Presentation on theme: "PUBLIC SPEAKING Tips and tools for creating and presenting Speeches."— Presentation transcript:
PUBLIC SPEAKING Tips and tools for creating and presenting Speeches
Public Speaking- Similarities to Conversation Similarities to Conversation: Focus Verbalize thoughts/ideas Respond to confusion, boredom, questions Adapt to listeners Differences to Conversation Differences to Conversation: Planned Formal Roles defined & stable
The Seven Components of the Public Speaking Process Source: The person who originates the message. Receiver: The listener or audience that hears and listens to, the message sent by the source. Verbal messages are the words chosen for the speech. Nonverbal messages are movements, gestures, facial expressions, and vocal variations that can reinforce or contradict words. Channel: The means of distributing your words, whether by coaxial cable, microwave, radio, video or air. Situation: The time, place and occasion in which the message sending and receiving occurs. Noise: The interference with, or obstacles to, communication.
General Purpose To Inform To Persuade To Entertain Artifact Demo
Specific Purpose. Audience- Centered Audience- Centered Further audience knowledge What is in it for the audience? What do you want the audience to do with the information? What is overarching idea about your topic?
Space junk Buying a car Foodborne illnesses Examples
Specific Purpose/Clarification The 9,000+ pieces of debris that orbit the earth threaten commercial and scientific satellites. Space junk-To inform my audience about the dangers of space junk- dead satellites & bits of expended rocket stages- that orbits the earth.
Specific Purpose/Clarification Buying a car-to teach the audience how to avoid high-pressure sales tactics to successfully buy a car. By following these steps, you will not be taken for a ride by salespeople. Foodborne illnesses
Introduction Required Tools for Outline-Introduction Attention Getter-Engage the audience Clarification Step-Offer specific purpose & idea + credibility Preview-Provide a road map
Required Tools for Outline Attention Getter Attention Getter-Engage the audience Tell a story Ask a question Use a quotation Use humor Arouse curiosity/suspense
Required Tools for Outline Clarification- Clarification-Offer specific purpose & idea + credibility Spell out what audience gains from this- relevance/significance Credibility-yours/outside source Necessary background information
Required Tools for Outline Preview- Preview-Provide a road map Briefly state the 2 or 3 Major points you will cover
Body Required Tools for Outline-Body Body, Body! Rules: All Major points (I., II., III.) must be written as declarative sentences All Main points (A., B., C.) must be written as declarative sentences Any substructure (1., 2., a., b.) only need key words/phrases Outlines need to follow traditional format Transitions need to be written b/t major points
More outline guidelines Body, Body 2 or 3 main points-I, II, &/or III Building blocks of thesis Should emerge from research Written as simple, declarative sentence Each has an A & B &/or a C Support Main point Written as simple declarative sentence
Outline guidelines cont. Body, Body Thesis: A college education is valuable. It helps you get a good job It increases your earning potential It gives you greater job mobility It helps you secure more creative work It helps you to appreciate the arts more fully It helps you to understand an extremely complex world It helps you understand different cultures It helps you avoid taking a regular job for a few years It helps you increase your personal effectiveness
Guidelines for creating points Main points Eliminate those points that seem least important to your thesis Combine those points that have a common focus A college education helps you get a good job. A college education increases your personal effectiveness
Create building blocks *Main points Sub points Evidence I. A college education helps you get a job. A. College graduates earn higher salaries. B. College graduates enter more creative jobs. C. College graduates have greater job mobility.
More Main points *Main points Sub points Evidence II. A college education increases your personal effectiveness. A. A college education helps you improve your ability to communicate. B. A college education helps you acquire the skills for learning how to think. C. A college education helps you acquire coping skills.
Guidelines Main points *Sub points Evidence A. A college education helps improve your ability to communicate. 1. Writing skills a. Evidence needed b. Evidence needed 2. Speech skills a. Evidence needed b. Evidence needed
Topic Idea from research for Informative Researching Elephants While researching elephants for info speech, discover how they do not hang out randomly within herd. Grouped in social circles based on elephant’s lineage on mother’s side. Potential interest b/c we are social animals, too. Learn about elephant society & maybe how status operates in human society.
Draft Using Topical Topical I want to inform my audience about the categories of elephant social circles The central structure (composed of the matriarch & her calf) The main family unit (the matriarch’s other offspring & her sisters) The bond group (other relatives with their own families
Draft Using Chronological Chronological I want to inform my audience that the steps used in training elephants for circus performance is controversial. Separating young from mother Breaking the elephant (training submissiveness) Teaching elementary/advanced performing tricks.
Patterns Cont. Causal Focuses on either cause or effects of something Terms used for cause speech: causes, reasons, grounds, motives, sources, roots, antecedents, explanations, determinants Terms used for effect speech: effect, results, consequences, impacts, outcomes, upshots, end results
Draft Using Causal Causal I want to inform my audience about the human-related causes of declining elephant populations in Africa Habitat destruction & degradation Hunting elephants for meat Continued ivory poaching
Patterns Cont. Comparison/ Contrast Comparison-addresses new idea by showing the similarities between tow seemingly unlike things Contrast-points out the differences between two seemingly similar things Do not use both-choose one and focus
Comparison Terms used: similarities, parallels, resemblances, analogies, correlations I want to inform my audience about the similarities between the working elephant & the working horse. Their use as an agriculture assistant Their use in ceremony & tourism
Patterns Cont. Spatial Discusses topic according to the way things fit together in a physical space Terms used: districts, sections, boroughs, regions Areas, segments, sectors, divisions Layers, strata, components, zones
Spatial I want to inform my audience about the regions of Asian elephant subspecies Southern India & Sri Lanka (Elephas maximus maximus) Southeast Asia (Elephas maximus indicus) Malaysia & Sumatra (Elephas maximus sumatrensis)
Outline Guidelines Main points Sub points *Evidence Evidence of Fact/Opinion Examples-a few types Illustration-longer, more detailed example Women are objectified, often in the most obscene & degrading ways. Songs such as Prodigy’s single “Smack My Bitch Up” or “Don’t Trust a Bitch” by the group Mo Thugs encourage animosity & even violence against women. Nine Inch Nails enjoyed both critical & commercial success with “Big Man w/ a Gun” which describes forcing a woman into oral sex & shooting her in the head at pointblank range.
Outline Guidelines Main points Sub points *Evidence Evidence of Fact/Opinion Examples-a few types Narration-told in story-like fashion My story began like many others: I married early-after only 1 yr. of college. & I headed off to work to “put hubby through” doing clerical work, as was also so common then. What happened to get me back on the road to finish college? 1 extraordinarily boring job experience. It made me realize that I would probably work for most or all of my life & I did not want to got throuh life w/o enjoying my work.
Outline Guidelines Main points Sub points *Evidence Evidence of Fact/Opinion Examples-a few types Specific examples 1. Some university athletic budgets are now as much as $33m 2. Each school in the 1997 Rose bowl received $8.25m which it divided w/ other schools in its conference. 3. Coors Brewing Company paid $5m to the Univ. of Colo. when the university agreed to name the new field house “Coors Events Center”.
More Evidence of Fact Evidence Statistics Averages Correlations Difference Percentages Make them clear, meaningful, visually reinforcing, use in moderation
More Evidence of Opinion Evidence Testimony-opinions of experts accounts of witnesses Providing daycare/assistance is good business. The Feb 8, 1995 WSJ points to several progressive firms like Marriot Intl. Its program stopped a 300% yearly turnover rate. 48 Hrs. reports that Toyota’s program is responsible for the 60% of employees who have a perfect attendance record. As Toyota’s vice president of human resources said, “It’s not a fringe benefit anymore. It’s a necessity.” As Marriot’s director of work-life programs said, “you don’t manage people as a second class work force. They’re integral to the job, a part of the fabric of the company.”
More Forms of Support Evidence Definitions Quotations Comparisons & Contrast Simple Statement of Fact/Series of Facts
Conclusion Required Tools for Outline-Conclusion Review- Review-Restate the road map Briefly state the 2 or 3 Major points you just covered Restate thesis Restate thesis from Clarification step Final line Final line-clincher
Final Thoughts… Practice, Practice MUST practice to become familiar with outline, phrasing & development Fake it! NEVER say Thank you-the audience always thanks you!