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© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 1 What is Psychology?
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View by Laura King (University of Missouri at Columbia) brings a truly appreciative view of psychology - as a science and for exploring behavior. students must study the discipline of psychology as a whole sub-disciplines are intricately connected human behavior is best understood by exploring its functioning state in addition to its potential dysfunctions The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View, 2nd Edition (King) Overview
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Preview Defining Psychology Psychology in Historical Perspective Contemporary Approaches to Psychology What Psychologists Do Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Psychology: Defined Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Three Key Components science – systematic methods behavior – what can be directly observed mental processes – thoughts, feelings, motives
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Science of Psychology 1. Critical Thinking 2. Skepticism 3. Objectivity 4. Curiosity CSOC
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. to describe behavior to predict behavior to explain behavior Can we do this successfully without critical thinking, skepticism, objectivity and curiosity? … and sometimes to manipulate or control behavior for either good or evil… Goals of Psychology
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Psychology – A General Science Psychology is not limited to the study of psychological disorders. Freuds view of human nature positive psychology – a branch of psychology that emphasizes human strengths Example: Amish forgiveness (p. 7-8)
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Narcissism Epidemic Narcissism…unusually self-confident, self-assertive, and self-centered. Generation born since 1980s More narcissistic than early generations vs. Attitudes have been stable over time
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. History of Psychology Western Philosophy Biology and Physiology Wilhelm Wundt ( ) 1879 – established 1st psychology lab
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. History of Psychology Western Philosophy Socrates, Plato and Aristotle Later Philosophers Rene Descartes Argued that the mind and body were completely separate
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Wilhelm Wundts Structuralism identified structures of the mind (mental processes) introspection (looking inside) systematic, detailed self-reports (science) VIL-HELM VOONT
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. William James Functionalism identified the functions and purposes of the mind stream of consciousness human interactions with outside world why is human thought adaptive? Brother of author
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Psychology and Evolution Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species, 1859 Natural Selection competition for resources genetic characteristics that promote reproduction and survival are favored environmental changes alter course of evolution
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contemporary Approaches Current Psychological Perspectives 1. Biological 2. Behavioral 3. Psychodynamic 4. Humanistic 5. Cognitive 6. Evolutionary 7. Sociocultural
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1. Biological Approach The biological approach focuses on the brain and nervous system. Neuroscience study of the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of the nervous system thoughts and emotions have physical basis in brain allowed psychologists to better understand the brain
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2. Behavioral Approach The behavioral approach focuses on the environmental determinants of observable behavior. Notable Behaviorists John Watson B.F. Skinner rejected thought processes
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Noted Behaviorist: John Watson "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well- formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and, yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years." –John B. Watson, Behaviorism, 1930 Notable Behaviorists John Watson B.F. Skinner rejected thought processes
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Noted Behaviorist: B.F. Skinner Notable Behaviorists John Watson B.F. Skinner rejected thought processes I did not direct my life. I didn't design it. I never made decisions. Things always came up and made them for me. That's what life is. -- B. F. Skinner If you're old, don't try to change yourself, change your environment. -- B. F. Skinner
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Psychodynamic Approach: Freud Known as the founding father of the psychodynamic approach Believed that there are unlearned biological instincts (especially of a sexual and/or aggressive nature) that can occur early in life and these instincts influence how a person thinks, feels, and behaves Had a couch
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 4. Humanistic Approach Humanists emphasize positive human qualities capacity for positive growth free will Humanistic Theorists Carl Rogers Abraham Maslow
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Humanistic Approach: Carl Rogers The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn and change. -- Carl Rogers I believe that the testing of the student's achievements in order to see if he meets some criterion held by the teacher, is directly contrary to the implications of therapy for significant learning. -- Carl Rogers Humanists emphasize positive human qualities capacity for positive growth free will
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Humanistic Approach: Abraham Maslow Humanists emphasize positive human qualities capacity for positive growth free will What is necessary to change a person is to change his awareness of himself. -- Abraham Maslow
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 5. Cognitive Approach The cognitive approach emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing. Information Processing …how humans interpret incoming info, weigh it, store it, and apply it
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 6. Evolutionary Approach The evolutionary approach uses ideas such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection to explain human behavior. Evolutionary Psychologists David Buss Leda Cosmides
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 7. Sociocultural Approach examines how social and cultural environments influence behavior and mental processes studies differences between ethnic and cultural groups within and across countries
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Careers in Psychology Practice / Applied Research Teaching
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Areas of Specialization Physiological Psych / Behavioral Neuroscience Sensation and Perception Learning Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Motivation & Emotion Psychology of Women & Gender Personality Psychology Social Psychology Industrial / Organizational Psychology Clinical & Counseling Psychology Health Psychology
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Areas of Specialization Also (but not addressed in text beyond this chapter) Community Psychology School & Educational Psychology Environmental Psychology Forensic Psychology Sport Psychology Cross-Cultural Psychology
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Career Settings in Psychology
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Influence of Culture Individualistic Cultures individuals viewed as unique and distinct from their social group value independence Collectivistic Cultures emphasize social group and the individuals role within that group value interdependence
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Influence of Culture Individualistic subjects prefer to work on tasks that they have had previous success with like to emphasize their successes Collectivistic subjects prefer to work on tasks that they have difficulty with self-critical view
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness Mind-Body Connections how the mind impacts the body how the body impacts the mind
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Explain what psychology is and how it differs from an every- day, informal approach to understanding human nature. Discuss the roots and early scientific foundations of psychology. Summarize the main themes of the seven approaches to psychology. List some of the areas of specialization and careers in psychology. Describe the connections between the mind and the body.
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Defining Psychology scientific study of behavior and mental processes Historical Foundations of Psychology origins in philosophy and physiology structuralism – Wilhelm Wundt functionalism – William James evolutionary theory – Charles Darwin
© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter Summary Contemporary Approaches to Psychology current approaches – complementary Specializations and Careers in Psychology practice, research, teaching academic, clinic, private practice, industry, school Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness mind-body connection is a two-way street
Chapter 1 The Evolution of Psychology. Table of Contents The Development of Psychology: From Speculation to Science Prior to 1879 –Physiology and philosophy.
Chapter 1 The Science of Psychology. Chapter 1 Outline What is Psychology? The Growth of Psychology Human Diversity Psychology as a Science Research Methods.
What Is Psychology? Chapter One. Psychology as a Science Definition:
What is Psychology?. Outline Why Study Psychology? – Behavior and Mental Processes – The Goals of Psychology – Psychology as a Science The Job of a Psychologist.
Chapter 1 The Search for Understanding Table of Contents Exit.
Intro to What is psychology? Types of psychologists The history of psychology.
History, Theories and Methods Chapter 1. What are the Theories of Child Development? 1. Psychoanalytic 2. Learning 3. Cognitive 4. Ecological 5. Sociocultural.
Prologue: Psychologys Roots Definition of Psychology The science of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (sensations, perceptions, dreams, thoughts,
Psychology. Experimental psychology sets up experiments to see how individuals act Clinical psychology develops programs for treating individuals suffering.
Unit 1: Psychology’s History & Approaches. Unit Overview What is Psychology? Contemporary Psychology.
Major Perspectives of Psychology. Perspectives Psychoanalytic Behaviorism Humanism Cognitive Evolutionary Biological/Biomedical.
Chapter 1 Development Across the Lifespan An Introduction to Lifespan Development.
Major Perspectives of Psychology By Mr. C.. Perspectives Psychoanalytic Psychoanalytic Behaviorism Behaviorism Humanism Humanism Cognitive Cognitive Evolutionary.
Explain the following quote Know Thyself ~Socrates How does this quote apply to psychology?
The Science of Psychology Chapter 1. Chapter 1 Learning Objective Menu LO 1.1 Definition and goals of psychology LO 1.2 Structuralism and functionalism.
Chapter 1 The evolution of Psychology. Key Terms for Quiz Turn to page 34 You need to know Key Terms and Key People You will have a quiz over chapter.
Chapter 1 Discovering Psychology. Psychology l Systematic, scientific study of behaviors and mental processes n Behaviors refer to observable actions.
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 1: Discovering Psychology Module 1 Discovering Psychology.
CH 1 Review Game: History and Approaches. Please select a Team. 1. Team introspection 2. Darwin’s monkeys 3. We love Freud! 4. Pavlov’s Dogs 5. Those.
Defining Psychology Psychology – the science of behavior and the mental process ◦ behavior: anything an organism does ◦ mental process: the internal.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 PowerPoint Presentations to Accompany AP ed. Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Ann L. Weber Craig W. Gruber Prepared.
Ms. Beetson 3018 IB PSYCHOLOGY Who are we? Find someone who… Mnemonic technique in action.
Please find your name and have a seat. 1- Nikolas13- Abbey 25- Jose 2- Amirah14- Daniel26- Taylor 3- Sydney15- Keyauna27- Abigail 4- Glenn16- Kyle28- Kealie.
Personality Who are we ? See Ch. 11 in Text Who are you ? Who am I ?
Little Albert J.B. Watson & Rosalie Rayners Study on Conditioned Emotional Responses.
Mr. McNutt Have you ever wondered… Why do I like the people, food, or music that I like? (you fill in the blank) Or, why do I not like certain.
Chapter 4: Major Theories for Understanding Human Development.
5 th Edition Copyright © Prentice Hall Psychology Stephen F. Davis Emporia State University Joseph J. Palladino University of Southern Indiana.
BTEC National Children’s Play learning and Development: Unit 1Learning aim B: Understand theories and models of development and how they relate to aspects.
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