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TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION Use the tab key, space bar, arrow keys, or page up/down to move through the slides. [Go to “Slide Show” pulldown.

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1 TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION Use the tab key, space bar, arrow keys, or page up/down to move through the slides. [Go to “Slide Show” pulldown menu and click on “Play from Start.”] This presentation should be viewed in “Slide Show” view to display properly. These slides are optimized for PowerPoint versions 12 (2007/2008) and 14 (2010/2011). If viewed in earlier versions of PowerPoint, some slides may not display properly.

2 TEN STEPS to ADVANCED READING SECOND EDITION John Langan © 2013 Townsend Press

3 PURPOSE AND TONE Chapter 7

4 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone News photos often have a purpose and tone.

5 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Here, the purpose is to inform us of the return of American soldiers killed in the service of their country. The tone is one of solemnity, reverence, and respect.

6 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose The author’s reason for writing the purpose of a selection is called

7 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose Here are three common purposes in writing: To inform To persuade To entertain —to give information about a subject. —to convince the reader to agree with the author’s point of view on a subject. —to amuse and delight; to appeal to the reader’s senses and imagination. l l l

8 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose Often, the cover and the title of a book or article will suggest the author’s main purpose.

9 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: What would you say is the primary purpose of each of these books? A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose:

10 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: What would you say is the primary purpose of each of these books? A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: 3

11 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: What would you say is the primary purpose of each of these books? A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: 3 3

12 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: What would you say is the primary purpose of each of these books? A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: 3 3 3

13 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose The typical American gobbles three burgers and four orders of fries every week. Toss in the pizzas, the popcorn, the sugary breakfast cereals, the sodas, the snack cakes, candy bars, ice cream and everything else we eat in lieu of real food in this society, and your body is like an eighteen- wheeler roaring down a high-fat highway straight to obesity and an early grave. Fast food is bad food. It’s loaded with bad stuff like fat and sugar and sodium. It’s packed with chemicals that are in there to make it taste and smell and feel like it’s real food. What it lacks is vitamins, minerals, fiber, all the stuff you really need. A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Read this paragraph and decide what the author’s purpose is. Primary purpose:

14 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose The typical American gobbles three burgers and four orders of fries every week. Toss in the pizzas, the popcorn, the sugary breakfast cereals, the sodas, the snack cakes, candy bars, ice cream and everything else we eat in lieu of real food in this society, and your body is like an eighteen- wheeler roaring down a high-fat highway straight to obesity and an early grave. Fast food is bad food. It’s loaded with bad stuff like fat and sugar and sodium. It’s packed with chemicals that are in there to make it taste and smell and feel like it’s real food. What it lacks is vitamins, minerals, fiber, all the stuff you really need. A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: 3 The writer tells us the things that are wrong with fast food in order to persuade us that we shouldn’t eat it.

15 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose I don’t know which is harder, taking my body to the doctor or my car to the garage. Both worry me. I’m always afraid they’ll find something I didn’t know about. The only advantage of taking my body to the doctor over taking my car to the garage is that the doctor never asks me to leave it overnight. A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Now try this paragraph. Primary purpose:

16 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose I don’t know which is harder, taking my body to the doctor or my car to the garage. Both worry me. I’m always afraid they’ll find something I didn’t know about. The only advantage of taking my body to the doctor over taking my car to the garage is that the doctor never asks me to leave it overnight. A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Primary purpose: The writer uses playful and exaggerated details to entertain the reader. Clearly, the doctor is not going to ask the writer to leave his body overnight. 3

17 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain What is the author’s purpose in this paragraph? Personal contact is necessary for common cold viruses to spread. The viruses must get into the nose, where they can infect the nasal membranes. Inhaling contaminated droplets produced when someone else coughs or sneezes may be one way to catch a cold. Cold viruses can remain infective even if they are outside the body for a few hours. Therefore, you can also catch a cold if you handle something that is contaminated with a cold virus—for example, the doorknob of a classroom or a restroom door—and then scratch your nose or rub your eyes with your contaminated fingers. The cold viruses can reach your nose when you rub your eyes because the virus can be passed down the tear ducts that go from the eyes into the nasal cavities. Primary purpose:

18 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Purpose A. to inform B. to persuade C. to entertain Personal contact is necessary for common cold viruses to spread. The viruses must get into the nose, where they can infect the nasal membranes. Inhaling contaminated droplets produced when someone else coughs or sneezes may be one way to catch a cold. Cold viruses can remain infective even if they are outside the body for a few hours. Therefore, you can also catch a cold if you handle something that is contaminated with a cold virus—for example, the doorknob of a classroom or a restroom door—and then scratch your nose or rub your eyes with your contaminated fingers. The cold viruses can reach your nose when you rub your eyes because the virus can be passed down the tear ducts that go from the eyes into the nasal cavities. Primary purpose: 3 The purpose is to inform us about how cold viruses spread. To do this, the author describes two specific ways they spread. 1 2

19 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone More than one purpose Purpose Sometimes, writing may blend two or even three purposes.

20 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Inform Persuade Entertain Purpose For example, a persuasive article on the importance of avoiding junk food might include a number of facts and even some comic touches. But remember to focus on the author’s primary purpose. More than one purpose

21 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone a writer’s attitude toward his or her subject Tone is

22 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone Tone is expressed through the words and details the writer selects. A writer’s voice can project one or more tones, or feelings, such as

23 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone Anger Respect Anger

24 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone She hates students, that’s all there is to it. I can’t wait until I’m out of her class. l Three examples of tone: Statements made by students of a demanding teacher. (Tone: Bitter, angry) l (Tone: Fair, objective) I might as well just stop going to class now. I’m never going to understand the material. It’s hopeless. l (Tone: Pessimistic) She’s tough, but she’s also really good. I’ve learned more from her than I’ve learned from any other teacher.

25 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone ashamed doubtful praising worried playful disapproving respectful accepting conceited forgiving fearful cheerful loving joyous affectionate scornful ambivalent ironic instructive lighthearted objective informal scheming bewildered forgiving indignant arrogant impassioned bitter caring serious alarmed curious regretful sympathetic critical grateful encouraging threatening warm insulting humorous calming concerned amused compassionate sarcastic superior matter-of-fact reverent tolerant straightforward prideful despairing optimistic solemn hypocritical disbelieving sentimental appreciative For a list of more than eighty tone words see pages 271–273 in the textbook. admiring self-critical excited defensive tragic apologetic frightened approving self-pitying sorrowful alarmed cruel determined nostalgic suggestive

26 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone Wal-Mart may create an economic underclass in our town. Its employees aren’t paid enough to live on, and they have very poor benefits. l A. encouraging B. worried C. determined What is tone in this statement?

27 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone Wal-Mart may create an economic underclass in our town. Its employees aren’t paid enough to live on, and they have very poor benefits. l A. encouraging B. worried C. determined 3 The writer suggests that Wal-Mart’s low wages and benefits may have a negative economic effect on the town. This reveals a worried tone.

28 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone Wal-Mart may create an economic underclass in our town. Its employees aren’t paid enough to live on, and they have very poor benefits. l A. encouraging B. worried C. determined 3 l Wal-Mart is a fact of life. It’s going to hurt some people, but at least we’ll be able to buy a lot of things at lower prices. A. accepting B. regretful C. cynical What is tone in this statement?

29 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone l Wal-Mart is a fact of life. It’s going to hurt some people, but at least we’ll be able to buy a lot of things at lower prices. A. accepting B. regretful C. cynical 3 Wal-Mart may create an economic underclass in our town. Its employees aren’t paid enough to live on, and they have very poor benefits. l A. encouraging B. worried C. determined 3 The statement “Wal-Mart is a fact of life” indicates the writer’s acceptance, as does her effort to balance the negative aspects of Wal-Mart with the benefit of lower prices.

30 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone l Wal-Mart is a fact of life. It’s going to hurt some people, but at least we’ll be able to buy a lot of things at lower prices. A. accepting B. regretful C. cynical 3 l A. cheerful B. cynical C. threatening Wal-Mart may create an economic underclass in our town. Its employees aren’t paid enough to live on, and they have very poor benefits. l A. encouraging B. worried C. determined 3 What is tone in this statement? Our local government says Wal-Mart will benefit everyone. That’s a joke. Wal-Mart is mainly going to benefit itself and our local politicians.

31 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone Our local government says Wal-Mart will benefit everyone. That’s a joke. Wal-Mart is mainly going to benefit itself and our local politicians. l A. cheerful B. cynical C. threatening 3 Wal-Mart may create an economic underclass in our town. Its employees aren’t paid enough to live on, and they have very poor benefits. l A. encouraging B. worried C. determined 3 l Wal-Mart is a fact of life. It’s going to hurt some people, but at least we’ll be able to buy a lot of things at lower prices. A. accepting B. regretful C. cynical 3 This writer clearly does not believe claim that Wal-Mart will benefit everyone. Her comment “That’s a joke” gives the item a cynical tone.

32 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone A Note on Irony One commonly used tone is irony.

33 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone Irony involves a contrast Expectations Reality » « between expectations and reality. / A Note on Irony

34 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone Verbal IronyIrony of Situation / A Note on Irony Both language and situations can be ironic.

35 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone What is said What is meant » « What is said contrasts with what is meant. Verbal Irony / A Note on Irony

36 “I’m so glad you’ve called. I hate eating dinner while it’s still hot.” CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone Verbal Irony For example, if a telemarketer calls you in the middle of dinner and you say: you are using verbal irony. / A Note on Irony

37 “I’m so glad you’ve called. I hate eating dinner while it’s still hot.” “I’m so glad you’ve called. I hate eating dinner while it’s still hot.” CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone “I’m very annoyed you’ve called. I enjoy eating dinner while it’s still hot.” What is said What is meant » « Verbal Irony The words you have said are the opposite of what you really mean. / A Note on Irony

38 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone What is expected What actually happens » « Irony of Situation What is expected or intended contrasts with what actually happens. / A Note on Irony Verbal Irony

39 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone What is expected What actually happens » « Irony of Situation Example: A city fire fighter an arsonist responsible for a string of fires. turns out to be / A Note on Irony

40 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone Can you explain the irony in this cartoon? / A Note on Irony

41 CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone Tone The irony is that the sign advertising the communication workshop communicates very poorly. It fails to communicate just when and where the workshop will be. / A Note on Irony CHAPTER 7 Purpose and Tone

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