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Presentation to UCET 15 October 2013 Research and Teacher Education: the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

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1 Presentation to UCET 15 October 2013 Research and Teacher Education: the BERA-RSA Inquiry

2 1.Introduction to the Inquiry 2.Conceptual framework & policy context 3.Philosophical reflections on role of research 4.Summary of Evidence: Benefits of integrated ITE 5.Benefits of enquiry-oriented professional learning 6.Impact of research-based teaching at school & system level 7.Conclusion and Next Steps Outline of Presentation

3 1. About the Inquiry

4 (a)Shape debate – by collecting and reviewing evidence about the role which research-informed teacher education plays in promoting school improvement and improved teaching and learning; (b)Inform policy – by making recommendations to develop the relationship between research and teacher education; (c)Influence practice – developing practical approaches to connect researchers, teacher educators, teachers and others. Scope of the Inquiry: Includes policy and provision for both ITE and CPD in each of the four nations: England, Scotland, Wales & Northern Ireland. Aims and Scope 1.1

5 Plus advisers: Graham Donaldson, Dr Carmel Gallagher Sir Alasdair Macdonald, Lord Putnam and Sir Alan Steer Steering & Reference Groups  Pamela Munn  Geoff Whitty  Nick Johnson  John Furlong  Joe Hallgarten  Ian Menter 1.2 Steering Group members: Secretariat at RSA led by Louise Bamfield  ACSL  AcSS  ATL  BELMAS  College of Teachers Reference Group members from the following organisations:  GTCNI  GTCS  GTCW  HEA  NASUWT  NUS  SCoTENS  SCETT  SSAT  STEC  Teacher Development Trust  TEAG  UCET  UUK

6 A.Mapping provision: How does policy and provision for teacher education vary across the UK and internationally, and what is the role of research in different entry routes and programmes? B.Philosophical reflections: What a priori arguments can be made about the role of research-based knowledge in the development of teachers’ professional expertise? C.Review of the evidence: What contribution has research been shown to make to teachers’ professional learning, both at beginning and over the course of their careers, and what is the impact on teaching quality, school improvement & student outcomes? D.What are the implications for policy and practice? Main areas of enquiry 1.3

7 A. Mapping provision:  Review of UK policy and practice – Prof Gary Beauchamp, Prof Linda Clarke, Dr Moira Hulme, Prof Jean Murray  Review of international policy and practice – Dr Teresa Tatto B. Philosophical reflections:  Philosophical reflections on the contribution of research to teachers’ professional knowledge – Prof Chris Winch, Dr Alis Oancea, Dr Janet Orchard C. Review of the evidence:  Review of ‘research-informed clinical practice’ in initial teacher education – Dr Katharine Burn, Trevor Mutton  Review of the role of research in teacher quality and school improvement – Dr Monica Mincu  Review of teachers’ continuing professional development and learning (CPDL) and the continuum of professional learning – Philippa Cordingley Commissioned Papers 1.4

8 2013 April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb 2014 Start-up Phase 1: Evidence gathering Phase 3: Policy Implications & Final Report2: Analysis & Interim Findings Launch & Dissemination LAUNCH & PUBLICITY BERA CONFERENCE 3-5 Sept Co-ordinate press activity and on-going dissemination Oxford Seminar 6 June Inquiry Seminar 16 July Inquiry Timeline Evidence & Analysis CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS COMMISSIONED PAPERS Interim Report FINAL REPORT Review of Teacher Engagement in Research STEERING GROUP MEETINGS REFERENCE GROUP MEETINGS 1 2 Project Management Policy Seminar FURTHER ANALYSIS & REVIEW Stakeholder events to discuss key themes

9 2a. Conceptual framework: Defining key terms

10  What is the role and contribution of research within initial teacher education and in-service programmes of continuing professional development and learning (CPDL)?  What is the impact of research-based ITE & CPDL on improving the quality of teaching and learning outcomes for students?  What are the barriers to creating research-rich environments at a school and system level? Inquiry Questions 2.1 Source: Cordingley, P. (forthcoming) The contribution of research to teachers’ professional learning and development, Paper Commissioned by the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

11 Intuitively, we may assume a positive (or negative) relationship between research and teacher education. Rather than pre-judging or taking the relationship for granted, the purpose of the Inquiry is to interrogate the evidence – adhering to the spirit and methods of robust educational research. This means being open to the possibility that existing research is inconclusive, or indeed finding evidence to suggest neutral or negative effects on teaching or learning outcomes. Starting assumptions 2.2

12  Research is variously defined, according to different epistemic traditions:  E.g. from a humanist tradition: “original investigation undertaken in order to gain knowledge and understanding; scholarship; the invention and generation of ideas…where these lead to new or substantially improved insights (HEFCE 1999);  Or simply: “systematic inquiry” that is “made public and exposed to collective criticism” (Stenhouse 1985);  Research in education is characterised by its multi-disciplinary nature, diverse methodologies and broad fields of interest ( e.g. neurological studies of brain functioning, psychological studies conducted in experimental situations, large-scale, multi-method cohort studies, plus richly detailed socio-cultural studies of the complex nature of teaching and learning etc.)  Education(al) research may be about education or for education (Whitty 2006). Defining Education(al) Research: 2.3

13 1.Practitioners may engage with research – by ‘accessing publicly available evidence, interpreting it and adapting it (with appropriate support) to their own contexts’. 2.Practitioners may also be involved in research, whether as active participants & co- designers, or as more passive subjects of researcher-led studies. Bell et al. (2010) define ‘ engaging in research ’ as being actively involved in all steps of the process: address a research question; analyse and report systematically on the evidence collected; use instruments (observation and interview schedules etc.) to collect evidence that enables them to explore adverse as well as positive effects of an intervention/new teaching strategies; and analyse and report the evidence from their enquiries publicly. 3.Teachers not directly or formally involved in research may still adopt research-related activities, by engaging in enquiry-oriented practice in research-rich schools and classrooms. Engaging in and with research 2.4 Source: Bell et al. (2010) Report of Professional Practitioner Use of Research Review: Practitioner Engagement in and/or with Research, Coventry: CUREE, GTCE, LISI & NTRP.

14 Categories of Research Engagement 2.5 Adapted from: Bell et al. (2010) Report of Professional Practitioner Use of Research Review: Practitioner Engagement in and/or with Research, Coventry: CUREE, GTCE, LISI & NTRP. In & With InWith Teacher-led Researcher-led Many CPD programmes develop skills for enquiry-oriented practice, without necessarily requiring engagement in research in formal sense Most studies from CPD Reviews Researcher-led, larger studies TISS studies Masters-based studies Academic studies

15 Role of Research in Teacher Education 2.6 Teachers School HEI Research Teacher education RI-TE a.Student teachers learn about research findings +/or methodologies b.Student teachers do research as part of programme requirements c.Teachers draw on research findings to inform their individual practice d.Individual engagement in research study or thesis (e.g. Masters) e.Individual teachers or departments use data to support improvement f.School staff/pupils take part in researcher-led study or evaluation g.Collaborative engagement in research: school staff engage in co- designed research with specialist support h.School leaders encourage & support entire staff to draw on relevant research findings, update their learning, share knowledge and engage in enquiry-oriented practice in research-rich environments i.Professional research projects about/for education. j.Teacher educators read research and use in own courses k.Individuals evaluate their own practice and use to inform teaching l.Collaborative engagement in +/or with research to inform design and revision of research-based TE programmes

16 Methodological Challenges 2.7  Formal educational policies: teacher standards, investment etc.  Prevailing discourses: conceptions of teaching, dominant beliefs  Institutional structures: higher education and school organisation Wider social context A. Initial Training Context Recruitment Preparation (a) (b) B. Teaching and Learning Context Student Outcomes -Cognitive -Social -Emotional Students’ Learning & Understanding C. Student Outcomes Teachers’ Learning & Understanding High quality Teaching The Perspective Challenge The Definition Challenge The Measurement Challenge

17 2b. Policy background and context

18 International comparative analysis has drawn attention to the importance of teaching – ‘effective’ or ‘high quality’ teaching is now widely acknowledged to be the most important school level factor in shaping students’ learning outcomes. Teacher education is increasingly seen as a policy priority because of its impact upon teacher quality. However, while there has been a general shift towards university-based teacher education and longer duration of initial training courses, some countries (notably the USA and UK) have developed alternative, school- and employment-based routes. Policy background and context 2.1

19  Increasing divergence in entry routes across four home nations. England an outlier in shift to school-based routes and in content of revised Teacher Standards (framed by ‘craft’ view of teaching).  Explicit statements of teacher professionalism in rest of UK:  “Teacher as a researcher” and “reflective practice” endorsed in GTCNI framework;  GTCS standards expect teachers to “systematically engage with research”;  No explicit reference within Welsh standards, but prominent place for research in inspection guidance for ITT providers (and some reference to trainees). UK policy context 2.2 Source: Tatto, T. (forthcoming) International Policy and Practice in Teacher Education: The Role of Research, Paper Commissioned for the BERA-RSA Inquiry, London: BERA.

20  Since 2010, England has seen the introduction of a new network of teaching schools, with responsibility for R&D within alliances: – emerging infrastructure offers potential for more distributed leadership and collaborative engagement in producing and utilising ‘knowledge – However, picture on ground is more patchy, with R&D elements slower to take off than other aspects of the Teaching Schools’ remit.  At the same time, there is renewed emphasis by government on promoting evidence-based policy and practice: – Arguably reflects a ‘Big Science’ view of what counts as evidence (e.g. RCTs) – Although new investment in educational research is welcome, there is a risk that practitioner engagement will be restricted to applying protocols and toolkits, rather than deeper involvement in interpreting and adapting findings in practice. Renewed focus on use of evidence 2.3 Source: Tatto, T. (forthcoming) International Policy and Practice in Teacher Education: The Role of Research, Paper Commissioned for the BERA-RSA Inquiry, London: BERA.

21 3. Philosophical Reflections

22 Teaching as a ‘craft’: views subject knowledge and situational awareness as paramount; dismisses theoretical or empirical-based knowledge as abstract or irrelevant to specific context. Executive technician : embraces established research findings, but role of the teacher is to follow protocols and apply rules to practice, not interpret or adapt to particular needs or situation. Teacher as professional : teachers exercise their own judgement in the classroom and make decisions about how to interpret theoretical and research-based knowledge and whether/how to adopt within their own practice. Three conceptions of teaching 3.1 Source: Winch, C. et al (forthcoming) The contribution of research to teachers’ professional learning, Paper Commissioned for the BERA-RSA Inquiry, London: BERA.

23 Problems with assumptions about purely tacit or intuitive knowledge: To be secure in a craft does not just mean developing practical skill and tacit wisdom; it also requires “the capacity to offer a rational account of it” (Dunne 1993) – i.e. to formulate and articulate practical theories to guide own and others’ practice. Problems with relying on ‘common sense’: What is common sense may often derive from poor quality research distilled into folk maxims or ‘rules of thumb’. As Keynes argued, in the case of business, ‘common sense’ usually consists of the “unconscious repetition of theories that have already been discredited”. As such, it is an inherently conservative and unreliable basis for judgement. Limitations of ‘craft’ view 3.2

24 Unlike the craft view of teaching, the teacher-as-technician is largely devoid of professional discretion and is not generally required to understand the rationale behind the approach. But one cannot give up the responsibility of thinking clearly about what research might or might not be telling us. Teachers need to be equipped to interrogate their own practice to understand why it is or isn’t working, or to learn from new ideas and adapt them to particular situations and contexts. Objections to ‘executive technician’ 3.3

25 Teachers need to review seriously what they have done in the past with a view to sustaining or improving their practice in the future. Purely personal perspectives or self-reflection may lack critical insight and may not be wholly reliable. External input from new ideas or alternative perspectives is needed to challenge (and disrupt) settled ways of thinking. Critical reflection does not necessarily require that the teacher act as a fully fledged researcher, as it may be unrealistic to expect teachers to develop excellence in both teaching and research. Role of critical reflection 3.4

26  Craft-based and executive technician views are two sides of the same coin: while the former dismisses the role of research because it cannot give certainty, the latter embraces it because it mistakenly thinks that it can.  Both are wrong in their views of what educational research can and cannot do. Teachers need to be equipped to interrogate their own practice to understand why it is or isn’t working, or to learn from new ideas and adapt them to particular situations and contexts.  Research-informed teaching therefore implies a synergy between 3 domains of excellence: theoretical (episteme); technical (techne) and practical (phronesis).  Research can help us to understand the best ways of integrating theoretical and research-based knowledge with experience and situational awareness, in an iterative process based on learning in different domains. Summary: contribution of research 3.5

27 4. Summary of Findings: Contribution of Research to Initial Teacher Education

28  High-performing systems such as Finland, Singapore and the Netherlands are informed by research in three main ways: 1.Design of course content and programme structure 2.Informed by evidence about effective teaching 3.Enquiry-based approaches to teaching and learning  Not all such systems require student teachers to engage in research in a formal sense, but emphasis on enquiry-based teaching and learning is common to all.  Despite the common pattern, the contribution of research to each system’s success can only be inferred – there being a lack of systematic, rigorous research into the different components of ITE. Role of research in ITE 4.1 Source: Burn, K. & Mutton, T. (forthcoming) Review of ‘research-informed clinical practice’ in Teacher Education, Paper Commissioned for the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

29 1.Profound value and inherent limitations of decontextualized research-based knowledge. 2.Experienced teachers offer access to rich seams of knowledge and understanding, developed within particular communities of practice. 3.Experiential learning for beginning teachers is crucial to ‘test’ (all) the ideas offered to them. 4.Commitment to improve on sometimes poor conditions for professional learning. 5.Equip teachers to work in diverse contexts and with students from diverse backgrounds. 6.Ambition to produce teachers committed to, and equipped for, life-long learning, capable of generating new professional knowledge needed for different contexts & changing demands. Common Principles 4.2 Source: Burn, K. & Mutton, T. (forthcoming) Review of ‘research-informed clinical practice’ in Teacher Education, Paper Commissioned for the BERA-RSA Inquiry. For this Inquiry, Burn & Mutton identify a number of integrated ITE programmes in the UK and elsewhere, based on the model of ‘research-informed clinical practice’:

30  In the main, such programmes have been motivated by two dominant sets of concerns about the quality of existing ITE provision (McIntyre 1990): Problems of (dis) continuity between university and school, or a misconceived idea that ‘theory’ could be straightforwardly translated into practice; Problems relating to poor conditions of learning encountered by pre-service teachers in school and the poor quality of loosely-planned and monitored ‘field experiences’.  Although many programme are based on school-university ‘partnerships’, not all have been genuinely ‘collaborative’ rather than ‘complementary’ (Furlong et al. 2000).  Kriewaldt & Turnidge (2013) highlight the importance of ‘clinical reasoning’: the ‘analytical and intuitive cognitive processes that professionals use to arrive at a best judged ethical response in a specific practice-based context’. Responding to shared concerns 4.3

31 Established & emerging UK programmes  Oxford Internship Scheme  Glasgow West Teacher Education Initiative International programmes & integrated systems  In the USA: Professional Development Schools (PDS); Carnegie Corporation Teachers for a New Era (TNE)  University of Melbourne’s new 2-year Master of Teaching  ‘Realistic’ programmes in the Netherlands  Finland’s Teacher Training Schools (TTS) Influential ‘clinical’ programmes 4.4

32  Clinical experience has a positive effect on beginning teachers’ learning since they are better able to integrate theoretical and practical knowledge, resulting in greater confidence in that learning.  While research into the relationship between ITE and pupil outcomes is both limited and problematic, there is some evidence that clinical preparation is a factor in determining teacher effectiveness.  Graduates of programmes with a greater emphasis on clinical practice are better prepared for their first teaching post, but it is the quality of the clinical experience that matters. While an overall lack of school-based practice has a negative effect on pupil outcomes, more time in schools does not necessarily lead to better outcomes.  Graduates of programmes with an extended practicum experience in which school-based practice is ‘interlaced’ with university coursework have ‘increased confidence, are more effective teachers and are increasingly committed to teaching as a long-term career’ (Darling-Hammond and Bransford 2005: 411). Evidence of Impact 4.5 Source: Burn & Mutton (forthcoming) Review of ‘research-informed clinical practice’ in Teacher Education, Paper Commissioned for the BERA-RSA Inquiry, London: BERA.

33 Summary: Integrated ITE 4.6  Policy on initial teacher education in many countries has taken a ‘practicum turn’ in recent years, with greater emphasis on ‘field experiences’ gained in the classroom vs. university lecture theatre. HEI-led routes Research Teacher education RI-TE School Wider social context Integrated theory & practice  However, neither a simple increase in time spent at the ‘chalk face’, nor claims to be operating university- school ‘partnership’ will be sufficient to ensure high quality teacher education.  Both school and university offer important insights: the key issue is how well research-based knowledge is integrated with practical and experiential knowledge developed through teaching practice in schools – and the quality of that clinical experience. Teaching & learning context

34 5. Review of the Evidence: Contribution of Research to Teachers’ Continuing Professional Development and Learning (CPDL)

35  Contribution of specialist external expertise: Making use of external expertise, including expertise in the form of research evidence, to support planning in particular; However, use of external experts no guarantee of success; this depends on pedagogical content knowledge of providers.  Collaborative, structured peer support: especially use of reciprocal risk taking and professional dialogue as core learning strategies.  Use of data or evidence to challenge prevailing discourses: particularly low expectations of students and beliefs about how to teach particular curricula most effectively. Established features of effective CPDL 5.1 Source: Cordingley, P. (forthcoming) The contribution of research to teachers’ professional learning and development, Paper Commissioned by the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

36  Enquiry-oriented learning : Supported by use of tools and protocols to discipline learning and secure coherence and progression: Learning to learn from looking – though exploration of evidence about pupil outcomes in data rich settings; and through observing teaching and learning exchanges, especially when experimenting with new approaches; Focusing on why things do or don’t work in different contexts to develop an underpinning rationale or practical theory alongside practice.  Enquiry-oriented leadership to create research-rich conditions: Time to engage – with one or two exceptions, an extended time frame appears to be needed to develop and embed teachers’ professional learning. Encouragement and modelling, including specialist coaching Proactivity – taking responsibility for creating and using opportunities for professional learning within day-to-day school life. Features of effective CPDL (cont.) 5.2 Source: Cordingley, P. (forthcoming) The contribution of research to teachers’ professional learning and development, Paper Commissioned by the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

37  Changing practice in substantive ways is difficult. To understand how features of CPDL affect teachers’ learning, we need to understand the processes through which new information is interpreted & integrated: Inside the ‘black box’ of learning 5.3 Source: Timperley et al. (2007) Teacher Professional Learning and Development: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration (BES). New Zealand Ministry of Education. (i)Cueing and retrieving prior knowledge (ii)Becoming aware of new information and skills (iii)Creating dissonance with current position Congruent info. is more likely to be integrated; but creating dissonance can stimulate deeper learning. Content Teachers’ interpretation & integration Activities Teacher Outcomes a) Change in practice b) No change Professional Learning Context

38 Teachers’ responses are not uniform 5.4 4. Implement as required (adherence or compliance) 5. Actively engage with, own and apply new theory and practice and change practice substantively 6. Develop enquiry skills to detect when practice is not having the desired effect on student outcomes & meeting learners’ needs. 1.Reject/ignore new theory and practice, continue as before; 2.Continue with prior practice, believing it is new practice; 3.Select parts of new T & P and adapt to current practice; Limited or no effect Sustained, substantive effect  Sustained, substantive change is more likely to occur when teacher-learners are actively engaged and develop skills of enquiry and critical reflection: Provider-led CPDL implemented without active learner engagement or theoretical foundation is less likely to be sustained when expert support ends Adapted from Timperley et al. (2007) Teacher Professional Learning and Development: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration (BES). NZ Ministry of Education. (a) (b)

39 Role of research in CPDL 5.5 Catalyst or rationale to engage Front-loading of new learning Activities Revisit new knowledge Refine new practice in classrooms Adapted from: Timperley et al. (2007) Teacher Professional Learning and Development: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration (BES). NZ Ministry of Education. 2. Research-based knowledge provides the foundation for learning 3. Enquiry-oriented learning processes are key to sustained, substantive impact 4. Research findings inform the structure and sequence of programmes Typical sequence of provider-led CPDL 1. Use of data can provide the catalyst for engagement

40  Continuing professional development and learning (CPDL) activities seek to update, develop and broaden teachers’ knowledge and provide them with new skills and professional understanding.  Systematic reviews of the evidence provide clear, consistent findings about the main features of effective CPDL: specialist expertise; structured peer support; enquiry-oriented learning and enquiry-oriented leadership – including learning to learn from looking and focusing on why things do & don’t work in different contexts.  Analysis of professional learning processes sheds light on teachers’ diverse responses to CPDL courses & programmes, as well as highlighting conditions for sustained, substantive changes in practice. Summary of evidence on CPDL 5.6

41 6. Review of the Evidence: Contribution of Research to Teacher Quality and School Improvement

42 Impact of research-based teaching 6.1  Formal educational policies: teacher standards, investment etc.  Prevailing discourses: conceptions of teaching, dominant beliefs  Institutional structures: higher education and school organisation Wider social context A. Initial Training Context Recruitment Preparation (a) (b) B. Teaching and Learning Context Student Outcomes -Cognitive -Social -Emotional Students’ Learning & Understanding C. Student Outcomes Teachers’ Learning & Understanding High quality Teaching The Perspective Challenge The Definition Challenge HEI-led routes Research Teacher education RI-TE SCITT EBITT School-led routes - Enquiry - Reflection - Collaboration - Resources SCHOOL LEADERSHIP ORG. CULTURE

43  A. Initial Training Context a.Recruitment: while high-performing systems often have selective entry requirements, there is no evidence of a direct link between teachers’ academic calibre and pupil performance (Mentor et al. 2010). b.Preparation: Some evidence that teacher education & certification is linked to student performance, but the role of teacher education as a predictable variable of students’ achievement requires further investigation (Hattie 2007). Research into beginning teachers’ experiences of different entry routes in England is one source of evidence on nature of provision. However, variation in provision within routes may be at least as great as variation between routes, making it hard to generalise across different types of provision (Hobson et al. 2009). Research-informed Teaching 6.2 Source: Mincu, M. (forthcoming) Teacher Quality and School Improvement: What is the Role of Research?, Paper Commissioned by the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

44  B. Classroom practice and learning processes Effective teachers possess a wide repertoire of instructional approaches, based on sound pedagogical content knowledge, detailed focus on student learning and application of appropriate techniques to meet learners’ diverse needs. Teaching for higher-level knowledge & skills requires more sophisticated approaches: e.g. teaching with meta-cognition as part of teaching for meta- cognition. Beyond the classroom, teachers’ collaborative work at the school and system level may greatly contribute to transforming learning processes, by building bridges between classrooms and departments, engaging as leaders and active enquirers (Earl & Temperley 2006). Research-informed Teaching 6.3 Source: Mincu, M. (forthcoming) Teacher Quality and School Improvement: What is the Role of Research?, Paper Commissioned by the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

45 Use of data and research as part of broader capacity-building strategies, to create ‘data-rich’ and ‘research-rich’ school systems and environments; (shift away from accountability, reducing reliance on regulatory mechanisms and central oversight); ‘Outside-inside’: use of external input (e.g. new ideas or external research findings) to stimulate deeper engagement and critical reflection from the ‘inside’; Research networks & partnerships: school-to-school collaboration supported by specialist expertise and partnerships with universities and local authorities/officials, to gather and infuse new thinking into the system; Enquiry-oriented leadership: promoting research and evaluation across the school, in departments and by classroom teachers; adopting a more systematic approach to collecting, analysing and using data and evidence in course of on-going work. Research-rich schools & systems 6.4  Evaluations of successful and highly improved school systems highlight the contribution of research at a school and system level: Source: Mincu, M. (forthcoming) Teacher Quality and School Improvement: What is the Role of Research?, Paper Commissioned by the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

46 A continuum of integrated ITE & CPDL 6.5 - Enquiry - Reflection - Collaboration - Resources SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Training Providers Higher Education Institutions Professional Associations ORG. CULTURE TEACHING SCHOOL Educational research Teacher education RI-TE NLE  Formal policies (funding, teaching standards, curricula etc.)  Prevailing discourses & dominant beliefs  Institutional structures Wider social context Knowledge Exchange Teaching and Learning Context Learners School and Classroom Context

47 7. Conclusions & Next Steps

48  Systematic reviews provide clear, consistent evidence about the contribution of research to teachers’ professional learning and student outcomes, including the use of data to spark engagement, use of research-based knowledge in the content and use of evidence to inform the sequence of learning activities.  This robust evidence demonstrates the importance of integrating teachers’ practical and theoretical knowledge in iterative processes – in contrast to both the ‘craft- based’ and ‘executive technician’ views of teaching.  Nevertheless, achieving sustained, substantive change in practice is not easy. Embedding professional learning depends on creating the conditions for research- rich teaching and learning, by building research capacity across institutions and establishing effective partnerships between schools and external, specialist expertise. Conclusions (1) 7.1

49  High-performing systems display common features of research-rich practice in their respective ITE programmes. While not all require student teachers to engage in research in a formal sense, enquiry-oriented practice is a key feature of each.  Within the UK, cross-national variation in policy discourse, content and process of teacher education reflects different conceptions of teaching and differing beliefs about how the qualities of ‘good’ teachers are developed.  Research into beginning teachers’ experiences of different entry routes in England is one source of evidence on nature of provision. However, variation in provision within routes may be at least as great as variation between routes, making it hard to generalise across different types of provision.  Evidence about the differential impact of ITE entry routes is less conclusive, due to lack of research (investment) in rigorous, systematic evaluations – leaving the field vulnerable to non-evidence based critiques and untested proposals for reform. Conclusions (2) 7.2

50 Key Questions for the next stage of the Inquiry: Q. How does current provision across the UK measure up to the goal of a research-rich, data-rich system? Q. How do we build this research-rich culture and environment?

51 For more information about the BERA-RSA Inquiry, please visit the BERA website: www.bera.ac.uk or contact Louise Bamfield at louise.bamfield@rsa.org.ukwww.bera.ac.uklouise.bamfield@rsa.org.uk


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