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Kingdom Plantae. All plants are eukaryotic autotrophs making food from sunlight through photosynthesis. All plants are eukaryotic autotrophs making food.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Plantae. All plants are eukaryotic autotrophs making food from sunlight through photosynthesis. All plants are eukaryotic autotrophs making food."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Plantae

2 All plants are eukaryotic autotrophs making food from sunlight through photosynthesis. All plants are eukaryotic autotrophs making food from sunlight through photosynthesis. There are, however, a few species that are both autotrophs and heterotrophs. There are, however, a few species that are both autotrophs and heterotrophs. Plants have cell walls made of cellulose. Plants have cell walls made of cellulose. Primary consumers eat only plants. Primary consumers eat only plants.

3 Land plants evolved from green algae Land plants evolved from green algae Researchers have identified green algae called charophyceans as the closest relatives of land plants Researchers have identified green algae called charophyceans as the closest relatives of land plants

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8 Cuticle Cuticle – a protective waxy coating that prevents H 2 O in plant tissues from evaporating into the atmosphere.

9 Within the cuticle are stomata Within the cuticle are stomata that allow exchange of gases. Guard cells open and close pores in the stomata to release O 2 into the atmosphere and take in CO 2.

10 A leaf is a broad flat organ that traps light energy for photosynthesis and exchanges gases through stomata. A leaf is a broad flat organ that traps light energy for photosynthesis and exchanges gases through stomata.

11 Root – a plant organ that anchors the plant in soil and absorbs H 2 O and minerals from soil transporting them to the stem.

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13 A root cells job is to take water and nutrients from the soil and send them up to the part of the plant above the ground.

14 The stem is the plants structural support for upright growth containing tissues to transport H 2 O, minerals, and nutrients from one part of the plant to another. The stem is the plants structural support for upright growth containing tissues to transport H 2 O, minerals, and nutrients from one part of the plant to another. may also store food. Stems may also store food. Green stems carry on photosynthesis. Green stems carry on photosynthesis.

15 AP Biology April 30 Plants PP continued Plants PP continued Private Life of Plants Private Life of Plants Animal practical Animal practical Coming up……………. - Plant Test May 4 - Chapter 47 objectives - Animal systems and structure - Abstract ?

16 Growing root includes 3 regions: Growing root includes 3 regions: - root tip - elongation region - maturation region Root tip and elongation region are sites of primary growth through apical meristem tissue Root tip and elongation region are sites of primary growth through apical meristem tissue Maturation zone, vascular tissue forms primary xylem and phloem which forms Maturation zone, vascular tissue forms primary xylem and phloem which forms stele (the inner concentric cylinder) stele (the inner concentric cylinder)

17 Plant Vascular Tissues Xylem Xylem – made up of a series of dead tubular cells that transport H 2 O and dissolved minerals upward from roots to leaves. Phloem – made up of a series of living tubular cells that transport sugars from leaves to all parts of the plant.

18 Two types of xylem cells: Two types of xylem cells: - tracheids which are are long and thin - vessel elements which are short and thick Phloem cells are made up of Phloem cells are made up of - sieve tube elements (carry nutrients) - companion cells (support sieve tube elements)

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22 When there is no water in the soil for the plant, it looses turgor pressure (wilts).

23 Leaf cell

24 Animal Cell

25 Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight and passes that energy into the stroma. Stroma contain enzymes that turn light energy into sugar and oxygen from water and carbon dioxide. SUNLIGHT + 6CO H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Grana are stacks light trapping chlorophyll.

26 When we burn wood, basically the photosynthesis formula is reversed. We're breaking down the carbohydrate and producing carbon dioxide gas and water, plus energy, which, like sunlight, feels hot and looks bright.

27 Alternation of Generations Sexual reproduction involves the two alternating processes of meiosis and fertilization. Sexual reproduction involves the two alternating processes of meiosis and fertilization. In meiosis, the chromosome number is reduced from the diploid to the haploid number. In meiosis, the chromosome number is reduced from the diploid to the haploid number.meiosis diploidhaploidmeiosis diploidhaploid In fertilization, the nuclei of two gametes fuse, raising the chromosome number from haploid to diploid. In fertilization, the nuclei of two gametes fuse, raising the chromosome number from haploid to diploid.

28 In most plants meiosis and fertilization divide the life of the organism into two distinct phases or "generations". In most plants meiosis and fertilization divide the life of the organism into two distinct phases or "generations". The gametophyte generation begins with a spore produced by meiosis. The spore is haploid, and all the cells derived from it (by mitosis) are also haploid. In due course, this multicellular structure produces gametes by mitosis and sexual reproduction then produces the diploid sporophyte generation. The gametophyte generation begins with a spore produced by meiosis. The spore is haploid, and all the cells derived from it (by mitosis) are also haploid. In due course, this multicellular structure produces gametes by mitosis and sexual reproduction then produces the diploid sporophyte generation.

29 In fact, the gametophyte generation is the major stage in the life of mosses and an independent plant in ferns. In fact, the gametophyte generation is the major stage in the life of mosses and an independent plant in ferns. However, the gametophyte is only an inconspicuous structure in angiosperms and other "higher" plants. However, the gametophyte is only an inconspicuous structure in angiosperms and other "higher" plants.

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31 The sporophyte generation produces spores (diploid) which develop into the gametophyte generation. The sporophyte generation produces spores (diploid) which develop into the gametophyte generation. The gametophyte generation produces gametes (haploid). The gametophyte generation produces gametes (haploid). In vascular plants, the sporophyte generation is dominant. In vascular plants, the sporophyte generation is dominant. In non-vascular plants, the gametophyte is larger and more conspicuous than the sporophyte. In non-vascular plants, the gametophyte is larger and more conspicuous than the sporophyte.

32 Plant Tropisms Plant Tropisms Phototrophism - growth toward light Phototrophism - growth toward light

33 Plant Tropisms Plant Tropisms Gravitropism – downward growth of roots Gravitropism – downward growth of roots

34 Plant Tropisms Plant Tropisms - Thigmotropism – plants response when it comes into contact with a solid object.

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36 Vegetative Reproduction………………. ……………is asexual

37 Plant Growth Meristematic tissue is made up of actively dividing cells Primary growth occurs via apical meristems in the tips of roots and stems Secondary growth is carried out by lateral meristems increasing the girth of the plant - two types of cells: vascular cambium cork cambium

38 Vascular cambium produces secondary xylem and phloem secondary which replaces primary xylem and primary phloem Cork cambium produces the tissues of the outer bark Plants also have lenticels which allow for gas exchange through bark

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40 Bryophytes vs Tracheophytes whats the difference?

41 Division Bryophyta – mosses, liverworts, hornworts. All are non- vascular and non-seed. Division Bryophyta – mosses, liverworts, hornworts. All are non- vascular and non-seed.

42 Bryophyte gametophytes Bryophyte gametophytes Produce flagellated sperm in antheridia Produce flagellated sperm in antheridia Produce ova in archegonia Produce ova in archegonia Generally form ground-hugging carpets and are at most only a few cells thick Generally form ground-hugging carpets and are at most only a few cells thick Some mosses Some mosses Have conducting tissues in the center of their stems and may grow vertically Have conducting tissues in the center of their stems and may grow vertically

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45 Division Lycophyta - Club Mosses – vascular and non-seed.

46 Division Pterophyta whisk ferns, horsetails, and ferns vascular and non-seed.

47 Seed Bearing Plants

48 Gymnosperms are vascular plants that produce seeds on scales of woody strobili called cones. Gymnosperms are vascular plants that produce seeds on scales of woody strobili called cones.

49 In other words, they have naked seeds - seeds not enclosed in a fruit. In other words, they have naked seeds - seeds not enclosed in a fruit.

50 The four divisions of Gymnosperms are: The four divisions of Gymnosperms are: Cycadophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Gnetophyta Coniferophyta Coniferophyta

51 Cycads have a terminal rosette of leaves and bear seeds in cones. Cycads have a terminal rosette of leaves and bear seeds in cones. All cycads have separate male and female plants. All cycads have separate male and female plants.

52 Division Ginkgophyta. Division Ginkgophyta has only on living species – Ginkgo biloba. The leaves are lobed. Like Cycads, Ginkgos have separate male and female trees.

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54 Division Gnetophyta has 3 genera: Division Gnetophyta has 3 genera: Gnetum Gnetum Ephedra Ephedra Welwitschia Welwitschia

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56 Coniferophyta is the largest and most diverse division of the gymnosperms. Coniferophyta is the largest and most diverse division of the gymnosperms. Most are evergreen – keeping their leaves year-round. Most are evergreen – keeping their leaves year-round. A very few are deciduous – dropping all of their leaves at A very few are deciduous – dropping all of their leaves at the same time

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58 Angiosperms include one division - Anthophyta

59 Though there is only one division of angiosperms, Anthophyta …. Though there is only one division of angiosperms, Anthophyta …. It is the largest and most diverse group of seed plants on Earth. It is the largest and most diverse group of seed plants on Earth. Anthophytes produce flowers, then seeds enclosed in a fruit. Anthophytes produce flowers, then seeds enclosed in a fruit. Anthophytes can be annuals, biennials, or perennials. Anthophytes can be annuals, biennials, or perennials.

60 What is an annual? What is an annual? What is a biennial? What is a biennial? What is a perennial? What is a perennial?

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62 AP Biology: May 2 AP Biology: May 2 Kingdom Plantae continued Kingdom Plantae continued Kingdom Practical Kingdom Practical Presentations ? Private Life of Plants ? Presentations ? Private Life of Plants ? Coming up: - Parade of Kingdoms Test corrections due 5/4 - Kingdom Plantae test ? - Continue reading – chapter 47 due May 4 - 6th Abstract due May 8 – plants or systems

63 Male Gametophyte Male Gametophyte

64 Female Gametophyte Female Gametophyte

65 What is the purpose of fruit?

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67 Seeds can be dispersed in a variety of ways: Seeds can be dispersed in a variety of ways: Wind Wind Passing through an animals digestive system Passing through an animals digestive system Catching on fur or skin Catching on fur or skin Floating on water Floating on water

68 Division Anthophyta has two classes of angiosperms …. Monocots and Dicots

69 Possible Advantages to Alternation of Generations Amplification of the sexual product because it produces many spores. Possibly useful in an environment where limited water availability for successful fertilization limits the number of successful zygotes.

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71 Adaptations to Survival in the Terrestrial Environment Separation of absorbtive organs (roots) and photosynthetic organs (leaves) Waterproof cuticle Stomata Vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) Structural support tissues (cellulose and lignin) Species dispersal (spores and seeds)

72 Adaptations to Survival in the Terrestrial Environment Protection of gametes in gametangiaProtection of gametes in gametangia Fertilization in the absence of free water (pollen tubes instead of swimming sperm)Fertilization in the absence of free water (pollen tubes instead of swimming sperm) Zygote and sporophyte embryo protected and nurtured by gametophyteZygote and sporophyte embryo protected and nurtured by gametophyte

73 Fungi Fungi Coniferophyta Coniferophyta Anthophyta Anthophyta Bryophyta Bryophyta Lichen Lichen Ginkgophyta Ginkgophyta Primative seedless vascular plants Primative seedless vascular plants Algae Algae

74 Early chordates Early chordates Recent chordates Recent chordates Mollusca Mollusca Annelida Annelida Cnidaria Cnidaria Arthropoda – Insecta Arthropoda – Insecta Porifera Porifera Platyhelmenthes and Nematoda Platyhelmenthes and Nematoda Arthropoda – Arachnida, Mesostomata, Arthropoda – Arachnida, Mesostomata, Crustacea, Myriapoda Crustacea, Myriapoda Echinodermata Echinodermata

75 1.Why were adaptations necessary for plants to become terrestrial ? 2What were the adaptations? 3.What is the general term for growth tissue of plants? tissue of plants? 4.Describe the difference(s) between gymnosperms and angiosperms. 5.Describe the two patterns of growth in seed plants?

76 1.Plants were no longer surrounded by water when they became terrestrial. They needed to get they became terrestrial. They needed to get water, stay upright, reproduce without surrounding water. 2.Specialized root tissue, waterproof cuticle, specialized stem tissue with vascular tissue, leaf tissue, spores, seeds. 3.Meristematic tissue. 4.Gymnosperms are either Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, or Coniferophyta.

77 4. Cont. They reproduce using strobilli – naked cones. Angiosperms belong to phylum Anthophyta and include all flowering plants. The flower is a specialized reproductive structure that produces seeds (zygote) covered by fruit. 5. The two patterns of growth in angiosperms are monocots and dicots.

78 Division Anthophyta has two classes of angiosperms …. Monocots and Dicots

79 1.Describe the two types of vascular tissue and the cells that make them?


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