2The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View, 2nd Edition (King) OverviewThe Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View by Laura King (University of Missouri at Columbia) brings a truly appreciative view of psychology - as a science and for exploring behavior.students must study the discipline of psychology as a wholesub-disciplines are intricately connectedhuman behavior is best understood by exploring its functioning state in addition to its potential dysfunctions
3Chapter Preview Defining Psychology Psychology in Historical PerspectiveContemporary Approaches to PsychologyWhat Psychologists DoScience of Psychology and Health and Wellness
4Psychology: Defined Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.Three Key Componentsscience – systematic methodsbehavior – what can be directly observedmental processes – thoughts, feelings, motivesIM: Defining Psychology ActivityNote: Instructors should note the goals of psychology – to describe, predict, and explain behavior. Those goals can easily be tied to the research methods discussed in Chapter 2 for added emphasis.DISCUSSION: Psychology was not always a SCIENCE… or originally was a STUDY. What can make something a science? Semantics = the study of meaning (very important in AP Psychology)
5Science of Psychology Critical Thinking Skepticism Objectivity CuriosityCSOCIM: Defining Psychology ActivityNote: Instructors should note the goals of psychology – to describe, predict, and explain behavior. Those goals can easily be tied to the research methods discussed in Chapter 2 for added emphasis.5
6Goals of Psychology to describe behavior to predict behavior to explain behaviorCan we do this successfully without critical thinking, skepticism, objectivity and curiosity?… and sometimes to manipulate or control behavior for either good or evil…
7Psychology – A General Science Psychology is not limited to the studyof psychological disorders.Freud’s view of human naturepositive psychology – a branch of psychology that emphasizes human strengthsExample: Amish forgiveness (p. 7-8)IM: Defining Psychology ActivityNote: Instructors should note the goals of psychology – to describe, predict, and explain behavior. Those goals can easily be tied to the research methods discussed in Chapter 2 for added emphasis.7
8Narcissism EpidemicNarcissism…unusually self-confident, self-assertive, and self-centered.Generation born since 1980s“More narcissistic than early generations”vs.“Attitudes have been stable over time”Activity/Demonstration: Ask students first to provide real-world examples of altruistic behaviorIM: Truly Altruistic ActivityIM: Activity Handout 1.3: Are You Altruistic?
9History of Psychology Western Philosophy Biology and Physiology Wilhelm Wundt ( )1879 – established 1st psychology lab
10History of Psychology Western Philosophy Later Philosophers Socrates, Plato and AristotleLater PhilosophersRene DescartesArgued that the mind and body were completely separate
11Wilhelm Wundt’s Structuralism identified structures of the mind (mental processes)introspection (“looking inside”)systematic, detailed self-reports (science)VIL-HELM VOONTIM: Structuralism ActivityNOTE: Titchener actually came up wit the term “structuralism” because this idea centered on the structures of the mind. TANGENT: Titchener focused mainly on sensation and perception, specifically used the sense of taste.
12William James’ Functionalism identified the functions and purposes of the mindstream of consciousnesshuman interactions with outside worldwhy is human thought adaptive?Brother of authorIM: Functionalism ActivityNOTES: James believed that the mind was fluid-like and was ever-changing based on environmental changes (stream of consciousness).
13Psychology and Evolution Charles DarwinOn the Origin of Species, 1859Natural Selectioncompetition for resourcesgenetic characteristics that promote reproduction and survival are favoredenvironmental changes alter course of evolutionIM: Activity Handout 1.2: To Be Extinct or Not
14Contemporary Approaches Current Psychological PerspectivesBiologicalBehavioralPsychodynamicHumanisticCognitiveEvolutionarySocioculturalNote: It is important to stress early and often that these approaches are complementary, not contradictory… that they really represent different levels of analysis.
15The biological approach focuses on the brain and nervous system. Neurosciencestudy of the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of the nervous systemthoughts and emotions have physical basis in brainallowed psychologists to better understand the brain
162. Behavioral Approach Notable Behaviorists The behavioral approach focuses on theenvironmental determinantsof observable behavior.Notable BehavioristsJohn WatsonB.F. Skinnerrejected thought processes“Watson and Skinner believed that if you couldn’t see something, the it just didn’t exist.”
17Noted Behaviorist: John Watson "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and, yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years."–John B. Watson, Behaviorism, 1930Notable BehavioristsJohn WatsonB.F. Skinnerrejected thought processes
18Noted Behaviorist: B.F. Skinner I did not direct my life. I didn't design it. I never made decisions. Things always came up and made them for me. That's what life is.-- B. F. SkinnerIf you're old, don't try to change yourself, change your environment.Notable BehavioristsJohn WatsonB.F. Skinnerrejected thought processes
19Psychodynamic Approach: Freud Known as the founding father of the psychodynamic approachBelieved that there are unlearned biological instincts (especially of a sexual and/or aggressive nature) that can occur early in life and these instincts influence how a person thinks, feels, and behavesHad a couch
204. Humanistic Approach Humanists emphasize Humanistic Theorists positive human qualitiescapacity for positive growthfree willHumanistic TheoristsCarl RogersAbraham Maslow
21Humanistic Approach: Carl Rogers The only person who is educated is the one who has learned how to learn and change.-- Carl RogersI believe that the testing of the student's achievements in order to see if he meets some criterion held by the teacher, is directly contrary to the implications of therapy for significant learning.Humanists emphasizepositive human qualitiescapacity for positive growthfree will
22Humanistic Approach: Abraham Maslow What is necessary to change a person is to change his awareness of himself.-- Abraham MaslowHumanists emphasizepositive human qualitiescapacity for positive growthfree will
235. Cognitive Approach The cognitive approach emphasizes the mental processes involved in knowing.Information Processing…how humans interpret incoming info, weigh it, store it, and apply it
246. Evolutionary Approach The evolutionary approach uses ideas suchas adaptation, reproduction, and naturalselection to explain human behavior.Evolutionary PsychologistsDavid BussLeda Cosmides
257. Sociocultural Approach examines how social and cultural environments influence behavior and mental processesstudies differences between ethnic and cultural groups within and across countries
26Careers in Psychology Practice / Applied Research Teaching Activity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization
27Areas of Specialization Physiological Psych / Behavioral NeuroscienceSensation and PerceptionLearningCognitive PsychologyDevelopmental PsychologyMotivation & EmotionPsychology of Women & GenderPersonality PsychologySocial PsychologyIndustrial / Organizational PsychologyClinical & Counseling PsychologyHealth PsychologyActivity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization
28Areas of Specialization Also (but not addressed in text beyond this chapter)Community PsychologySchool & Educational PsychologyEnvironmental PsychologyForensic PsychologySport PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyActivity/Demonstration: It might be helpful to invite a few colleagues or professional in to your class to discuss their area of specialization and/or careerNote: Instructors might either delete and/or elaborate on these areas of specialization28
30Influence of Culture Individualistic Cultures Collectivistic Cultures individuals viewed as unique and distinct from their social groupvalue independenceCollectivistic Culturesemphasize social group and the individual’s role within that groupvalue interdependenceNote: Instructors should stress that, although personal happiness is positively correlated with individualism, there is a price (e.g., higher suicide and divorce rates)
31Influence of Culture Individualistic subjects Collectivistic subjects prefer to work on tasks that they have had previous success withlike to emphasize their successesCollectivistic subjectsprefer to work on tasks that they have difficulty withself-critical view
32Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness Mind-Body Connectionshow the mind impacts the bodyhow the body impacts the mindIM: Is It Good For You? ActivityActivity/Demonstration: Have students generate the examples called for in this slide, or have them sort your examples into the two categoriesDISCUSSION: Placebo Effect
33Chapter SummaryExplain what psychology is and how it differs from an every-day, informal approach to understanding human nature.Discuss the roots and early scientific foundations of psychology.Summarize the main themes of the seven approaches to psychology.List some of the areas of specialization and careers in psychology.Describe the connections between the mind and the body.Note: Instructors may use the learning objectives presented on this slide or the following two slides to summarize the chapter material
34Chapter Summary Defining Psychology scientific study of behavior and mental processesHistorical Foundations of Psychologyorigins in philosophy and physiologystructuralism – Wilhelm Wundtfunctionalism – William Jamesevolutionary theory – Charles Darwin
35Chapter Summary Contemporary Approaches to Psychology current approaches – complementarySpecializations and Careers in Psychologypractice, research, teachingacademic, clinic, private practice, industry, schoolScience of Psychology andHealth and Wellnessmind-body connection is a “two-way street”