2All plants are eukaryotic autotrophs making food from sunlight through photosynthesis. There are, however, a few species that are both autotrophs and heterotrophs.Plants have cell walls made of cellulose.Primary consumers eat only plants.
3Land plants evolved from green algae Researchers have identified green algae called charophyceans as the closest relatives of land plants
13A root cell’s job is to take water and nutrients from the soil and send them up to the part of the plant above the ground.
14The stem is the plant’s structural support for upright growth containing tissues to transport H2O, minerals, and nutrients from one part of the plant to another.Stems may also store food.Green stems carry on photosynthesis.
15AP Biology April 30Plants PP continuedPrivate Life of PlantsAnimal practicalComing up…………….- Plant Test May 4Chapter 47 objectivesAnimal systems and structureAbstract ?
16Growing root includes 3 regions: - root tip- elongation region- maturation regionRoot tip and elongation region are sites of primary growth through apical meristem tissueMaturation zone, vascular tissue forms primary xylem and phloem which formsstele (the inner concentric cylinder)
17Plant Vascular Tissues Xylem – made up of a series of dead tubular cells that transport H2O and dissolved minerals upward from roots to leaves.Phloem – made up of a series of living tubular cells that transport sugars from leaves to all parts of the plant.
18Two types of xylem cells: - tracheids which are are long and thin- vessel elements which are short and thickPhloem cells are made up of- sieve tube elements (carry nutrients)- companion cells (support sieve tubeelements)
25Grana are stacks light trapping chlorophyll. Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight and passes that energy into the stroma.Stroma contain enzymes that turn light energy into sugar and oxygen from water and carbon dioxide.SUNLIGHT + 6CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2Grana are stacks light trapping chlorophyll.
26When we burn wood, basically the photosynthesis formula is reversed. We're breaking down the carbohydrate and producing carbon dioxide gas and water, plus energy, which, like sunlight, feels hot and looks bright.
27Alternation of Generations Sexual reproduction involves the two alternating processes of meiosis and fertilization.In meiosis, the chromosome number is reduced from the diploid to the haploid number.In fertilization, the nuclei of two gametes fuse, raising the chromosome number from haploid to diploid.
28In most plants meiosis and fertilization divide the life of the organism into two distinct phases or "generations".The gametophyte generation begins with a spore produced by meiosis. The spore is haploid, and all the cells derived from it (by mitosis) are also haploid. In due course, this multicellular structure produces gametes — by mitosis — and sexual reproduction then produces the diploid sporophyte generation.
29In fact, the gametophyte generation is the major stage in the life of mosses and an independent plant in ferns.However, the gametophyte is only an inconspicuous structure in angiosperms and other "higher" plants.
31The sporophyte generation produces spores (diploid) which develop into the gametophyte generation. The gametophyte generation produces gametes (haploid).In vascular plants, the sporophyte generation is dominant.In non-vascular plants, the gametophyte is larger and more conspicuous than the sporophyte.
37Plant GrowthMeristematic tissue is made up of activelydividing cellsPrimary growth occurs via apicalmeristems in the tips of roots and stemsSecondary growth is carried out by lateralmeristems increasing the girth of the plant- two types of cells: vascular cambiumcork cambium
38Vascular cambiumproduces secondary xylem andphloem secondary which replacesprimary xylem and primary phloemCork cambium produces the tissues of theouter barkPlants also have lenticels which allow for gasexchange through bark
40Bryophytes vs Tracheophytes what’s the difference?
41Division Bryophyta – mosses, liverworts, hornworts Division Bryophyta – mosses, liverworts, hornworts. All are non-vascular and non-seed.
42Bryophyte gametophytes Produce flagellated sperm in antheridiaProduce ova in archegoniaGenerally form ground-hugging carpets and are at most only a few cells thickSome mossesHave conducting tissues in the center of their “stems” and may grow vertically
56Coniferophyta is the largest and most diverse division of the gymnosperms. Most are evergreen – keeping their leaves year-round.A very few are deciduous – dropping all of their leaves atthe same time
59Anthophytes can be annuals, biennials, or perennials. Though there is only one division of angiosperms, Anthophyta ….It is the largest and most diverse group of seed plants on Earth.Anthophytes produce flowers, then seeds enclosed in a fruit.Anthophytes can be annuals, biennials, or perennials.
60What is an annual?What is a biennial?What is a perennial?
62AP Biology: May 2Kingdom Plantae continuedKingdom PracticalPresentations ? Private Life of Plants ?Coming up:Parade of Kingdoms Test corrections due 5/4Kingdom Plantae test ?- Continue reading – chapter 47 due May 4- 6th Abstract due May 8 – plants or systems
67Seeds can be dispersed in a variety of ways: WindPassing through an animals digestive systemCatching on fur or skinFloating on water
68Division Anthophyta has two classes of angiosperms … Division Anthophyta has two classes of angiosperms …. Monocots and Dicots
69Possible Advantages to Alternation of Generations Amplification of the sexual productbecause it produces many spores.Possibly useful in an environmentwhere limited water availability forsuccessful fertilization limits thenumber of successful zygotes.
71Adaptations to Survival in the Terrestrial Environment Separation of absorbtive organs (roots) and photosynthetic organs (leaves)Waterproof cuticleStomataVascular tissues (xylem and phloem)Structural support tissues (cellulose and lignin)Species dispersal (spores and seeds)
72Adaptations to Survival in the Terrestrial Environment Protection of gametes in gametangiaFertilization in the absence of free water (pollen tubes instead of swimming sperm)Zygote and sporophyte embryo protected and nurtured by gametophyte
751. Why were adaptations necessary for plants to become terrestrial ? 2 What were the adaptations?3. What is the general term for growthtissue of plants?4. Describe the difference(s) between gymnosperms and angiosperms.5. Describe the two patterns of growth in seed plants?
761. Plants were no longer surrounded by water when they became terrestrial. They needed to getwater, stay upright, reproduce withoutsurrounding water.2. Specialized root tissue, waterproof cuticle,specialized stem tissue with vascular tissue,leaf tissue, spores, seeds.3. Meristematic tissue.4. Gymnosperms are either Cycadophyta,Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, or Coniferophyta.
774. Cont. They reproduce using strobilli – naked cones 4. Cont. They reproduce using strobilli – naked cones. Angiosperms belong to phylum Anthophyta and include all flowering plants. The flower is a specialized reproductive structure that produces seeds (zygote) covered by fruit.5. The two patterns of growth in angiosperms are monocots and dicots.
78Division Anthophyta has two classes of angiosperms … Division Anthophyta has two classes of angiosperms …. Monocots and Dicots
791. Describe the two types of vascular tissue and the cells that make them?