Presentation on theme: "Different forms of media Electronic mediaPrinted media TelevisionNewspapers InternetPosters/Pamphlets RadioInformation brochures TelecommunicationsAdvertisement."— Presentation transcript:
Different forms of media Electronic mediaPrinted media TelevisionNewspapers InternetPosters/Pamphlets RadioInformation brochures TelecommunicationsAdvertisement boards
What do the following concepts mean? 1. Free Press: A press that is not hindered in its ability to comment on political or social questions (except if it interferes with a person’s democratic rights.)
Def: Democratic society A community which is ruled by representatives of the nation. In a democratic society there is freedom of speech, freedom of the individual and freedom of the judiciary. Free and fair elections take place on a regular basis.
Def: Freedom of speech The freedom to voice your opinion without fear of intimidation – (however you may not infringe on others’ democratic rights in the process.)
Def: Mass Media The broadcasting of information to a large number of people. This includes: the radio, newspapers, magazines, the internet and television.
“ A free society is one where it is safe to be unpopular” How can the media make themselves unpopular with governments, both elected and unelected? The media has the ability to influence popular opinions = openly criticise government = can influence election results. In a country without democracy, a journalist who criticizes the govt, can be arrested, intimidated, assaulted and/or jailed.
Do you feel that any restrictions should be placed on the media? A lack of privacy is often the price one pays for being a public figure. The mainstream media usually stays away from pornographic material or material which will make the public unhappy. In most demographic countries there are sensor boards but they seldom limit political commentary.
What is the “watch dog” role which is ascribed to the media? If no-one keeps watch, the government and politicians could get away with anything. It is therefore the role of the media to be on the look out and to inform the public of anything of which they should be aware. The fear of negative publicity is often a deterrent for public figures when they need to decide how to behave in various situations.
Do you think a journalist or a newspaper can ever be objective? Possibly not. A certain amount of subjectivity is usually unavoidable. However, reporting can be fair. Both sides of the story can be given and then it can be left to the reader to make up his/her own mind. The omission of certain facts can also lead to prejudicial reporting.
The Role and Responsibility of the Media Opposing Viewpoints
The media no not promote democracy The media:News is often more entertaining than informing (gossip, scandals, sex, violence.) - Communicate, inform. educatePolitical news is often more about personalities than about their work and beliefs – media hunt for scandal in the private lives of politicians. Identify problems in our country and communities The lives of famous stars are made difficult by the paparazzi who invade their privacy. Are a means of reflectionThe media sometimes exaggerate dangers and make people unnecessarily afraid. Give political information that can influence voters The media are like vultures when a famous person or politician falls from grace – persecute. Act as watchdogs for exposing errors and unlawful activities Entertain Provide a platform for debate for a diversity of views, promote nation- building
More information about the functions and responsibilities Functions include informing the public about: What is happening around them so that they can make informed decisions and choices based on relevant and accurate information. Rights issues and Political issues and agendas, ensuring that various political viewpoints and policies are given.
The media are responsible for: Ensuring that there is a clear distinction between fact and opinion. Protecting sources of information if and when necessary. Being professional at all times, verifying facts and information before printing or broadcasting them. Getting permission before printing or reporting on a story and Giving the facts clearly and correctly.
The S.A. Constitution states the following in Section 16 (1): Everyone has the right to freedom of expression, which includes: Freedom of the press and other media Freedom to receive or impart info or ideas Freedom of artistic creativity Academic freedom and freedom of scientific research. Govt institutions e.g. Judicial Services Commission, Independent Broadcasting Authority, the Public Protector and the Auditor-General further support freedom of expression.
Does the media reflect our society? The media presents us with a picture of society that is meant to reflect what is “normal”. In fact, the media often don’t reflect what society is like at all. For example in South Africa:
Who is rejected/left out? Which groups of people are predominantly shown on television? Does the media reflect society? Why or why not? How women should look The way men should behave What is important What success means Who commits crime What Africa is like Who are the experts/worthy of being quoted The way gay people are viewed in society The way differently-abled people are viewed in society.
Promotion of Access to Information Act Aims: To ensure that the state takes part in promoting a human rights culture and social justice. To encourage openness To create voluntary and compulsory ways that give the right of access to information in a speedy, cheap and effortless way. To promote transparency, accountability and effective governanceof all public a private companies. Use your notes to evaluate the credibility of the media.
Some careers in the media Advertising manager Attorney Editor Journalist Librarian Media liaison officer Publicist Radio announcer TV producer Web designer