3SkinnerArgued for determinism--behavior is fully determined by environmental stimuli.Free will is but an illusion…”There is no place in the scientific position for a self as a true originator or initiator of action.”Collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations.
4Social Cognitive Theories Applies principles of learning, thinking and social influencesReciprocal Determinism (Bandura)…idea that internal mental events, external environmental events and overt behavior all influence one another. Your environment determines your behavior & your behavior can change your environment.
6Bandura continued… *Observational Learning… Bobo doll experiment *Often considered the father of the cognitive movement
7Walter Mischel Colleague of Bandura at Stanford (now at Columbia) Extent to which situational factors govern behavior…controversy over the consistency of human behaviorEmphasizes and highlights situational determinants of behavior
8Martin Seligman Julian Rotter Learned HelplessnessOptimismJulian Rotter--Locus of control (internal and external)
9Humanists (Phenomenological) Humans are essentially goodMotivated toward self-actualizationMaslow--Hierarchy of NeedsCarl Rogers…Unconditional Positive Regard…SelfHolism (considers whole person like GestaltPhenomenological--everyone’s individual frame of reference/point of view
10Biological Hans Eysenck--personality structure as a hierachy of traits Three high order traits (Extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism)
11Trait Theorists Gordon Allport-- Personal traits (dispositions)--concrete, easily recognized,consistencies in our behaviorCommon traits (culturally)--liberal/conservativeCentral traits (building blocks)--5 to 10
12Allport (continued) Secondary traits(preferences, attitudes) Cardinal traits (define life)…Mother Theresa--religious serviceAllport was so right about so many things that his ideas have simply passed on into the spirit of the times. Influenced many others.Humanist????
13Other Trait Theorists...Sheldon--Body types (endomorph, ectomorph and mesomorph)Big Five Personality Factors (Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness)Cattell--16 traits
14SheldonEctomorph - Endoderm This is known to develop into the digestive tact which consists of the intestine, stomach. Heart lungs etc. this somatotype is also the innermost layer of the embryo. The personality traits associated with the endoderm body type is tolerance, love, comfort. In a word all the emotions that have to deal with a great deal of affection. The body type is considered to be fat and can easily be overweight. The love for people and the intimate relationship with food is also another trait of this personality.Mesomorph - Mesoderm This is the middle layer which in turn develops into the muscle, blood vessels, bone etc. In terms of body shape with this type of somatotype, Sheldon concluded that the physic of this body is all about muscle. These are well defined muscle tones. In terms of personality this relates to very energetic, courageous, active, aggressive, etc. all this can be seen as the personality of the Alpha male.Endomorph - Ectoderm This is naturally the last layer. It has its association or develops are that it forms the nervous system, skin and hair. These are people that are considered to be underweight because they are so slim. They are often the intelligent nerds and their personality traits are that highly self-aware therefore they are also very sensitive with an air of an artistic nature to them. In a way they are society’s introverts because of their shy and timid nature.
17Issues in Personality Theories Free will or determinismMaster of our fate, or victim to destiny?Nature or NurtureInherited or shaped by environmentPast, present or futureWhen is personality developed? What influences are there based on our past, present and future experiences?
18Issues in Personality Theories Uniqueness or universalityAre there patterns or are we all individually unique?Equilibrium or growth?Is our goal to reduce tension or are we motivated by need to reach our potential?Optimism or PessimismAre humans basically good or evil?
20Stages of DevelopmentFreud believed that personality is formed during childhood.Our past childhood experiences are powerful influences on our present personalities
21The stages (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital) represent patterns of gratifying our basic needs and satisfying our drive for physical pleasureInsufficient or excess gratification during any stage could cause a person to reflect the stage throughout life.
22StagesOral (0-18 mo.) – Pleasure center is mouth – sucking, chewing, biting.Anal (18 mo-36 mo)– focus on gaining control, bowel and bladder elimination & retention as form of control.Phallic (3-6 yr) – Pleasure zone is in the genitals, focus on coping with incestuous sexual feelingsLatency (6-puberty) – Repressed sexual feelingsGenital (puberty on) – Maturation of sexual interests
23Stage IssuesDuring the Phallic Stage, The Oedipus complex occurs due to boys feelings of guilt for love of mother and fear of castration.During Oral Stage, deprivation or overindulgence may result in adult oral fixations or have dependence issues
24If Anal Stage is not resolved, may result in an anal expulsive (messy, unorganized) or anal retentive (controlled compulsively neat) personality
26THE ICEBERG CORRELATION Id -Pleasure PrincipleEgo -Reality PrincipleEgoSuperIdSuper Ego- Moral Principle
27Elements of the Personality IDUnconcious energyBasic drivesImmediate gratificationPleasure PrincipleInstinctual/biologicalLibidinal Energy
28Elements of the Personality EGOPartially consciousCope with real worldGratifies ID in realistic waysReality PrincipleLogical/RationalStruggles to reconcile ID & Superego
29Elements of the Personality SUPEREGOPartially consciousIdeal behaviorMoral PrincipleConscience
30THE ICEBERG CORRELATION “the mind is like an iceburg - mostly hidden”Conscious Awarenesssmall part above surface(Preconscious)Unconsciousbelow the surface(thoughts, feelings,wishes, memories)Repressionbanishing unacceptablethoughts & passions tounconsciousDreams & Slips
31Expressions of the Unconscious The work we chooseThe beliefs we holdDaily habitsTroubling symptomsJokesDreamsSlips of the tongueAccidents
33Freud’s Psychoanalytical Discovered the unconsciousUsed hypnosis and then free association to unlock the unconsciousThree levels of the mind: unconscious, preconscious, and conscious.Freud believed we are most influenced by our unconscious.Personality results from our efforts to resolve conflict between pleasure seeking impulses and internalized social restraints.
34Psychoanalytic Personality Tests Goal – to tap into the unconscious.Projective Tests – user tells a story or gives a description based on an ambiguous stimulus.Examples:Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – share inner feelings through stories made up about ambiguous scenes.Rorschach inkblot – descriptions of inkblots reflect inner feelings and conflicts.Criticisms:Reliability? – NO • Validity? – NONo universal scoring system or training system
36Neo - Freudians Accepted Freud’s basic ideas: Id, ego, superego. Importance of conscious.Shaping of personality during childhood.Dynamics of anxiety & defense mechanisms.Differences:More emphasis on conscious.Less emphasis on sexual motivations.More emphasis on noble motives & social interactions.
37Neo - Freudians Horney: Dependent child’s sense of helplessness creates anxietyTriggers desire for love & securityCriticized Freud’s gender bias
38Neo - FreudiansAlder:Childhood social conflicts influence personality developmentInferiority complex
39Neo - Freudians More emphasis on unconscious than other neo Freudians Jung:More emphasis on unconscious than other neo FreudiansUnconscious contains more than just negative, but unrealized talents, gifts, creativities & passions.Believed in a Collective Unconscious – Part of unconscious shared by all. Archetypes, the building blocks of the soul which are inherited and shared by all, live here.
40Humanistic Perspective Positive ApproachSense of Self = center of personalityGoal = foster personal growthEmphasis = human potentialSelf concept shapes personality
41Maslow The self actualized person Self aware & self accepting Open & spontaneousLoving & caringSecureCreates deep relationshipsIs moved by personal peak experiencesHas the courage to be unpopular
42Carl Rogers IDEAL self = ACTUAL self A growth promoting climate: Genuineness – opennessAcceptance – unconditional positive regardEmpathy – sharing our feelings and reflecting our meaningsPositive self concept occurs whenIDEAL self = ACTUAL self
43self-esteem typically: People with higherself-esteem typically:have < sleepless nights< likely to conform under pressure or use drugsmore persistent at difficult tasks<shy & lonely
44Criticisms of Humanistic Approach Concepts vague and subjectiveIndividualism can lead to self indulgence, selfishness, arrogance & pride.Ignores our human capacity for evil.
45Social Cognitive Perspective Applies principles of learning, thinking & social influenceEmphasizes importance of external events and how we interpret them.Emphasizes our sense of personal control
46Reciprocal Determinism Bandura = process of interacting with our environment1. Different people choose different environments2. Different people interpret & react differently to situations & events.3. Our personalities create situations to which we react. Ex – self fulfilling prophesy, expectations.
47Who controls your world? Do you see yourself as controlling of, or controlled by your environment?External locus of control – perception that outside factors determine one’s fate.Internal locus of control – perception that one has more control over own fate. Typically these people achieve more in schools, act more independently, are less depressed, in better health and cope with stress better.
48Learned HelplessnessThose who feel helpless & oppressed often view control as external.When traumatic events occur and people feel as if they have no control, they often learn helplessness, which can generalize to other situations.
49CriticismToo much focus on situations, not enough focus on person’s inner traitsSCs argue that our traits & emotions shine through in our reactions & responses.
50Trait Perspective Characteristic Behaviors Conscious Motives Describes Personality based on:Characteristic BehaviorsConscious MotivesDescribes, doesn’t explainBasically a classification system
51Trait Tests Myers – Briggs Test - Based on Jung’s personality types: Extravert vs. IntravertThinking vs. FeelingJudging vs. PerceivingSensing vs. Intuitive
53Biology & Personality Low brain arousal results in more extraversion Overactive Autonomic Nervous System results in a more emotionally unstable personalityInactive frontal lobe area results in a more extraverted personalityGenetics influence personality
54Trait Perspective Criticism Person-situation controversy – Do traits persist over time and across situations?Are behaviors consistent from one situation to the next?Does trait perspective result in labeling & pigeonholing?Trait Perspective actually attempts to predict AVERAGE behavior over many situations to determine personality.