, chapters, epochs, historical eras or historical phases

24 Draft Using Chronological Chronological  I want to inform my audience that the steps used in training elephants for circus performance is controversial.  Separating young from mother  Breaking the elephant (training submissiveness)  Teaching elementary/advanced performing tricks.

25 Patterns Cont. Causal  Focuses on either cause or effects of something  Terms used for cause speech: causes, reasons, grounds, motives, sources, roots, antecedents, explanations, determinants  Terms used for effect speech: effect, results, consequences, impacts, outcomes, upshots, end results

26 Draft Using Causal Causal  I want to inform my audience about the human-related causes of declining elephant populations in Africa  Habitat destruction & degradation  Hunting elephants for meat  Continued ivory poaching

27 Patterns Cont. Comparison/ Contrast  Comparison-addresses new idea by showing the similarities between tow seemingly unlike things  Contrast-points out the differences between two seemingly similar things  Do not use both-choose one and focus

28 Comparison  Terms used: similarities, parallels, resemblances, analogies, correlations  I want to inform my audience about the similarities between the working elephant & the working horse.  Their use as an agriculture assistant  Their use in ceremony & tourism

29 Patterns Cont. Spatial  Discusses topic according to the way things fit together in a physical space  Terms used: districts, sections, boroughs, regions  Areas, segments, sectors, divisions  Layers, strata, components, zones

30 Spatial  I want to inform my audience about the regions of Asian elephant subspecies  Southern India & Sri Lanka (Elephas maximus maximus)  Southeast Asia (Elephas maximus indicus)  Malaysia & Sumatra (Elephas maximus sumatrensis)

31 Outline Guidelines Main points Sub points *Evidence  Evidence of Fact/Opinion  Examples-a few types Illustration-longer, more detailed example Women are objectified, often in the most obscene & degrading ways. Songs such as Prodigy’s single “Smack My Bitch Up” or “Don’t Trust a Bitch” by the group Mo Thugs encourage animosity & even violence against women. Nine Inch Nails enjoyed both critical & commercial success with “Big Man w/ a Gun” which describes forcing a woman into oral sex & shooting her in the head at pointblank range.

32 Outline Guidelines Main points Sub points *Evidence  Evidence of Fact/Opinion  Examples-a few types Narration-told in story-like fashion My story began like many others: I married early-after only 1 yr. of college. & I headed off to work to “put hubby through” doing clerical work, as was also so common then. What happened to get me back on the road to finish college? 1 extraordinarily boring job experience. It made me realize that I would probably work for most or all of my life & I did not want to got throuh life w/o enjoying my work.

33 Outline Guidelines Main points Sub points *Evidence  Evidence of Fact/Opinion  Examples-a few types Specific examples 1. Some university athletic budgets are now as much as $33m 2. Each school in the 1997 Rose bowl received $8.25m which it divided w/ other schools in its conference. 3. Coors Brewing Company paid $5m to the Univ. of Colo. when the university agreed to name the new field house “Coors Events Center”.

34 More Evidence of Fact Evidence  Statistics  Averages  Correlations  Difference  Percentages Make them clear, meaningful, visually reinforcing, use in moderation

35 More Evidence of Opinion Evidence  Testimony-opinions of experts accounts of witnesses Providing daycare/assistance is good business. The Feb 8, 1995 WSJ points to several progressive firms like Marriot Intl. Its program stopped a 300% yearly turnover rate. 48 Hrs. reports that Toyota’s program is responsible for the 60% of employees who have a perfect attendance record. As Toyota’s vice president of human resources said, “It’s not a fringe benefit anymore. It’s a necessity.” As Marriot’s director of work-life programs said, “you don’t manage people as a second class work force. They’re integral to the job, a part of the fabric of the company.”

36 More Forms of Support Evidence  Definitions  Quotations  Comparisons & Contrast  Simple Statement of Fact/Series of Facts

37 Conclusion Required Tools for Outline-Conclusion  Review-  Review-Restate the road map  Briefly state the 2 or 3 Major points you just covered Restate thesis Restate thesis from Clarification step Final line Final line-clincher

38 Final Thoughts… Practice, Practice  MUST practice to become familiar with outline, phrasing & development  Fake it!  NEVER say Thank you-the audience always thanks you!


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