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The Three Things in Life? Expertise in Geography What Is It? Roger M. Downs June 6, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "The Three Things in Life? Expertise in Geography What Is It? Roger M. Downs June 6, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Three Things in Life?

3 Expertise in Geography What Is It? Roger M. Downs June 6, 2012

4 An expert is a man who has made all of the mistakes, which can be made, in a very narrow field. Neils Bohr

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11 --experts not special people The Nature of Expertise

12 --experts not special people --lengthy experience: deliberate practice The Nature of Expertise

13 --experts not special people --lengthy experience: deliberate practice --naïve-expert continuum The Nature of Expertise

14 --experts not special people --lengthy experience: deliberate practice --naïve-expert continuum --knowledge differs in breadth & depth: underlying patterns & principles The Nature of Expertise

15 --experts not special people --lengthy experience: deliberate practice --naïve-expert continuum --knowledge differs in breadth & depth: underlying patterns & principles --problem solving strategies differ in speed, flexibility, & accuracy The Nature of Expertise

16 --experts not special people --lengthy experience: deliberate practice --naïve-expert continuum --knowledge differs in breadth & depth: underlying patterns & principles --problem solving strategies differ in speed, flexibility, & accuracy --domain specific The Nature of Expertise

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19 William Bunge Theoretical Geography (1962)

20 Antecedents in Cognitive Science 1.F. C. Bartlett: memory & problem solving

21 F. C. Bartletts Sectional Maps (1932)

22 You set out from the point marked S and your aim is to get to a spot somewhere to the N.W. Choose which road to start on, and when you have got as far as you can on this plan you will be given another sectional map, and so on until you get to the final map on which the place you want to reach will be marked O. At any stage you can, if you wish, go back to the starting point or to some position short of the starting-point.

23 Antecedents in Cognitive Science 1.F. C. Bartlett: memory & problem solving 2.Alan Lesgold: expertise & medical imaging

24 Alan Lesgold

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26 Antecedents in Cognitive Science 1.F. C. Bartlett: memory & problem solving 2.Alan Lesgold: expertise & medical imaging 3.Alan Newell: problem solving (Tower of Hanoi problem)

27 Alan Newell & the Tower of Hanoi Problem

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29 Antecedents in Geography 1.Armin Lobeck: what maps dont tell us

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31 Antecedents in Geography 1.Armin Lobeck: what maps dont tell us 2.Walter Christaller: how I discovered central place theory

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33 Antecedents in Geography 1.Armin Lobeck: what maps dont tell us 2.Walter Christaller: how I discovered central place theory 3.Brian Harley: the silences of maps

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37 Jeremy Anderson

38 Railway Line

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41 Road

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43 --if unique & therefore not repeated, then road continues in straight line Kink in the Road

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45 --if unique & therefore not repeated, then road continues in straight line --if recurring & therefore repeated property of space, then road will not continue in straight line Kink in the Road

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49 River

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55 tt t Bunges Actual and Predicted Map

56 Villages

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59 Town

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63 Types of Inferences & Levels of Expertise 1. rail line: relatively simple

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65 Types of Inferences & Levels of Expertise 1. rail line: relatively simple 2. kink in road: more challenging because of multiple possibilities

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67 Types of Inferences & Levels of Expertise 1. rail line: relatively simple 2. kink in road: more challenging because of multiple possibilities 3. stream system: stream order & topography; knowledge of theory of fluvial processes

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69 Types of Inferences & Levels of Expertise 1. rail line: relatively simple 2. kink in road: more challenging because multiple possibilities 3.stream system: stream order & topography; knowledge of theory of fluvial processes 4. villages: lattices; knowledge of central place theory

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71 -- Decompose into functional elements Geographic Completion Strategies

72 -- Decompose into functional elements --Look for patterns in elements Geographic Completion Strategies

73 -- Decompose into functional elements --Look for patterns in elements --Look for exceptions & deviations Geographic Completion Strategies

74 -- Decompose into functional elements --Look for patterns in elements --Look for exceptions & deviations --Extrapolate & interpolate pattern elements Geographic Completion Strategies

75 -- Decompose into functional elements --Look for patterns in elements --Look for exceptions & deviations --Extrapolate & interpolate pattern elements --Look for connections among patterns Geographic Completion Strategies

76 -- Decompose into functional elements --Look for patterns in elements --Look for exceptions & deviations --Extrapolate & interpolate pattern elements --Look for connections among patterns --Modify patterns: expectations, what makes sense, aesthetics Geographic Completion Strategies

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78 Because of its unique properties particularly its rating scale and method of recording gameschess offers cognitive psychologists an ideal task environment in which to study skilled performance. It has been called a Drosophila, or fruit fly, for cognitive psychology… Neil Charness 1991

79 Geodrosophila

80 -- ecologically valid: rich, challenging, interesting Characteristics of Tasks

81 -- ecologically valid: rich, challenging, interesting --meaningful to & accessible by people with varying levels of expertise Characteristics of Tasks

82 -- ecologically valid: rich, challenging, interesting --meaningful to & accessible by people with varying levels of expertise --amenable to use of thinking aloud protocols Characteristics of Tasks

83 --cartography: identifying types of map projections Candidates for Tasks

84 -- cartography: identifying types of map projections --physical & human geography: reading landscapes Candidates for Tasks

85 -- cartography: identifying types of map projections --physical & human geography: reading landscapes --geomorphology: linking maps & cross sections Candidates for Tasks

86 -- cartography: identifying types of map projections --physical & human geography: reading landscapes --geomorphology: linking maps & cross sections -- GIS: Where is Waldo? Candidates for Tasks

87 The Bottom Line In order to understand the nature, development, & fostering of geographic expertise, we need a set of geographic Drosophila.

88 Expertise as the Missing Piece

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92 An expert is someone who knows some of the worst mistakes that can be made in his subject and who manages to avoid them. Werner Heisenberg

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