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Research and Teacher Education: the BERA-RSA Inquiry

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1 Research and Teacher Education: the BERA-RSA Inquiry
Presentation to UCET 15 October 2013

2 Outline of Presentation
Introduction to the Inquiry Conceptual framework & policy context Philosophical reflections on role of research Summary of Evidence: Benefits of integrated ITE Benefits of enquiry-oriented professional learning Impact of research-based teaching at school & system level Conclusion and Next Steps

3 1. About the Inquiry

4 1.1 Aims and Scope Shape debate – by collecting and reviewing evidence about the role which research-informed teacher education plays in promoting school improvement and improved teaching and learning; Inform policy – by making recommendations to develop the relationship between research and teacher education; Influence practice – developing practical approaches to connect researchers, teacher educators, teachers and others. Scope of the Inquiry: Includes policy and provision for both ITE and CPD in each of the four nations: England, Scotland, Wales & Northern Ireland. Launched in March 2013 to investigate the contribution of research to teachers’ professional learning and development, at a time of uncertainty about the future of research-informed teacher education, the BERA-RSA Inquiry has a number of key aims, as set out here: First, it aims to shape debate on the requirements of high quality teacher education and the role of research in improving the quality of teaching and learning; to Second, it aims to inform policy by developing policy recommendations; Third, it aims to influence practice e.g. by developing practical approaches to connect educational researchers, teacher educators, teachers and others. Follow-up to BERA-UCET review (Whitty et al. 2012), which highlighted synergies between educational research and provision for teacher education, whilst pointing out that the nature of the relationship is not widely understood.

5 Steering & Reference Groups
1.2 Steering & Reference Groups Steering Group members: John Furlong Joe Hallgarten Ian Menter Pamela Munn Geoff Whitty Nick Johnson Plus advisers: Graham Donaldson, Dr Carmel Gallagher Sir Alasdair Macdonald, Lord Putnam and Sir Alan Steer Secretariat at RSA led by Louise Bamfield Reference Group members from the following organisations: Teacher Development Trust TEAG UCET UUK ACSL AcSS ATL BELMAS College of Teachers GTCNI GTCS GTCW HEA NASUWT NUS SCoTENS SCETT SSAT STEC

6 1.3 Main areas of enquiry Mapping provision: How does policy and provision for teacher education vary across the UK and internationally, and what is the role of research in different entry routes and programmes? Philosophical reflections: What a priori arguments can be made about the role of research-based knowledge in the development of teachers’ professional expertise? Review of the evidence: What contribution has research been shown to make to teachers’ professional learning, both at beginning and over the course of their careers, and what is the impact on teaching quality, school improvement & student outcomes? What are the implications for policy and practice?

7 Commissioned Papers 1.4 A. Mapping provision:
Review of UK policy and practice – Prof Gary Beauchamp, Prof Linda Clarke, Dr Moira Hulme, Prof Jean Murray Review of international policy and practice – Dr Teresa Tatto B. Philosophical reflections: Philosophical reflections on the contribution of research to teachers’ professional knowledge – Prof Chris Winch, Dr Alis Oancea, Dr Janet Orchard C. Review of the evidence: Review of ‘research-informed clinical practice’ in initial teacher education – Dr Katharine Burn, Trevor Mutton Review of the role of research in teacher quality and school improvement – Dr Monica Mincu Review of teachers’ continuing professional development and learning (CPDL) and the continuum of professional learning – Philippa Cordingley

8 Engagement in Research
Inquiry Timeline April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Start-up Phase 1: Evidence gathering 2: Analysis & Interim Findings Phase 3: Policy Implications & Final Report STEERING GROUP MEETINGS Project Management REFERENCE GROUP MEETINGS 1 2 COMMISSIONED PAPERS FURTHER ANALYSIS & REVIEW Interim Report FINAL REPORT Evidence & Analysis CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS Review of Teacher Engagement in Research Phase One – evidence-gathering and identifying gaps in the research literature (March to Sept) Phase Two – policy implications, conclusions and recommendations (Oct to Dec 2013) Phase Three – publication and dissemination (Jan ) LAUNCH & PUBLICITY Launch & Dissemination Oxford Seminar June Inquiry Seminar July BERA CONFERENCE Sept Stakeholder events to discuss key themes Policy Seminar Co-ordinate press activity and on-going dissemination 8

9 2a. Conceptual framework: Defining key terms

10 2.1 Inquiry Questions What is the role and contribution of research within initial teacher education and in-service programmes of continuing professional development and learning (CPDL)? What is the impact of research-based ITE & CPDL on improving the quality of teaching and learning outcomes for students? What are the barriers to creating research-rich environments at a school and system level? Source: Cordingley, P. (forthcoming) The contribution of research to teachers’ professional learning and development, Paper Commissioned by the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

11 2.2 Starting assumptions Intuitively, we may assume a positive (or negative) relationship between research and teacher education. Rather than pre-judging or taking the relationship for granted, the purpose of the Inquiry is to interrogate the evidence – adhering to the spirit and methods of robust educational research. This means being open to the possibility that existing research is inconclusive, or indeed finding evidence to suggest neutral or negative effects on teaching or learning outcomes. Intuitively, research-based knowledge might seem to make a positive contribution to the development of teachers’ professional learning. Not all have taken this view however: from philosophers, to policy-makers, to teachers ‘on the ground’, there are those who argue for a predominantly (or purely) experiential or practical model of teacher education. Rather than pre-judging or taking the relationship for granted, the purpose of Inquiry is to interrogate the evidence – adhering to the spirit and methods of robust educational research. This means being open to the possibility of finding no evidence of a positive relationship, or even finding evidence to suggest adverse effects on teaching or learning outcomes. We acknowledge this risk and are committed to making explicit our starting assumptions about how research may benefit policy and practice and then testing these against the evidence.

12 Defining Education(al) Research:
2.3 Defining Education(al) Research: Research is variously defined, according to different epistemic traditions: E.g. from a humanist tradition: “original investigation undertaken in order to gain knowledge and understanding; scholarship; the invention and generation of ideas…where these lead to new or substantially improved insights (HEFCE 1999); Or simply: “systematic inquiry” that is “made public and exposed to collective criticism” (Stenhouse 1985); Research in education is characterised by its multi-disciplinary nature, diverse methodologies and broad fields of interest (e.g. neurological studies of brain functioning, psychological studies conducted in experimental situations, large-scale, multi-method cohort studies, plus richly detailed socio-cultural studies of the complex nature of teaching and learning etc.) Education(al) research may be about education or for education (Whitty 2006). For this audience, I don’t need to spend time defining research or outlining its multi-disciplinary nature. Suffice it to say that the Inquiry recognises the diversity of methods and broad fields of interest encompassed by both education and educational research.

13 Engaging in and with research
2.4 Engaging in and with research Practitioners may engage with research – by ‘accessing publicly available evidence, interpreting it and adapting it (with appropriate support) to their own contexts’. Practitioners may also be involved in research, whether as active participants & co-designers, or as more passive subjects of researcher-led studies. Bell et al. (2010) define ‘engaging in research’ as being actively involved in all steps of the process: address a research question; analyse and report systematically on the evidence collected; use instruments (observation and interview schedules etc.) to collect evidence that enables them to explore adverse as well as positive effects of an intervention/new teaching strategies; and analyse and report the evidence from their enquiries publicly. Teachers not directly or formally involved in research may still adopt research-related activities, by engaging in enquiry-oriented practice in research-rich schools and classrooms. It is useful to note the distinction made by Bell/Cordingley and colleagues, between engaging with research and engaging in research. Note that in their research, the Practitioners’ Use of Research Review (PURR), in the included studies, all teachers engaged in research were also engaging with (though not vice versa). However, teachers may still take part in research-related activities, even when they are not directly or formally involved in research: as we shall see, engaging in enquiry-oriented practice, especially in research-rich schools and systems appears to be important for the quality of teaching and learning. Discuss this further below. Source: Bell et al. (2010) Report of Professional Practitioner Use of Research Review: Practitioner Engagement in and/or with Research, Coventry: CUREE, GTCE, LISI & NTRP.

14 Categories of Research Engagement
2.5 Categories of Research Engagement Teacher-led TISS studies Masters-based studies In With In & With Most studies from CPD Reviews Academic studies Many CPD programmes develop skills for enquiry-oriented practice, without necessarily requiring engagement in research in formal sense Researcher-led, larger studies Researcher-led Adapted from: Bell et al. (2010) Report of Professional Practitioner Use of Research Review: Practitioner Engagement in and/or with Research, Coventry: CUREE, GTCE, LISI & NTRP.

15 Role of Research in Teacher Education
2.6 Role of Research in Teacher Education Student teachers learn about research findings +/or methodologies Student teachers do research as part of programme requirements Teachers draw on research findings to inform their individual practice Individual engagement in research study or thesis (e.g. Masters) Individual teachers or departments use data to support improvement School staff/pupils take part in researcher-led study or evaluation Collaborative engagement in research: school staff engage in co-designed research with specialist support School leaders encourage & support entire staff to draw on relevant research findings, update their learning, share knowledge and engage in enquiry-oriented practice in research-rich environments Professional research projects about/for education. Teacher educators read research and use in own courses Individuals evaluate their own practice and use to inform teaching Collaborative engagement in +/or with research to inform design and revision of research-based TE programmes Teachers School The basic distinction between engaging in and/or with research applies at different levels: Individual – e.g. individual teachers or teacher educators may use research to inform their own teaching and courses; or may conduct an individual research project or inquiry; Institutional – e.g. collaborative engagement within or between schools; or within university education departments. HEI Teacher education Research RI-TE

16 Methodological Challenges
2.7 Methodological Challenges Wider social context Formal educational policies: teacher standards, investment etc. Prevailing discourses: conceptions of teaching, dominant beliefs Institutional structures: higher education and school organisation A. Initial Training Context B. Teaching and Learning Context C. Student Outcomes (a) Recruitment High quality Teaching Students’ Learning & Understanding (b) Teachers’ Learning & Understanding Preparation Student Outcomes Cognitive Social Emotional Research into beginning teachers’ experiences of different entry routes in England is one source of evidence on nature of provision. However, variation in provision within routes may be at least as great as variation between routes, making it hard to generalise across different types of provision. Note the broad & narrow definitions of ‘teacher effectiveness’ & student outcomes: ‘Teacher effectiveness’ defined narrowly in terms of classroom-level factors; ‘Teaching quality’ defined more broadly to include features of the school environment, pre-existing teacher characteristics etc Student outcomes defined narrowly (e.g. in terms of standardised test scores) vs. broader set of outcomes, encompassing cognitive, metacognitive and non-cognitive outcomes. The Perspective Challenge The Definition Challenge The Measurement Challenge

17 2b. Policy background and context

18 Policy background and context
2.1 Policy background and context International comparative analysis has drawn attention to the importance of teaching – ‘effective’ or ‘high quality’ teaching is now widely acknowledged to be the most important school level factor in shaping students’ learning outcomes. Teacher education is increasingly seen as a policy priority because of its impact upon teacher quality. However, while there has been a general shift towards university-based teacher education and longer duration of initial training courses, some countries (notably the USA and UK) have developed alternative, school- and employment-based routes. Intuitively, research-based knowledge might seem to make a positive contribution to the development of teachers’ professional learning. Not all have taken this view however: from philosophers, to policy-makers, to teachers ‘on the ground’, there are those who argue for a predominantly (or purely) experiential or practical model of teacher education. Rather than pre-judging or taking the relationship for granted, the purpose of Inquiry is to interrogate the evidence – adhering to the spirit and methods of robust educational research. This means being open to the possibility of finding no evidence of a positive relationship, or even finding evidence to suggest adverse effects on teaching or learning outcomes. We acknowledge this risk and are committed to making explicit our starting assumptions about how research may benefit policy and practice and then testing these against the evidence.

19 2.2 UK policy context Increasing divergence in entry routes across four home nations. England an outlier in shift to school-based routes and in content of revised Teacher Standards (framed by ‘craft’ view of teaching). Explicit statements of teacher professionalism in rest of UK: “Teacher as a researcher” and “reflective practice” endorsed in GTCNI framework; GTCS standards expect teachers to “systematically engage with research”; No explicit reference within Welsh standards, but prominent place for research in inspection guidance for ITT providers (and some reference to trainees). Increasing divergence in entry routes is evident across four home nations. England an outlier both in accelerated shift to school and employment-based routes, and also in content of revised Teacher Standards, framed by dominant discourse of teaching as a ‘craft’ – requiring subject knowledge and practical skills – not an intellectual, research-based profession. By contrast, explicit statements of teacher professionalism in rest of UK: “Teacher as a researcher” and “reflective practice” endorsed in GTCNI framework; GTCS standards expect beginning teachers to “systematically engage with research”; No explicit reference within Welsh standards, but prominent place for research in inspection guidance for ITT providers (and some reference to trainees). Introduction of teaching schools network in England and emphasis on evidence-based policy presents potentially significant opportunities (despite concerns about the changing infrastructure and re-emergence of a ‘Big Science’ view of ‘evidence’). Source: Tatto, T. (forthcoming) International Policy and Practice in Teacher Education: The Role of Research, Paper Commissioned for the BERA-RSA Inquiry, London: BERA.

20 Renewed focus on use of evidence
2.3 Renewed focus on use of evidence Since 2010, England has seen the introduction of a new network of teaching schools, with responsibility for R&D within alliances: emerging infrastructure offers potential for more distributed leadership and collaborative engagement in producing and utilising ‘knowledge However, picture on ground is more patchy, with R&D elements slower to take off than other aspects of the Teaching Schools’ remit. At the same time, there is renewed emphasis by government on promoting evidence-based policy and practice: Arguably reflects a ‘Big Science’ view of what counts as evidence (e.g. RCTs) Although new investment in educational research is welcome, there is a risk that practitioner engagement will be restricted to applying protocols and toolkits, rather than deeper involvement in interpreting and adapting findings in practice. Increasing divergence in entry routes is evident across four home nations. England an outlier both in accelerated shift to school and employment-based routes, and also in content of revised Teacher Standards, framed by dominant discourse of teaching as a ‘craft’ – requiring subject knowledge and practical skills – not an intellectual, research-based profession. By contrast, explicit statements of teacher professionalism in rest of UK: “Teacher as a researcher” and “reflective practice” endorsed in GTCNI framework; GTCS standards expect beginning teachers to “systematically engage with research”; No explicit reference within Welsh standards, but prominent place for research in inspection guidance for ITT providers (and some reference to trainees). Introduction of teaching schools network in England and emphasis on evidence-based policy presents potentially significant opportunities (despite concerns about the changing infrastructure and re-emergence of a ‘Big Science’ view of ‘evidence’). Source: Tatto, T. (forthcoming) International Policy and Practice in Teacher Education: The Role of Research, Paper Commissioned for the BERA-RSA Inquiry, London: BERA.

21 3. Philosophical Reflections
Having introduced some key concepts and begun to define our terms in section 2, and sketched the dominant trends and themes in the current policy context in section 3, we turn next to the nature of teachers’ professional knowledge and the role that research may play in nurturing it. Hand over to Janet Orchard to present this section.

22 Three conceptions of teaching
3.1 Three conceptions of teaching Teaching as a ‘craft’: views subject knowledge and situational awareness as paramount; dismisses theoretical or empirical-based knowledge as abstract or irrelevant to specific context. Executive technician: embraces established research findings, but role of the teacher is to follow protocols and apply rules to practice, not interpret or adapt to particular needs or situation. Teacher as professional: teachers exercise their own judgement in the classroom and make decisions about how to interpret theoretical and research-based knowledge and whether/how to adopt within their own practice. How do teachers develop knowledge and the capacity to exercise professional judgement? What is the role of research-based knowledge in developing teachers’ professional expertise? Source: Winch, C. et al (forthcoming) The contribution of research to teachers’ professional learning, Paper Commissioned for the BERA-RSA Inquiry, London: BERA.

23 Limitations of ‘craft’ view
3.2 Limitations of ‘craft’ view Problems with assumptions about purely tacit or intuitive knowledge: To be secure in a craft does not just mean developing practical skill and tacit wisdom; it also requires “the capacity to offer a rational account of it” (Dunne 1993) – i.e. to formulate and articulate practical theories to guide own and others’ practice. Problems with relying on ‘common sense’: What is common sense may often derive from poor quality research distilled into folk maxims or ‘rules of thumb’. As Keynes argued, in the case of business, ‘common sense’ usually consists of the “unconscious repetition of theories that have already been discredited”. As such, it is an inherently conservative and unreliable basis for judgement. Problems with purely tacit or intuitive knowledge For some advocates, accomplished performances involve a kind of sensibility that can only be acquired through experience and cannot be fully articulated. But to be secure in a craft does not just mean developing practical skill and tacit wisdom; it also requires “the capacity to offer a rational account of it” (Dunne 1993) – i.e. to formulate and articulate practical theories to guide own and others’ practice. Problems with relying on ‘common sense’ Other advocates argue that common sense is a better guide to action than theoretical or research-based knowledge, since both entail generalisations and simplifications that make them of limited use in dealing with particularities of real-life situations. However, what is common sense may often derive from poor quality research distilled into folk maxims or ‘rules of thumb’. As Keynes argued, in the case of business, ‘common sense’ usually consists of the “unconscious repetition of theories that have already been discredited”. As such, it is an inherently conservative and unreliable basis for judgement. Furthermore, those suspicious of research tend to commit the ‘uniqueness fallacy’: As Richard Pring observes, every situation is unique in some regard, but none is unique in every regard. Hence good theory can help capture those commonalities, whilst leaving necessary space for interpretation and application to particular circumstances (and space to revise and refine the theory in response to practical experience).

24 Objections to ‘executive technician’
3.3 Objections to ‘executive technician’ Unlike the craft view of teaching, the teacher-as-technician is largely devoid of professional discretion and is not generally required to understand the rationale behind the approach. But one cannot give up the responsibility of thinking clearly about what research might or might not be telling us. Teachers need to be equipped to interrogate their own practice to understand why it is or isn’t working, or to learn from new ideas and adapt them to particular situations and contexts.

25 Role of critical reflection
3.4 Role of critical reflection Teachers need to review seriously what they have done in the past with a view to sustaining or improving their practice in the future. Purely personal perspectives or self-reflection may lack critical insight and may not be wholly reliable. External input from new ideas or alternative perspectives is needed to challenge (and disrupt) settled ways of thinking. Critical reflection does not necessarily require that the teacher act as a fully fledged researcher, as it may be unrealistic to expect teachers to develop excellence in both teaching and research.

26 Summary: contribution of research
3.5 Summary: contribution of research Craft-based and executive technician views are two sides of the same coin: while the former dismisses the role of research because it cannot give certainty, the latter embraces it because it mistakenly thinks that it can. Both are wrong in their views of what educational research can and cannot do. Teachers need to be equipped to interrogate their own practice to understand why it is or isn’t working, or to learn from new ideas and adapt them to particular situations and contexts. Research-informed teaching therefore implies a synergy between 3 domains of excellence: theoretical (episteme); technical (techne) and practical (phronesis). Research can help us to understand the best ways of integrating theoretical and research-based knowledge with experience and situational awareness, in an iterative process based on learning in different domains.

27 4. Summary of Findings: Contribution of Research to Initial Teacher Education

28 4.1 Role of research in ITE High-performing systems such as Finland, Singapore and the Netherlands are informed by research in three main ways: Design of course content and programme structure Informed by evidence about effective teaching Enquiry-based approaches to teaching and learning Not all such systems require student teachers to engage in research in a formal sense, but emphasis on enquiry-based teaching and learning is common to all. Despite the common pattern, the contribution of research to each system’s success can only be inferred – there being a lack of systematic, rigorous research into the different components of ITE. In Finland, teaching practice occurs in Teacher Training Schools (with designated R&D role) or selected Field Schools. The idea of teacher-as-researcher is at the heart of the approach. Despite some important differences in approach (e.g. to testing and accountability), Singapore is similarly informed by research in the first three ways. Unlike Finland, the idea of teacher-as-researcher is not integral to the approach. E.g. where Finland and Singapore differ is in relation to the fourth characteristic of ‘research-based’ teacher education: namely, the requirement or expectation that student teachers will be equipped with research knowledge and skills, learning how to design, conduct and present original research on practical and theoretical aspects of education (Salberg). Source: Burn, K. & Mutton, T. (forthcoming) Review of ‘research-informed clinical practice’ in Teacher Education, Paper Commissioned for the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

29 4.2 Common Principles For this Inquiry, Burn & Mutton identify a number of integrated ITE programmes in the UK and elsewhere, based on the model of ‘research-informed clinical practice’: Profound value and inherent limitations of decontextualized research-based knowledge. Experienced teachers offer access to rich seams of knowledge and understanding, developed within particular communities of practice. Experiential learning for beginning teachers is crucial to ‘test’ (all) the ideas offered to them. Commitment to improve on sometimes poor conditions for professional learning. Equip teachers to work in diverse contexts and with students from diverse backgrounds. Ambition to produce teachers committed to, and equipped for, life-long learning, capable of generating new professional knowledge needed for different contexts & changing demands. Source: Burn, K. & Mutton, T. (forthcoming) Review of ‘research-informed clinical practice’ in Teacher Education, Paper Commissioned for the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

30 Responding to shared concerns
4.3 Responding to shared concerns In the main, such programmes have been motivated by two dominant sets of concerns about the quality of existing ITE provision (McIntyre 1990): Problems of (dis) continuity between university and school, or a misconceived idea that ‘theory’ could be straightforwardly translated into practice; Problems relating to poor conditions of learning encountered by pre-service teachers in school and the poor quality of loosely-planned and monitored ‘field experiences’. Although many programme are based on school-university ‘partnerships’, not all have been genuinely ‘collaborative’ rather than ‘complementary’ (Furlong et al. 2000). Kriewaldt & Turnidge (2013) highlight the importance of ‘clinical reasoning’: the ‘analytical and intuitive cognitive processes that professionals use to arrive at a best judged ethical response in a specific practice-based context’.

31 Influential ‘clinical’ programmes
4.4 Influential ‘clinical’ programmes Established & emerging UK programmes Oxford Internship Scheme Glasgow West Teacher Education Initiative International programmes & integrated systems In the USA: Professional Development Schools (PDS); Carnegie Corporation Teachers for a New Era (TNE) University of Melbourne’s new 2-year Master of Teaching ‘Realistic’ programmes in the Netherlands Finland’s Teacher Training Schools (TTS) Oxford Internship Scheme: jointly developed in mid-1980s by Oxford University and Oxfordshire LEA and its schools, with time interspersed in both school and university settings. Teaching was presented to “interns” as a process of hypothesis-testing, requiring interpretation and judgement in action, rather than the routinised application of learned repertoires. More recently, the Glasgow West Teacher Education Initiative has adopted a similar enquiry-based stance, drawing predominantly on US influences (Conroy et al, under review). In the US, Professional Development Schools (PDS), or ‘clinical schools’ were developed from the mid-1980s on the teaching hospital model, in which the ‘results of research feed back directly to patient care and student preparation’. Both in PDS schools and also in the Teachers for a New Era (TNE) programme (through which $5 million was invested in 11 institutions over five years), specific emphasis was placed on preparing teachers effectively for work in urban schools with diverse student populations. Each served as a model for the University of Melbourne’s new two-year Master of Teaching, in which student-teachers are supported by a network of school experts (‘teaching fellows’) and university-based expects (‘clinical specialists’) to make connections between school field experiences and academic coursework, and to develop the skills of ‘clinical reasoning’. Working within ‘a common framework and a shared vision of teaching and learning’, teacher educators in Utrect and Leiden (research universities) and at the Amsterdam School of Education (a university for applied sciences), X Like PDS schools in the US, staff in Finland’s Teacher Training Schools (TTS) also pursue research and development roles in collaboration with university departments of teacher education. By equipping student teachers with the skills that they need to conduct their own research (reported in their Master’s dissertation), the Finnish system enables them not only to adopt a research-orientation towards their own practice, but also to evaluate, interpret and adapt findings from others’ research.

32 4.5 Evidence of Impact Clinical experience has a positive effect on beginning teachers’ learning since they are better able to integrate theoretical and practical knowledge, resulting in greater confidence in that learning. While research into the relationship between ITE and pupil outcomes is both limited and problematic, there is some evidence that clinical preparation is a factor in determining teacher effectiveness. Graduates of programmes with a greater emphasis on clinical practice are better prepared for their first teaching post, but it is the quality of the clinical experience that matters. While an overall lack of school-based practice has a negative effect on pupil outcomes, more time in schools does not necessarily lead to better outcomes. Graduates of programmes with an extended practicum experience in which school-based practice is ‘interlaced’ with university coursework have ‘increased confidence, are more effective teachers and are increasingly committed to teaching as a long-term career’ (Darling-Hammond and Bransford 2005: 411). Source: Burn & Mutton (forthcoming) Review of ‘research-informed clinical practice’ in Teacher Education, Paper Commissioned for the BERA-RSA Inquiry, London: BERA.

33 Summary: Integrated ITE
4.6 Summary: Integrated ITE Policy on initial teacher education in many countries has taken a ‘practicum turn’ in recent years, with greater emphasis on ‘field experiences’ gained in the classroom vs. university lecture theatre. Wider social context Teaching & learning context However, neither a simple increase in time spent at the ‘chalk face’, nor claims to be operating university-school ‘partnership’ will be sufficient to ensure high quality teacher education. Both school and university offer important insights: the key issue is how well research-based knowledge is integrated with practical and experiential knowledge developed through teaching practice in schools – and the quality of that clinical experience. HEI-led routes Teacher education Research RI-TE Integrated theory & practice School

34 5. Review of the Evidence:
Contribution of Research to Teachers’ Continuing Professional Development and Learning (CPDL)

35 Established features of effective CPDL
5.1 Established features of effective CPDL Contribution of specialist external expertise: Making use of external expertise, including expertise in the form of research evidence, to support planning in particular; However, use of external experts no guarantee of success; this depends on pedagogical content knowledge of providers. Collaborative, structured peer support: especially use of reciprocal risk taking and professional dialogue as core learning strategies. Use of data or evidence to challenge prevailing discourses: particularly low expectations of students and beliefs about how to teach particular curricula most effectively. Source: Cordingley, P. (forthcoming) The contribution of research to teachers’ professional learning and development, Paper Commissioned by the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

36 Features of effective CPDL (cont.)
5.2 Features of effective CPDL (cont.) Enquiry-oriented learning: Supported by use of tools and protocols to discipline learning and secure coherence and progression: Learning to learn from looking – though exploration of evidence about pupil outcomes in data rich settings; and through observing teaching and learning exchanges, especially when experimenting with new approaches; Focusing on why things do or don’t work in different contexts to develop an underpinning rationale or practical theory alongside practice. Enquiry-oriented leadership to create research-rich conditions: Time to engage – with one or two exceptions, an extended time frame appears to be needed to develop and embed teachers’ professional learning. Encouragement and modelling, including specialist coaching Proactivity – taking responsibility for creating and using opportunities for professional learning within day-to-day school life. Source: Cordingley, P. (forthcoming) The contribution of research to teachers’ professional learning and development, Paper Commissioned by the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

37 Inside the ‘black box’ of learning Professional Learning Context
5.3 Inside the ‘black box’ of learning Changing practice in substantive ways is difficult. To understand how features of CPDL affect teachers’ learning, we need to understand the processes through which new information is interpreted & integrated: Cueing and retrieving prior knowledge Becoming aware of new information and skills Creating dissonance with current position Professional Learning Context Content Activities Teachers’ interpretation & integration Largely self-explanatory why the identified features of effective CPDL would have a positive effect on teachers’ learning; But to understand how the identified features of CPDL affect individual teacher’s learning, we need to look more closely at the hidden processes that take place inside the black box of teacher and student learning. Cueing and retrieving prior knowledge: consolidates prior knowledge by bringing to the surface for reflection and (re)examination; Becoming aware of new information and skills, which are consistent with current values and beliefs – and so can be readily integrated into existing learning and then incorporated into practice; Creating dissonance with a teacher’s current position: when new information is incongruent with existing views, values and beliefs; may be resolved by accepting or rejecting what is proposed. Learning which builds on prior knowledge is more likely to be integrated; but creating dissonance can be a powerful way to achieve deeper learning. Teacher Outcomes a) Change in practice b) No change Congruent info. is more likely to be integrated; but creating dissonance can stimulate deeper learning. Source: Timperley et al. (2007) Teacher Professional Learning and Development: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration (BES). New Zealand Ministry of Education.

38 Teachers’ responses are not uniform Sustained, substantive effect
5.4 Teachers’ responses are not uniform Sustained, substantive change is more likely to occur when teacher-learners are actively engaged and develop skills of enquiry and critical reflection: Reject/ignore new theory and practice, continue as before; Continue with prior practice, believing it is new practice; Select parts of new T & P and adapt to current practice; (a) Limited or no effect Provider-led CPDL implemented without active learner engagement or theoretical foundation is less likely to be sustained when expert support ends 4. Implement as required (adherence or compliance) 5. Actively engage with, own and apply new theory and practice and change practice substantively 6. Develop enquiry skills to detect when practice is not having the desired effect on student outcomes & meeting learners’ needs. Sustained, substantive effect (b) Adapted from Timperley et al. (2007) Teacher Professional Learning and Development: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration (BES). NZ Ministry of Education.

39 5.5 Role of research in CPDL Typical sequence of provider-led CPDL
1. Use of data can provide the catalyst for engagement Catalyst or rationale to engage Front-loading of new learning 2. Research-based knowledge provides the foundation for learning 4. Research findings inform the structure and sequence of programmes Activities 3. Enquiry-oriented learning processes are key to sustained, substantive impact As part of their comprehensive Best Evidence Review, Timperley et al. (2007) returned to a sample of original (New Zealand) studies to understand how professional learning occurred. Case studies suggest that moments of dissonance can be an important way to challenge and expose tacit beliefs and trigger reconstruction of current knowledge. Tacit knowledge is built up over time and embedded in personal experience. It is accepted because it is known (or believed) to work, but it can be a deterrent to creating change because it is often unexamined and unquestioned. By challenging challenge tacit knowledge and creating philosophical tension, dissonance can serve to reconstruct current knowledge (Hannay and Ross) Revisit new knowledge Refine new practice in classrooms Adapted from: Timperley et al. (2007) Teacher Professional Learning and Development: Best Evidence Synthesis Iteration (BES). NZ Ministry of Education.

40 Summary of evidence on CPDL
5.6 Summary of evidence on CPDL Continuing professional development and learning (CPDL) activities seek to update, develop and broaden teachers’ knowledge and provide them with new skills and professional understanding. Systematic reviews of the evidence provide clear, consistent findings about the main features of effective CPDL: specialist expertise; structured peer support; enquiry-oriented learning and enquiry-oriented leadership – including learning to learn from looking and focusing on why things do & don’t work in different contexts. Analysis of professional learning processes sheds light on teachers’ diverse responses to CPDL courses & programmes, as well as highlighting conditions for sustained, substantive changes in practice. Clear, consistent findings from systematic reviews, identifying main features of effective CPDL: specialist expertise; structured peer support; enquiry-oriented learning and enquiry-oriented leadership. Analysis of learning processes helps illuminate how these features affect teachers’ learning and sheds light on the differing responses of diverse teachers and communities, and teachers’ different learning needs over the course of their professional career. Although the features of effective CPDL are well understood and can be used to inform the design of programmes, embedding professional learning in schools and classrooms depends on creating the conditions for research-rich teaching and learning by building research capacity across institutions, establishing effective partnerships between schools and external experts.

41 6. Review of the Evidence:
Contribution of Research to Teacher Quality and School Improvement

42 Impact of research-based teaching
6.1 Impact of research-based teaching Wider social context Formal educational policies: teacher standards, investment etc. Prevailing discourses: conceptions of teaching, dominant beliefs Institutional structures: higher education and school organisation A. Initial Training Context B. Teaching and Learning Context (a) Recruitment High quality Teaching C. Student Outcomes (b) Teachers’ Learning & Understanding Preparation Students’ Learning & Understanding Research into beginning teachers’ experiences of different entry routes in England is one source of evidence on nature of provision. However, variation in provision within routes may be at least as great as variation between routes, making it hard to generalise across different types of provision. Note the broad & narrow definitions of ‘teacher effectiveness’ & student outcomes: ‘Teacher effectiveness’ defined narrowly in terms of classroom-level factors; ‘Teaching quality’ defined more broadly to include features of the school environment, pre-existing teacher characteristics etc Student outcomes defined narrowly (e.g. in terms of standardised test scores) vs. broader set of outcomes, encompassing cognitive, metacognitive and non-cognitive outcomes. HEI-led routes Research Teacher education RI-TE Student Outcomes Cognitive Social Emotional SCHOOL LEADERSHIP Enquiry Reflection Collaboration Resources The Perspective Challenge SCITT EBITT School-led routes The Definition Challenge ORG. CULTURE

43 Research-informed Teaching
6.2 Research-informed Teaching A. Initial Training Context Recruitment: while high-performing systems often have selective entry requirements, there is no evidence of a direct link between teachers’ academic calibre and pupil performance (Mentor et al. 2010). Preparation: Some evidence that teacher education & certification is linked to student performance, but the role of teacher education as a predictable variable of students’ achievement requires further investigation (Hattie 2007). Research into beginning teachers’ experiences of different entry routes in England is one source of evidence on nature of provision. However, variation in provision within routes may be at least as great as variation between routes, making it hard to generalise across different types of provision (Hobson et al. 2009). Source: Mincu, M. (forthcoming) Teacher Quality and School Improvement: What is the Role of Research?, Paper Commissioned by the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

44 Research-informed Teaching
6.3 Research-informed Teaching B. Classroom practice and learning processes Effective teachers possess a wide repertoire of instructional approaches, based on sound pedagogical content knowledge, detailed focus on student learning and application of appropriate techniques to meet learners’ diverse needs. Teaching for higher-level knowledge & skills requires more sophisticated approaches: e.g. teaching with meta-cognition as part of teaching for meta-cognition. Beyond the classroom, teachers’ collaborative work at the school and system level may greatly contribute to transforming learning processes, by building bridges between classrooms and departments, engaging as leaders and active enquirers (Earl & Temperley 2006). Source: Mincu, M. (forthcoming) Teacher Quality and School Improvement: What is the Role of Research?, Paper Commissioned by the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

45 Research-rich schools & systems
6.4 Research-rich schools & systems Evaluations of successful and highly improved school systems highlight the contribution of research at a school and system level: Use of data and research as part of broader capacity-building strategies, to create ‘data-rich’ and ‘research-rich’ school systems and environments; (shift away from accountability, reducing reliance on regulatory mechanisms and central oversight); ‘Outside-inside’: use of external input (e.g. new ideas or external research findings) to stimulate deeper engagement and critical reflection from the ‘inside’; Research networks & partnerships: school-to-school collaboration supported by specialist expertise and partnerships with universities and local authorities/officials, to gather and infuse new thinking into the system; Enquiry-oriented leadership: promoting research and evaluation across the school, in departments and by classroom teachers; adopting a more systematic approach to collecting, analysing and using data and evidence in course of on-going work. Evaluations of successful & highly improved school systems highlight the contribution of research: Annual AISI conferences also connect participating schools to outside expertise and feedback. AISI has made explicit the connection between academic research and professional practice. External stimulation and assistance are balanced and integrated with internal study and reflection’ (Hargreaves 2009, p. xiii). Source: Mincu, M. (forthcoming) Teacher Quality and School Improvement: What is the Role of Research?, Paper Commissioned by the BERA-RSA Inquiry.

46 A continuum of integrated ITE & CPDL
6.5 A continuum of integrated ITE & CPDL Formal policies (funding, teaching standards, curricula etc.) Prevailing discourses & dominant beliefs Institutional structures Wider social context Higher Education Institutions Teaching and Learning Context Educational research Teacher education RI-TE Training Providers NLE Knowledge Exchange TEACHING SCHOOL Professional Associations SCHOOL LEADERSHIP To help us structure the different parts of the Inquiry, we find it useful to distinguish between factors at the school and classroom level, part of a wider context of teaching and learning, which involves not just individual schools but a network of training providers, and university departments of education. This institutional structure is shaped in turn by a wider set of factors, including decisions about policy, funding, curricular, teaching standards etc. within government and other agencies; prevailing discourses which frame the way that policy is discussed; and the underpinning conceptions of teaching and beliefs about learning which explicitly or implicitly are present in policy and practice. Enquiry Reflection Collaboration Resources School and Classroom Context Learners ORG. CULTURE

47 7. Conclusions & Next Steps

48 7.1 Conclusions (1) Systematic reviews provide clear, consistent evidence about the contribution of research to teachers’ professional learning and student outcomes, including the use of data to spark engagement, use of research-based knowledge in the content and use of evidence to inform the sequence of learning activities. This robust evidence demonstrates the importance of integrating teachers’ practical and theoretical knowledge in iterative processes – in contrast to both the ‘craft-based’ and ‘executive technician’ views of teaching. Nevertheless, achieving sustained, substantive change in practice is not easy. Embedding professional learning depends on creating the conditions for research-rich teaching and learning, by building research capacity across institutions and establishing effective partnerships between schools and external, specialist expertise. Clear, consistent findings from systematic reviews, identifying main features of effective CPDL: specialist expertise; structured peer support; enquiry-oriented learning and enquiry-oriented leadership. Analysis of learning processes helps illuminate how these features affect teachers’ learning and sheds light on the differing responses of diverse teachers and communities, and teachers’ different learning needs over the course of their professional career. Although the features of effective CPDL are well understood and can be used to inform the design of programmes, embedding professional learning in schools and classrooms depends on creating the conditions for research-rich teaching and learning by building research capacity across institutions, establishing effective partnerships between schools and external experts.

49 7.2 Conclusions (2) High-performing systems display common features of research-rich practice in their respective ITE programmes. While not all require student teachers to engage in research in a formal sense, enquiry-oriented practice is a key feature of each. Within the UK, cross-national variation in policy discourse, content and process of teacher education reflects different conceptions of teaching and differing beliefs about how the qualities of ‘good’ teachers are developed. Research into beginning teachers’ experiences of different entry routes in England is one source of evidence on nature of provision. However, variation in provision within routes may be at least as great as variation between routes, making it hard to generalise across different types of provision. Evidence about the differential impact of ITE entry routes is less conclusive, due to lack of research (investment) in rigorous, systematic evaluations – leaving the field vulnerable to non-evidence based critiques and untested proposals for reform. Clear, consistent findings from systematic reviews, identifying main features of effective CPDL: specialist expertise; structured peer support; enquiry-oriented learning and enquiry-oriented leadership. Analysis of learning processes helps illuminate how these features affect teachers’ learning and sheds light on the differing responses of diverse teachers and communities, and teachers’ different learning needs over the course of their professional career. Although the features of effective CPDL are well understood and can be used to inform the design of programmes, embedding professional learning in schools and classrooms depends on creating the conditions for research-rich teaching and learning by building research capacity across institutions, establishing effective partnerships between schools and external experts.

50 Key Questions for the next stage of the Inquiry:
Q. How does current provision across the UK measure up to the goal of a research-rich, data-rich system? Q. How do we build this research-rich culture and environment?

51 For more information about the BERA-RSA Inquiry, please visit the BERA website: or contact Louise Bamfield at


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